• Title, Summary, Keyword: phenomenological study

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A Didactical Analysis of the Decimal fraction Concept (소수 개념의 교수학적 분석)

  • Woo, Jeong-Ho;Byun, Hee-Hyun
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.287-313
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    • 2005
  • The decimal fraction concept plays an important role in understanding the real number which is one of the major concepts in school mathematics. In the school mathematics of Korea, the decimal fraction is treated merely as a sort of name of the common fraction, while many other important aspects of the decimal fraction concept are ignored. In consequence students fail to understand the decimal fraction concept properly, and merely consider it as a kind of number for formal computation. Preceding studies also identified students' narrow understanding of the decimal fraction concept. But none of them succeeded in clarifying the essences of the decimal fraction concept, which are crucial for discussing the didactical problems of it. In this study we attempted a didactical analysis of the decimal fraction concept and disclosed the roots of didactical problems and presented measures for its improvement. First, we attempted a phenomenological analysis of the decimal fraction concept and extracted 9 elements of the decimal fraction concept. Second, we has analyzed of the essence of the decimal fraction concept more clearly by relating it to the situations where it functions and its representations. For this we tried to construct the conceptual field of the decimal fraction. Third, we categorized he developmental levels of the decimal fraction concept from the aspect of external manifestation of the internal order. On the basis of these results, we attempted hierarchical structuring of the elements of the decimal fraction concept. And using the results of such a didactical analysis on the decimal number concept we analyzed the mathematics curriculum and textbooks of our country, investigated levels of students' understanding of the decimal fraction concept, and disclosed related problems. Finally we suggested directions and measures for the improvement of teaching decimal fraction concept.

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Adaptation Experiences of Male Students in the Department of Nursing (간호학과 남학생들의 학과 적응 경험)

  • Kim, Seong-Hyuk;Kim, Soon-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.113-126
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    • 2016
  • The main purpose of this study is to provide the necessary information for educational intervention by discovering the components and factors related to the adaptation experience of male students in the department of nursing. The participants were seven male nursing students. Data were collected from in-depth interviews, and the results were analyzed by the Giorgi's phenomenological analysis method. The main components of adaptation experience of participants were summarized into four categories: 'hopes and expectations for the future careers,' 'conflicts and wandering under realistic issues,' 'compromise and emotion management,' and 'efforts for self-growth.' Causative, accelerative, and recursive characteristics were shown among these components. The adaptation process was structured in the temporal context. The results suggest that for amicable adaptation, internal controls, such as 'improving willpower,' 'inspiring solid career awareness,' and 'selecting adaptation strategy' were all critical. Moreover, the support of families, relatives, college seniors, and department professors were revealed as the factors that help in the adaptation experiences. Based on the results, further studies are required to identify the dropout rates by maladaptation of male nursing students, and analyze possible factors that contribute to dropout and maladaptation. In addition, it is necessary to construct various coping methods and practical support systems, as well as to develop appropriate educational programs.

Phenomenological Qualitative Research of Social Admission in Rehab hospitals: Occupational Therapists' Perspectives (요양·재활병원 환자의 사회적 입원과 지역사회 복귀 어려움에 대한 작업치료사의 관점: 현상학적 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Hun Aj;Hwang, Na-Kyoung;Kim, Jong-Sung;Song, Young-Jin;Choi, Min-Kyung;Kim, Hyung-Sun;Han, Ga-Ram
    • Therapeutic Science for Rehabilitation
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.103-120
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    • 2020
  • Objective : This study aims to understand the phenomenon of social admission in Korea's rehabilitation system by analyzing the perspectives of occupational therapists. Methods : We developed a written questionnaire based on RSAT and, in August 2019, distributed it to occupational therapists with more than three years of experience at the time. Data were analyzed using the van Kaam's method. Further, high frequency words were analyzed by word cloud in order to extract significant statements. Results : Forty-six written interviews were collected from various areas of Korea. We analyzed the data into 2 categories, 4 themes, 13 sub-themes. The two categories were 'hospital system' and 'external factors of occupational therapy practice'. The themes according to 'hospital system' were 'difficulties in implementing multidisciplinary approach' and 'inadequate discharge planning system'. The themes according to 'internal and external factors of occupational therapy' were analyzed as 'difficulties of occupational therapists' and 'difficulties in occupational therapy practice'. Conclusion : Occupational therapists in rehabilitation hospitals recognize that the reason for social admission is insufficient insurance systems related to occupational therapy services in rehab hospitals. This leads to difficulties in occupational therapy practice. We need to develop the insurance systems that can meet patient needs for social recovery.

