• Title, Summary, Keyword: phenol

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Anaerobic Degradation of Inhibitory Organics using Fluidized Bed Reactor -Increase of Phenol Loading Rate- (유동층 반응기를 이용한 저해성 유기물의 혐기성 분해 -페놀 부하 증가 중심으로-)

  • 박동일;최석규;김재우
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 1998
  • The characteristics of anaerobic degradation of phenol were studied in a fluidized bed reactor using a granular activated carbon as media. Increasing the phenol loading rate with variation of feed concentration was considered as an experimental variable. In the present anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor, the removal efficiency of phenol and COD was maintained about 93-99% and 91-96%, respectively, up to 3.6 kg-phenol/$m^3\cdot d$ of the phenol loading rate, but it was abruptly decreased under 5.0 kg-phenol/$m^3\cdot d$. The volumetric production of biogas per removed phenol was decreased linearly between 0.80-1.27 m$^3$ gas/kg-phenol (0.35-0.56 m$^3$-gas/kg-COD), increasing the phenol loading rate, and the methane content of biogas was 55-60% as similar to that estimated theoretically up to 3.6 kg-phenol/$m^3\cdot d$. But the production rate and methane content of biogas were suddenly decreased at the loading rate of 5.0 kg-phenol/$m^3\cdot d$. Therefore, the anaerobically biodegradable phenol loading rate of the present reactor was 3.6 kg-phenol/$m^3\cdot$ d in order to accomplish over 90% of the removal efficiency.

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Effects of Fine Powder Active Carbon Addition on the Wastewater Treatment Containing Phenol (Phenol함유 폐수의 처리에서 분말 활성탄 첨가의 영향)

  • 강선태;김정목
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 1996
  • This study investigated performance of the phenol degradation and reaction characteristics according to variation of phenol volumetric loading rates and dilution rates in suspension and PACT reactors using Pseudomonas sp. B3. 1. Removal efficiencies of the PAC unit indicated about 100 % with phenol volumetric loading rates from 0.4 phenol $kg/ma^3\cdot d$ to 1.2 phenol $kg/m^3\cdot d$, however, which of the suspension reactor showed about 100% with from 0.2 phenol $kg/m^3\cdot d$ to 0.75 phenol $kg/ma^3\cdot day$. 2. The cell density slightly was decreased from 298.2 mg/l to 272 mg/l, when dilution rate for suspension was reactor increased from 0.4 to 1.41 1/d, and also the cell density suddenly was decreased to 145.5 mg/l and was washed out at the dilution rate higher than 1.60 1/d. But the cell density for the PAC unit was linearly decreased with dilution rate of from 0.8 to 3.0 1/d, and showed 220.75 mg/l at maximum dilution rate. 3. The phenol utilization rate was increased from 0.008 to 0.031 phenol g/l$\cdot$h, when dilution rate for suspension reactor was increased from 0.4 to 1.5 1/d, however, the rate for the PAC unit was linearly increased from 0.017 to 0.061 phenol g/l$\cdot$h as variation changes from 0.017 to 0.061 phenol g/l$\cdot$h dilution rate.

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A Study on the Treatment of Phenol Wastewater in an Anaerobic Fluidized-Bed Reactor (혐기성 유동층 반응기에서 페놀 폐수 처리에 관한 연구)

  • 박동일;안재동;신승훈;장인용
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 1996
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the biodegradation of phenol using the anaerobic fluidized bed reactor(AFBR). Mixed microorganisms were selected from the anaerobic digestion tank, and could be adapted to high concentration of phenol by increasing the phenol concentration 600-3600 mg/l step by step. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The average removal efficiency of phenol was 90%, decreased by increasing concentration of phenol, and then a shock range was 1200~2400 ppm. 2. The production rate of biogas in overall limits was proportional to the concentration of influent phenol. 3. At steady state, compositions of gases were $CH_4$ 55~60%, $C0_2$ 34~43%, respectively. These were similar to that of the theoretical estimates. 4. The production rates of biogas and methane per the molarity of phenol removed were linearly increased, 56.45 l gas/mol-phenol and 29.20 l $CH_4/mol$-phenol. Using this biogas, the recoverable energy was 269.1 kcal/mol phenol. It was 120.2 kcal/g-COD, transforming into the chemical oxygen demand. 5. The bulk of microorganisms existed in suspended section of fluidized bed with type of biofilm and its concentration was 340 mg/g-media. In conclusion, the anaerobic treatment of pure phenol was possible and its removal efficiency, introducing the AFBR, was successful. Also toxic organic compound such as phenol was biodegradable and was recoverable as resource of energy.

