• Title, Summary, Keyword: pesticide residues

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Development of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Imazapyr in Agricultural Commodities using HPLC-UVD (HPLC-UVD를 이용한 농산물 중 Imazapyr의 공정분석법 확립)

  • Jang, Jin;Kim, Heejung;Ko, Ah-Young;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Joo, Yoon Ji;Kim, Jinhong;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2015
  • A chromatographic method for the determination of imazapyr, a non-selective herbicide, in agricultural commodities was developed to use safety control of pesticide residue on crops, and was fully validated as an official method for residue analysis. Agricultural commodities, mandarin (fruit), hulled rice (cereal grains), pepper (vegetables), potato (potatoes) and soybean (beans) were extracted with methanol and partitioned with dichloromethane to remove the interference obtained from sample extracts, adjusting pH to 2.5 by 4N hydrochloric acid. Finally, they were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UVD). The developed method had the linearity in the range of test concentrations with coefficients of determination ($r^2$) more than 0.99. Recovery studies were carried out at three concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ) performing five replicates at each level. Recoveries were ranged between 72.1 to 108.0%, with relative standard deviations less than 10%. A consistent recovery was determined according to the CODEX guidelines (CAC/GL40, 2003). Finally, LC/MS with selected ion monitoring was also applied to confirm the suspected residues of imazapyr in agricultural samples. This developed method for determination of imazapyr residues in agricultural commodities. can be used as an official method.

Development of Simultaneous Analytical Method for Determination of Isoxaflutole and its Metabolite (Diketonitrile) residues in Agricultural Commodities Using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Isoxaflutole과 대사산물(Diketonitrile)의 동시시험법 개발)

  • Ko, Ah-Young;Kim, Heejung;Do, Jung Ah;Jang, Jin;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Ju, Yunji;Kim, Ji Young;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-103
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    • 2016
  • A simultaneous analytical method was developed for the determination of isoxaflutole and metabolite (diketonitrile) in agricultural commodities. Samples were extracted with 0.1% acetic acid in water/acetonitrile (2/8, v/v) and partitioned with dichloromethane to remove the interference obtained from sample extracts, adjusting pH to 2 by 1 N hydrochloric acid. The analytes were quantified and confirmed via liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in positive-ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Matrix matched calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges ($0.02-2.0{\mu}g/mL$) for all the analytes into blank extract with $r^2$ > 0.997. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at three different concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ) performing five replicates at each level. The recoveries were ranged between 72.9 to 107.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10% for all analytes. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guideline (CAC/GL40, 2003). Furthermore, inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the method. The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective, and sensitive for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile determination in agricultural commodities.

Multi-Residue Analysis of 18 Dye Residues in Animal Products by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Park, Hyunjin;Kim, Joohye;Kang, Hui-Seung;Cho, Byung-Hoon;Oh, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to develop an analytical method for determination of 18 dyes in livestock and fishery products by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, limit of quantifications (LOQ) and recovery based on the CODEX guideline (CAC/GL-71). Target matrices (beef, pork, chicken, egg, milk, flatfish, eel, and shrimp) were extracted using acetonitrile (containing 1% of acetic acid) and then, purified with C18 and primary secondary amine (PSA). Calibration linearity was obtained (r2>0.98) and LOQs were 0.002 mg/kg in animal products. The recoveries of dyes were ranged from 63 to 112% and relative standard deviations (RSDs, %) were less than 15%. The residues of 18 dyes were investigated in real samples (n=124) collected from retail markets in South Korea. As a result, a total of seven samples showed positive results for target analytes in fish samples. However, there was no violation according to the maximum residue limits set by the Korean Food Code. The proposed method will be used for routine analysis of dye residues in livestock and fishery products.

Canola oil is an excellent vehicle for eliminating pesticide residues in aqueous ginseng extract

  • Cha, Kyu-Min;Lee, Eun-Sil;Kim, Il-Woung;Cho, Hyun-Ki;Ryu, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Si-Kwan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.292-299
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    • 2016
  • Background: We previously reported that two-phase partition chromatography between ginseng water extract and soybean oil efficiently eliminated pesticide residues. However, an undesirable odor and an unpalatable taste unique to soybean oil were two major disadvantages of the method. This study was carried out to find an alternative vegetable oil that is cost effective, labor effective, and efficient without leaving an undesirable taste and smell. Methods: We employed six vegetable oils that were available at a grocery store. A 1-mL sample of the corresponding oil containing a total of 32 pesticides, representing four categories, was mixed with 10% aqueous ginseng extract (20 mL) and equivalent vegetable oil (7 mL) in Falcon tubes. The final concentration of the pesticides in the mixture (28 mL) was adjusted to approximately 2 ppm. In addition, pesticides for spiking were clustered depending on the analytical equipment (GC/HPLC), detection mode (electron capture detector/nitrogen-phosphorus detector), or retention time used. Samples were harvested and subjected to quantitative analysis of the pesticides. Results: Soybean oil demonstrated the highest efficiency in partitioning pesticide residues in the ginseng extract to the oil phase. However, canola oil gave the best result in an organoleptic test due to the lack of undesirable odor and unpalatable taste. Furthermore, the qualitative and quantitative changes of ginsenosides evaluated by TLC and HPLC, respectively, revealed no notable change before or after canola oil treatment. Conclusion: We suggest that canola oil is an excellent vehicle with respect to its organoleptic property, cost-effectiveness and efficiency of eliminating pesticide residues in ginseng extract.

Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Quinoxyfen in Agricultural Products using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS (QuEChERS법 및 LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 살균제 Quinoxyfen의 잔류시험법 개발 및 검증)

  • Cho, Sung Min;Do, Jung-Ah;Lee, Han Sol;Park, Ji-Su;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Choi, Young-Nae;Jung, Yong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2019
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of quinoxyfen in agricultural products using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and water was removed by liquid-liquid partitioning with $MgSO_4$ (anhydrous magnesium sulfate) and sodium acetate. Dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup was carried out using $MgSO_4$, PSA (primary secondary amine), $C_{18}$ (octadecyl) and GCB (graphitized carbon black). The analytes were quantified and confirmed by using LC-MS/MS in positive mode with MRM (multiple reaction monitoring). The matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed using six levels ($0.001-0.25{\mu}g/mL$) and the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) was above 0.99. Recovery results at three concentrations (LOQ, 10 LOQ, and 50 LOQ, n=5) were in the range of 73.5-86.7% with RSDs (relative standard deviations) of less than 8.9%. For inter-laboratory validation, the average recovery was 77.2-95.4% and the CV (coefficient of variation) was below 14.5%. All results were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines (CAC/GL 40-1993, 2003) and Food Safety Evaluation Department guidelines (2016). The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for quinoxyfen determination in agricultural commodities. This study could be useful for the safe management of quinoxyfen residues in agricultural products.

Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Fenpropimorph in Agricultural Products Using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS (QuEChERS법과 LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Fenpropimorph 시험법 개발 및 검증)

  • Lee, Han Sol;Do, Jung-Ah;Park, Ji-Su;Cho, Sung Min;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Choi, Young-Nae;Jung, Yong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2019
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of fenpropimorph, a morpholine fungicide, in hulled rice, potato, soybean, mandarin and green pepper using QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) sample preparation and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The QuEChERS extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. After centrifugation, d-SPE (dispersive solid phase extraction) cleanup was conducted using anhydrous magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine sorbents and graphitized carbon black. The matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed using seven concentration levels, from 0.0025 to 0.25 mg/kg, and their correlation coefficient ($R^2$) of five agricultural products were higher than 0.9899. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.001 and 0.0025 mg/kg, respectively, and the limits of quantification for the analytical method were 0.01 mg/kg. Average recoveries spiked at three levels (LOQ, $LOQ{\times}10$, $LOQ{\times}50$, n=5) and were in the range of 90.9~110.5% with associated relative standard deviation values less than 5.7%. As a result of the inter-laboratory validation, the average recoveries between the two laboratories were 88.6~101.4% and the coefficient of variation was also below 15%. All optimized results were satisfied the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines and Food Safety Evaluation Department guidelines. This study could serve as a reference for safety management relative to fenpropimorph residues in imported and domestic agricultural products.

Development of Simultaneous Analytical Method for Streptomycin and Dihydrostreptomycin Detection in Agricultural Products Using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 Streptomycin 및 Dihydrostreptomycin 동시시험법 개발)

  • Lee, Han Sol;Do, Jung-Ah;Park, Ji-Su;Park, Shin-Min;Cho, Sung Min;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Choi, Young-Nae;Jung, Yong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2019
  • A method was developed for the simultaneous detection of an antibiotic fungicide, streptomycin, and its metabolite (dihydrostreptomycin) in agricultural products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted using methanol adjusted to pH 3 using formic acid, and purified with a HLB (Hydrophilic lipophilic balance) cartridge. The matrix-matched calibration curves were constructed using seven concentration levels, from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/kg, and linearity of five agricultural products (hulled rice, potato, soybean, mandarin, green pepper), with coefficients of determination $(R^2){\geq}0.9906$, for streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. The mean recoveries at three fortification levels (LOQ, $LOQ{\times}10$, $LOQ{\times}50$, n = 5) were from 72.0~116.5% and from 72.1~116.0%, and relative standard deviations were less than 12.3% and 12.5%, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 mg/kg, which are satisfactory for quantification levels corresponding with the Positive List System. All optimized results satisfied the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines and the Food Safety Evaluation Department guidelines. The present study could serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits and be used as basic data for detection of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin in food.