Paradox of Meritocracy of the Social Welfare Organization in the Neoliberalism (사회복지 실천현장의 신자유주의적 성과주의 역설: 사회복지사의 경험을 중심으로)

  • Lee, In Sook
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.239-275
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to explore what social workers experience and how they experience the needs of Meritocracy in the social welfare organization in the neoliberalism.. Therefore, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 social workers, and I analyzed Colaizzi(1978) in a phenomenological method through collected research materials. As a result, the analysis is integrated in a total of four essential themes. According to the research results, the meritocracy - oriented phenomenon in the social welfare organization was 'paradox of Meritocracy'. Participants were buried in creating "nominal performance without any effectiveness" based on effectiveness and efficiency. Clients were instrumentalized in performance; moreover, they lost contact points with the field. Above all, there was "a reorganization of practices" that contradicted the original values of practice, in which the quality deterioration of service and the connection between organizations were weakened. In addition, the implementation of accountability of social welfare organization, which was intended by Meritocracy, has become a criterion for external evaluation, and the challenge of uncertain result has left a "rigid accountability without discretion." While participants were devoted to making a nominal performance, they failed to be guaranteed by the distinct characteristics of social welfare group. They experienced lost pride of the practitioner in the reality which contained the value of social welfare. However, in spite of this paradox of Meritocracy, participants demonstrated flexibility in order to preserve the original value and reached "a compromise with reality in the identity conflict." Based on the results of the research, I presented the discussion and policy directions.

소설과 말기 암환자를 통해 본 한국인의 죽음의 의미

  • Jeon, Hye-Won;Kim, Bun-Han
    • Korean Journal of Hospice Care
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.34-54
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    • 2003
  • Every one experiences death one day, however no one can knows exactly what it is because people can not experience death until it comes, it is therefore impossible to judge correctly on the phenomenon of the death. On the whole, man experiences indirect death through the mass communications such as TV drama, fiction, magazine etc because those methods can easily access by every one. In addition to this, people usually acquire the negative awareness of death through the dramatic change of story like dying of cancer for dramatic effect by giving scare and fear to the cancers. The purpose of this study is to provide basic information on the spiritual care that enables the facing death patients to accept death as a part of life and divert hope from scare about after death by comparing and analyzing of two aspects of death meaning I.e, Korean fiction and the end stage cancer patients. Additionally, for medical staff to understand the facing death cancer patients by making to aware patients correctly and provide the better quality of care. The study was performed from September 28, 2002 to February, 28 2003. The materials of this study were collected by direct data obtained from observation, interviews, note and diary of end stage of cancer patients and written materials acquired from Korean contemporary fiction. Participants of this study were 4 end stage cancer patients including 2 lung cancer patients, 1 liver cancer patient and 1 esophagus cancer patient. The methodology used in this study was divided into two types; Huberman & Miles methodology was used for fiction to find and categorize subject, and Colaizzi, one of phenomenological methodology was used for end stage cancer patients to find the major meaning, subject and categorization. 1.The death investigated in the fiction, was found as a progress of negative emotion, acceptance and sublimation, life related subjects in the negative emotion were tenacity for life, anxiety, lingering attachment, responsibility, abandonment and death related subjects were shock, isolation, fear, scare and rejection. Acceptance related subjects were acceptance, destiny, secularism, preparation and arrangement, and sublimation related subjects were sublimation through Christian and Buddhism. 2.The death showed in the participants was negative emotion, acceptance and sublimation, life related subjects were repentance, anxiety, responsibility and hopelessness, and death related subjects were dejection, solitude, anger, fear and scare. The acceptance was a type of religious acceptance that admitted instantly by reaching an understanding with the God, and death was accepted as a progress of preparation, arrangement, acceptance and hope. Sublimation related subjects were Christian sublimation and relief or destiny incurred from self-reflective sublimation through communications and thoughts. 3.The death in view of fiction and participants were positively accepted both death and negative emotion, and the study disclosed the fact that death was sublimated dependent on religion. 4.The progress of negative emotion, acceptance and sublimation was disclosed more complicated and various in the real end stage cancer patients and acceptance only found in the patients on the form of religious acceptance, according to the results compared with fiction and real end stage cancer patients. The death showed in the fiction was standardized, gradated and similar progress with psychological status of Kubler-Ross. However, death in the participants was showed complex and various feelings simultaneously, and sometimes they accepted death positively. The sublimation through religion was found in Buddhism and Christian in the fiction and mostly Christian in the participants due to a number of Hospice patients. It was found that negative emotion various types of death was more found in the participants than fiction. It is therefore necessary to study on the response of death in various types. In the participants death was incurred more systematic and variously, we knew that nursing practice focused on experience of participants is required and reality on death is much profound than we analyzed and presented, lots of situations and reactions should be premised because we can not completely rule out the negligence possibility of care mediation of participants. In caring for the facing death patients, we discovered and confirmed again through this study that the spiritual care should be needed as a mediation method.