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Influence factors and Efficiencies Characteristics for Treatment of Wastewater Containing Phenol (Phenol 함유폐수의 처리를 위한 영향인자와 성능특성)

  • Kang, Sun-Tae;Kim, Jeong-Mog
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 1996
  • Influence factors and efficiency characteristics for treatment of wastewater containing phenol were studied with using Pseudomonas sp. B3. It took 130 hours to remove phenol, when only activated sludge of terminal disposal palnt of sewage was innoculated in batch culture, but it was required just 36 hours, when bacteria degrading phenol and activated sludge were simultaneously innoculated. If only phenol an carbon source was used, it necessary 36 hours for biodegradation of phenol, while glucose was added to medium, it took 73 hours. It was revealed as excellent effluent and SVI, when the F/M ratio, COD and phenol concentration were 53mg/l and 1.2mg/l, respectively, and optimum F/M ratio was revealed 0.31. The reactor were seriously shocked as reducing hydraulic retention time at constant phenol concentration more than increasing phenol concentration at constant hydraulic retention time, when volumetric loading rate was increased to $0.8kg\;phenol/m^3{\codt}d$ from $1.6kg\;phenol/m^3{\codt}d$. And also the effluent phenol concentration was 34mg/l after starting 12 hours of shocking and reactor was recovered as steady state after 65 hours of changing in the former test. Although the effluent phenol concentration was maximum value with 12mg/l after starting 20 hours of shocking and reactor was recovered as steady state after 54 hours of changing in the later test.

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Phenol Treatment Plasma Reactor of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (유전체 장벽 방전 플라즈마 반응기를 이용한 페놀 처리)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.479-488
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    • 2012
  • A Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is shown in the present investigation to be effective of phenol degradation in the aqueous solutions in batch reactor with continuous air bubbling. Removal of phenol and effects of various parameters on the removal efficiency in the aqueous solution with high-voltage streamer discharge plasma are studied. The effect of 1st voltage (80 ~ 220 V), air flow rate (3 ~ 7 L/min), pH (3 ~ 11), electric conductivity of solution (4.16 ${\mu}S$/cm, deionized water) ~ 16.57 mS/cm (addition of NaCl 10 g/L) and initial phenol concentration (2.5 ~ 20.0 mg/L) were investigated. The observed results showed that phenol degradation was higher in the basic solution than that of the acidic. The optimum values on the 1st voltage and air flow rate for phenol degradation were 140 V and 6 L/min, respectively. It was considered that absorbance variation of $UV_{254}$ of phenol solution can be use as an indirect indicator of change of the non-biodegradable organic compounds within the treated phenol solution. Electric conductivity was not influenced the phenol degradation. To obtain the removal efficiency of phenol and COD of phenol over 97 % (initial phenol concentration, 10.0 mg/L), 80 min and 120 min were need, respectively. Phenol and COD degradation showed a pseudo-first order kinetics.

A Study on the Durable Hydrophilic Finish of Synthetic Fiber (I) -The Durable Hydrophilic Finish of Synthetic Fiber with Phenol-blocked PEG-TDI Prepolymer- (합성섬유의 내구성친수화 가공에 관한 연구 (I) -Phenol-blocked PEG-TDI Prepolymer에 의한 합성섬유의 내구성친수화 가공-)

  • 윤병숙;김갑진
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 1982
  • This study is related to the hydrophilic finishing of synthetic fiber with phenol-blocked PEG-TDI prepolymer. The thermal properties of phenol-blocked TDI and phenol-blocked PEG-TDI prepolymer were investigated with IR spectroscopy, DTA and TGA. Phenol-blocked TDI was dissociated to phenol and TDI at 130$^{\circ}C$ under the atmosphere, and phenol-blocked PEG-TDI prepolymer was dissociated to isocyanate-terminated PEG-TDI prepolymer and phenol at 147$^{\circ}C$ Polyester fabric was padded with aqueous emulsion of phenol-blocked-TDI prepolymer and crosslinking agent such as triethanol or diethanol amine, predried, and cured at 170$^{\circ}C$. This finished polyester showed very low frictional electrostatic charge, short half-life and good wicking properties.