Development and Validation of an Analytical Method for Fungicide Sedaxane Determination in Agricultural Products using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 농산물 중 살균제 Sedaxane의 잔류시험법 개발 및 검증)

  • Cho, Sung Min;Do, Jung-Ah;Park, Shin-Min;Lee, Han Sol;Park, Ji-Su;Shin, Hye-Sun;Jang, Dong Eun;Choi, Young-Nae;Jung, Yong-hyun;Lee, Kangbong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 2019
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of sedaxane in agricultural products using liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned with dichloromethane to remove the interference, and then purified by using silica SPE cartridges to clean up. The analytes were quantified and confirmed by using LC-MS/MS in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The matrix-matched calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges ($0.001-0.25{\mu}g/mL$) into a blank extract with $r^2$>0.99. For validation, recovery tests were carried out at three different concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ, n=5) with five replicates performed at each level. The recoveries were ranged between 74.5 to 100.8% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 12.1% for all analytes. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines (CAC/GL 40, 2003) and Food Safety Evaluation Department guidelines (2016). The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for sedaxane determination in agricultural commodities.

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment in Some Fruits on the Market in Incheon, Korea (인천지역 유통 과일 중 잔류농약 모니터링 및 위해성 평가)

  • Chung, Se Jin;Kim, Hye Young;Kim, Ji Hyeung;Yeom, Mi Suk;Cho, Joong Hee;Lee, Soo Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the levels of pesticide residues in fruits and to assess their risk to human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: Monitoring of 215 samples of fruits collected from local markets in incheon during 2013 was performed. 259 pesticides were analyzed by multi-residue method and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and safe/Mass/Mass(QuEChERS/MS/MS) method using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector/Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector(GC-ECD/NPD), GC-MS, LC(Liquid Chromatography-Mass/Mass(LC-MS/MS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array/Fluorescence Detector(HPLC-PDA/FLD). In 56.3% of the samples detected pesticide residues and were not found to exceed Maximum Residue Limits(MRL). The highest detected samples were found in citrus fruits(83.9%). Among the detected compounds, carbendazim(13.1%), imazalil (11.7%), thiabendazole(10.7%) and fludioxonil(9.8%) were frequently found in fruits. A risk assessment of pesticide residues in fruits was performed by calculating Estimated Daily Intake(EDI) and Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI). Also, we were evaluated removal efficiency of pesticide residues by washing and peeling. The removal efficiency of pesticide residues in citrus and tropical fruits by peeling processes were 91.6%. After the washing process, the removal rates were 43.1%(Cherry, Grape, Blueberry). CONCLUSION: The level of pesticide residues in fruits was within the MRL. The range of %ADI values was from 0.00011 to 0.98795%. The process of washing or peeling reduces the level of pesticide residues. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human being.

Characteristic of Pesticide Residues in Some Leafy Vegetables at the Whole Market in Gyeonggi-do from 2009 to 2013 (경기지역 농산물도매시장 일부 엽채류의 월별 농약 잔류특성(2009~2013년))

  • Kwon, Sun-Mok;Kwon, Yong-Hae;Choi, Ok-Kyung;Park, Myong-Ki;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kang, Suk-Ho;Kang, Heung-Gyu;Ha, Jin-Ok;Yu, Su-Hwan;Lee, Moo-Young;Jang, Jin Ho;Park, Kwang Hee;Kim, Jung-Beom
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.196-201
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to monitor the current status of pesticide residues and to calculate the correlation between monthly price fluctuation and distribution of pesticide residues in leafy vegetables at the whole market in Gyeonggi-do from 2009 to 2013. From the result, the maximum residue limit (MRL) were frequently exceeded in 5 leafy vegetables which were 48 cases of crown daisy (5.8%), 28 cases of chard (5.1%), 28 cases of spinach (3.4%), 25 cases of perilla leaves (3.4%) and 24 cases of chamnamul (3.7%). The high rate of monthly pesticide residues exceeding MRL showed on crown daisy and chard observed in June and September, spinach in October to November and December to January, perilla leaves in July to August and January, and chamnamul in August to September. To calculate the correlation between monthly price fluctuation and distribution of pesticide residues, we performed the Pearson's correlation analysis. From the results, there were significant differences between monthly price and pesticide residues detected in chamnamul, spinach and perilla leaves (p < 0.05). There were also significant differences between monthly price and pesticide residues exceeding MRL in chamnamul and crown daisy (p < 0.05). Although the small number of leafy vegetables and short period were analyzed in this study, the consolidation monitor of pesticide residues according to the season and price will be needed to acquire the safety of agricultural products.