• Title, Summary, Keyword: phenol compounds

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Studies on the Phenol Compounds in Smoke Total Particulate Matters of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves (황색종 잎담배의 연기응축물중 페놀 화합물에 관한 연구)

  • 복진영;백순옥;김상범;안동명;조수헌
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to quantitatively determine phenol compounds in smoke total particulate matter(TPM) to evaluate the qualititive characteristics of flue-cured tobacco varieties(NC82, KFl14 and KFl18). After collecting The TPM by using smoking machine, the concentration of phenol compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography as their trimethylsilyl derivative on a fused capillary column bonded with a 5% PE ME siloxane stationary phase. In all the flue-cured tobacco varieties, the major phenol components were monohydroxy compounds. The order of the highest concentration of total phenol compounds in TPM was NC82, KF114 and KFl18 but the contents of dihydroxy compound in the KFl18 was higher than those of NC82 and KF114.

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Changes in Aroma Compounds of Several Byeolmijang during Aging (여러 가지 별미장의 숙성과정 중 향기성분의 변화)

  • Woo, Koan-Sik;Yu, Sun-Mi;Im, Sung-Kyung;Chun, Hye-Kyung;Kwon, Oh-Chan;Lee, Junsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1689-1697
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    • 2004
  • Aroma compounds in 6 different Byeolmijang were extracted by SDE (simultaneous steam distillation extraction) and analyzed with GC (gas chromatography) and GC/MS (mass-spectrometry). The major aroma compounds in the 6 different Byeolmijang during aging were 1-octene-3-ol, hexanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, furfural, pyrazine compounds, benzyl-alcohol, furan compounds and phenol type compounds. Generally, benzeneacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, furfural, pyrazine compounds and phenol type compounds were increased during aging. On the other hand, 1-octene-3-ol, hexanal, benzyl-alcohol and furan compounds were decreased during aging. 2-Heptenal and 2,4-decadienal in Daemaekjang, pyrazine and phenol type compounds in Sanghwangjang and phenol type compounds including phenol, 4-methoxy-phenol and 4-ethyl-phenol in Mujang were identified as major aroma compounds, respectively. The major aroma compound in Bizijang was 2,4-decadienal and in Sodujang, the major aroma compounds were 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. Linaool, geraniol, 6-elemene, 6-lonone and ledene were detected in Jigeumjang possibly due to the addition of powdered red pepper.

Regulation of Phycocyanin Development by Phenolic Compounds in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

  • Kim, Jin-Yong;Jo, Yeara;Kim, Young-Saeng;Lee, Eun-Jin;Yoon, Ho-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.445-449
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    • 2006
  • Phenolic compounds are manufacturing by-products commonly found in industrial wastewater. The toxicity of high level phenolic compounds in wastewater threatens not only the aquatic organisms, but also many components of the adjacent ecosystem. One of the major light harvesting pigments in cyanobacteria is phycocyanin which can be rapidly and specifically degraded by external stimuli such as nutritional depletion or environmental stress. We employed the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 as an indicator organism in estimating the pollution level by phenolic compounds. The phycocyanin content of the cyanobacterium decreased without significantly altering the total chlorophyll as the phenol concentration in a medium increased. We examined the phenol contamination level using the correlation of the phycocyanin content and the phenol concentration. Our results indicated that no significant pollution by phenolic compounds was found in several waterbodies in the vicinity of Daegu, South Korea.

Changes of Phenol Compounds according to Storing Years in Soybean

  • Kim, Seung-Hyun;Song, Hong-Keun;Ahn, Joung-Kuk;Kim, Jung-Tae;Hahn, Joon-Sang;Chung, Ill-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to determine the role of storing years with the variation of total phenol and individual phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds. The total phenol content varied from 0.36 to 0.42% over four years, with the highest value (0.42%) found at storage for two and three years. Among the nine soybean varieties examined, Daweonkong had the highest total average phenol content (0.58%). The total content of 11 phenolics varied from 730.0 to 1812.8 $\mu\textrm{g}\;\textrm{g}^{-1}$ over storage for four years, and the highest concentration (1812.8 $\mu\textrm{g}\;\textrm{g}^{-1}$) was found at storage for two years. Myeongjunamulkong (1465.4 $\mu\textrm{g}\;\textrm{g}^{-1}$) had the highest mean content among the nine soybean varieties. The total content of 11 phenolic compounds measured in this study occupied from 20.96 to 47.73% of the total phenol contents. The highest total phenol contents were in seeds with black coats (5279.4 $\mu\textrm{g}\;\textrm{g}^{-1}$), while the highest concentration of individual phenolic compounds were in seeds with green coats (1419.5 $\mu\textrm{g}\;\textrm{g}^{-1}$). Our study suggests that it may be feasible to improve soybean varieties with high functional substances such as phenolic compounds.