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Characteristics of Phenol Degradation in Wastewater Treatment using Packed bed reactor (충진층 반응기를 이용한 폐수처리에서 페놀의 분해 특성)

  • 염승호;최석순
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 1996
  • Packed bed reactor containing immobilized microorganisms which degraded phenol without growth was used to remove phenol from the synthetic wastewater. The effects of temperature, retention time(reactor volume/flow rate) and phenol concentration on the removal efficiency of phenol were investigated. The effect of temperature in the range of 20-30$\circ $C was negligible while retention time and phenol concentration influenced the removal of phenol significantly. When retention time was in the range of 1-1.5 hour, the removal efficiency of phenol was affected not by phenol concentration but by retention time itself while it was influenced by phenol concentration above 1.5 hour of retention time. The beads after 720 hours operation were swelled by 40 % in diameter which could be prevented by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde at the expense of cell activity.

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Phenol Removal Using Oxygen-Plasma Discharge in the Water (산소-플라즈마 방전을 이용한 수중의 페놀 제거)

  • Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.915-923
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    • 2013
  • Decomposition of non-biodegradable contaminants such as phenol contained in water was investigated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor in the aqueous solutions with continuous oxygen bubbling. Effects of various parameters on the removal of phenol in aqueous solution with high-voltage streamer discharge plasma are studied. In order to choose plasma gas, gas of three types (argon, air, oxygen) were investigated. After the selection of gas, effects of 1st voltage (80 ~ 220 V), oxygen flow rate (2 ~ 7 L/min), pH (3 ~ 11), and initial phenol concentration (12.5 ~ 100.0 mg/L) on phenol degradation and change of $UV_{254}$ absorbance were investigated. Absorbance of $UV_{254}$ can be used as an indirect indicator of phenol degradation and the generation and disappearance of the non-biodegradable organic compounds. Removal of phenol and COD were found to follow pseudo first-order kinetics. The removal rate constants for phenol and COD of phenol were $5.204{\times}10^{-1}min^{-1}$ and $3.26{\times}10^{-2}min^{-1}$, respectively.

Phenol removal by tailor-made polyamide-fly ash composite membrane: Modeling and optimization

  • Vandana, Gupta;Anandkumar, J.
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.431-440
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    • 2019
  • A novel composite membrane was synthesized using crosslinked polyamide and fly ash ceramic substrate for phenol removal. Glutaraldehyde was used as crosslinker. Characterization shows that synthesized membrane possesses good permeability ($0.184l.m^{-2}.h^{-1}.kPa^{-1}$), MWCO (1.7 kDa), average pore size (1.08 nm) and good chemical stability. RSM was adopted for phenol removal studies. Box-Behnken-Design using quadratic model was chosen for three operating parameters (feed phenol concentration, pH and applied pressure) against two responses (phenol removal, flux). ANOVA shows that model is statistically valid with high coefficient of determination ($R^2$)value for flux (0.9897) and phenol removal (0.9302). The optimum conditions are obtained as pH 2, $46mg.l^{-1}$ (feed phenol concentration) and 483 kPa (applied pressure) with 92.3% phenol removal and $9.2l.m^{-2}.h^{-1}$ flux. Data validation with deviation of 4% confirms the suitability of model. Obtained results reveal that prepared composite membrane can efficiently separate phenol from aqueous solution.

Isolation of a Phenol-degrading Bacterial Strain and Biological Treatment of Wastewater Containing Phenols (Phenol 분해균주의 분리 및 페놀함유 폐수의 생물학적 처리)

  • Lee, Hyun Don;Lee, Myoung Eun;Kim, Hyung Gab;Suh, Hyun-Hyo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1273-1279
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    • 2013
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenol, have been detected frequently in wastewater, soil, and groundwater because of the extensive use of oil products. Bacterial strains (56 isolates) that degraded phenol were isolated from soil and industrial wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons. GN13, which showed the best cell growth and phenol degradation, was selected for further analysis. The GN13 isolate was identified as Neisseria sp. based on the results of morphological, physiological, and biochemical taxonomic analyses and designated as Neisseria sp. GN13. The optimum temperature and pH for phenol removal of Neisseria sp. GN13 was $32^{\circ}C$ and 7.0, respectively. The highest cell growth occurred after cultivation for 30 hours in a jar fermentor using optimized medium containing 1,000 mg/l of phenol as the sole carbon source. Phenol was not detected after 27 hours of cultivation. Based on the analysis of catechol dioxygenase, it seemed that catechol was degraded through the meta- and ortho-cleavage pathway. Analysis of the biodegradation of phenol by Neisseria sp. GN13 in artificial wastewater containing phenol showed that the removal rate of phenol was 97% during incubation of 30 hours. The removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC) by Neisseria sp. GN13 and activated sludge was 83% and 78%, respectively. The COD removal rate by Neisseria sp. GN13 from petrochemical wastewater was about 1.3 times higher than that of a control containing only activated sludge.