Effect of Surfactant Micelle on Lipid Oxidation in Corn Oil-in-Water Emulsion with Phenol Compounds (Phenol성 물질이 첨가된 Corn Oil-in-Water Emulsion의 산화에 미치는 Surfactant Micelle의 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Gyu;Chun, Sung-Sook;Cho, Young-Je
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of phenol compounds from green tea leaves and surfactant micelles on lipid oxidation in com oil-in-water emulsion (O/W). The concentration of phenol and surfactant in continuous phase of the O/W with exceed Brij 700 and phenol compounds was measured. The particle size of O/W with phenol (100 ppm) increased with increasing added exceed surfactant $(0{\sim}2.0%)$ and the concentration of surfactant and phenols in the continuous phase higher than these of control. Lipid oxidation rates, as determined by the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal, in the O/W emulsions containing phenol compounds (100 ppm) and exceed surfactant $(0{\sim}2.0%)$ decreased with increasing concentration of exceed surfactant. The ability of the phenol compounds and exceed surfactant to inhibit hydroperoxide and headspace hexanal producing as lipid oxidation in O/W was BHT>procyanidin B3-3-O-gallate> (+)-gallocatechin > (+)-catechin and 2% > 1 % > 0% of exceed surfactant. These results indicate that phenol compounds and exceed surfactant could alter the physical location of hydroperoxide in O/W.

Effect of Power Intensity on the Phenol and Chlorinated Compounds Mixture Solutions by Ultrasound (초음파로 페놀 분해 시 염소계화합물의 첨가와 음향 강도의 영향)

  • Lim, Myunghee;Son, Younggyu;Yang, Jaekeun;Khim, Jeehyeong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.118-122
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    • 2008
  • Degradations of phenol and chlorinated compounds mixtures were studied with ultrasound of 20 kHz and 0.57, 1.14 W/mL. In presence of carbon tetrachloride (CT), degradation rate of phenol is faster than chloroform (CF), dichloromethane (DCM) and phenol solution. It is due to that CT generates of free chlorine (HOCl and $OCl^-$) from the sonochemical degradation and plays a role of hydrogen atom scavenger. CF and DCM are react with free chlorine, so amount of free chlorine is smaller than CT solution. The degradation rates of chlorinated compounds decreased with co-presence of phenol in the solution due to the distribution ultrasonic energy to both compounds. The measured chloride ion was lower than the theoretical concentration assuming complete degradation. This means not all the contaminants destructed went through complete degradation.

Comparison of Acid and Phenol Compounds in Smoke Total Particulate Matter by the Different Tobacco Leaves (잎담배 종류 및 등급에 따른 담배 연기응축물의 Acid 및 Phenol 화합물 함량 비교)

  • 황건중;이문수;나도영;장기철
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to determine the acid and phenol compounds in smoke total particulate matter(TPM) by the different tobacco variety, and grade of tobacco leaves. Sixteen kinds of tobacco leaves which were flue-curd, burley, orient, reconstituted tobacco, expanded stem, and expanded cut tobacco, were selected for this study. After collecting a TPM by using smoking machine, the concentration of TPM components was analyzed by GC. Acid components of TPM of mainstream smoke were different from the variety and grade. The order of the highest concentration of acid compounds in TPM was flue-cured > orient> burley> expanded cut tobacco> reconstituted tobacco> expanded stem. Though lactic acid and glycolic acid concentrations in flue-cured tobacco were twice higher than those in burley tobacco, the contents of 2-furoic acid and 3,4-dihydroxy butanoic acid in burley tobacco were higher than those in flue-cured tobacco. The content of phenolic compounds in the high grade and thick leaves was higher than that in other tobacco leaves. Phenol and catechol compounds in burley CD3W-2 revealed the least value in concentration among the samples tested. Pyrocatechol and hydroquinone concentrations in flue-cured tobacco were 2-3 times higher than those in burley and orient tobacco.

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A Structure-Based Activation Model of Phenol-Receptor Protein Interactions

  • 이경희
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 1997
  • Data from structure/activity studies in vir gene induction system have led to evaluate the working hypothesis of interaction between phenolic inducers and phenol binding proteins. The primary specificity in the association of a phenolic inducer with its receptor in our system is hypothesized to be the hydrogen bonding interactions through the ortho methoxy substituents as well as the proton transfer between the inducer and the binding protein. In this paper the proposed working model for phenol-mediating signal transduction was evaluated in several ways. The importance of the general acid-base catalysis was first addressed by the presence of an acidic residue and a basic residue in the phenol binding protein. Series of compounds were tested for vir gene expression activity to confirm the generation of a strong nucleophile by an acidic residue and an involvement of a basic residue as a proton acceptor. An attempt was made to correlate the pKa values of the phenolic compounds with vir gene induction activities as inducers to further support the proposed proton transfer mechanism. Finally, it was also observed that the regioselectively attached methoxy group on phenol compounds is required as the proper hydrogen bond acceptor.

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Characterization of Trichloroethylene and Phenol Degradation by Acinetobaeter sp. T5-7 (Acinetobacter sp. T5-7에 의한 Phenol과 Trichloroethylene 분해특성)

  • Hong, Sung-Yong;Lee, Suk-Hee;Lee, Jung-Hae;Ha, Ji-Hong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 1995
  • Intact cells of Acinetobacter sp. T5-7 completely degraded trichloroethylene (TCE) following growth with phenol. This strain could grow on at least eleven aromatic compounds, e.g., benzaldehyde, benzene, benzoate, benzylalochol, catechol, caffeic acid, 2.4-D, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenol, protocatechuate and salicylate, and did grow on alkane, such as octane. But except phenol, other aromatic compounds did not induced TCE degradation. Phenol biotransformation products, catechol was identified in the culture media. However, catechol-induced cells did not degrade TCE. So we assumed that phenol hydroxylase was responsible for the degradation of TCE. The isolate T5-7 showed growth in MM2 medium containing sodium lactate and catechol rather than phenol, but did not display phenol hydroxyalse activity, suggesting induction of enzyme synthesis by phenol. Phenol hydroxylase activity was independent of added NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide but was dependent on NADPH addition. Degradation of phenol produced catechols which are then cleaved by meta-fission. We identified catechol-2.3-dioxygenase by active staining of polyacrylamide gel.

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Decomposition of Phenol by Electron Beam Accelerator I - Degree of Decomposition of Phenol and Possiblity of Biological Treatment - (전자빔 가속기에 의한 페놀의 분해 I - 페놀의 분해와 생물학적 처리의 가능성 연구 -)

  • Yang, Hae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Industry Convergence
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2012
  • This study gives the optimal reaction conditions, reaction mechanisms, reaction rates leaded from the oxidation of phenol by electron beam accelerator and ozone used for recent water treatment. It gives the new possibility of water treatment process to effectively manage industrial sewage containing toxic organic compounds and biological refractory materials. The high decomposition of phenol was observed at the low dose rate, but at this low dose rate, the reaction time was lengthened. So we must find out the optimal dose rate to promote high oxidation of reactants. The reason why the TOC value of aqueous solution wasn't decreased at the low dose was that there were a lot of low molecular organic acids as an intermediates such as formic acid or glyoxalic acid. In order to use both electron beam accelerator and biological treatment for high concentration refractory organic compounds, biological treatment is needed when low molecular organic compounds exist abundantly in sewage. In this experiment, the condition of making a lot of organic acids is from 5 kGy into 20 kGy dose. Decomposition rate of phenol by electron beam accelerator was first order reaction up to 300ppm phenol solution on the basic of TOC value and also showed first order reaction by using both air and ozone as an oxidants.