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Lived Experience of patients with Terminal Cancer : Parses Human Becoming Methodology (말기 암환자의 체험에 관한 현상학적 연구)

  • 이옥자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.510-537
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    • 1995
  • Human health is an integral part of experience in the process of Human Becoming. Through continual interaction with the environment human beings freely choose experience and develop as responsible beings. The process of the health experience of patient with terminal cancer is a unique. he objective of this study is to understand the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer in order to provide basic information for nursing care in the clinical setting and to develop a theoretical background for clinical practice. This study is to de-scribe and define the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer in order to provide a foundation for nursing research and education. Data collection has been done between December 1993 and November 1994. The subjects included five persons -four females and one male : one who was in her sixties, one in his fifties, two in their forties, and one who was in her thirties. The researcher has met with these patients 35 times, but at eight times the patient was in a stuporous condition and not able to participate, so these were not included in the data analysis. Parse's "Human Becoming Methodology", an existential phenomenological research methodology is used for this study. Data has been collected using he dialogical engagement process of "I and You", the participant researcher and the participant subject. Dialogical engagement was discontinued when the data was theoretically saturated. Data was analyzed using the extraction - synthesis and heuristic interpretation. The criteria of Guba and Lincoln(1985). and Sandelo wski(1986) : credibility, auditability, fitness and objectivity were used to test the validity and reliability of the data. The following is a description of the structure of the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer as defined by this study : 1. Structure : 1) Suffering through the reminiscence of past experience 2) The appearance of complex emotions related to life and connectedness 3) The increasing importance of significant people and of the Absolute Being 4) The increasing realization of the importance of health and belief 5) Desire for a return to health and a peaceful life or for acceptance of dying and a comfortable death In summary the structure of the lived experience of these patients can be said to be : suffering comes through reminiscence of past experience, and there are complex emotions related to life and connectedness. Significant people and the Absolute Being become increasingly important along with a realization of the importance of health and faith. And finally there is a desire for either a return to health and a peaceful life or for the acceptance of dying and a comfortable death. 2. Heuristic Interpretation : Using Parse's Human Becoming Methodology, the structure of the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer identified in this research is interpreted as. The lived experience of patients with terminal cancer involves the solving of past conflicts, and the experience of the healing and valuing of sorrow and pain. Through the relation of life and health, and the complex emotions that arise, the lived experience of revealing - concealing is of paradoxical emotions. The increasing importance of significant others and of the Absolute Being shows Connecting and Separating an on- going process of nearness and farness. Revision of thoughts about health and faith is interpreted as transforming and desire for restoration to health and a peaceful life or acceptance of dying and a cowfortable death, as powering. In summary, it is possible to see, in the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer, the relationship of the five concepts of Parse's theory : valuing, revealing -concealing, connecting-separating, transforming, and powering. From Parse's theory, the results of this study show that meaning is related to valuing, rhythmicity to revealing-concealing and connect-ing-separating, and cotranscendence to transforming and powering.

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Analysis of comic 'Monster' based on J. Lacan's psychoanalytic theory - Focused on desire theory - (자끄 라깡의 정신분석 이론으로 본 만화 '몬스터' 분석 - 욕망이론을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Hye Ri
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.153-185
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the comic "Monster" based on J. Lacan's psychoanalytic theory. J. Lacan advocated a new psychoanalytic theory through S. Freud's psychoanalytic theories and socio-cultural studies. The main theory of his theoretical background is the 'desire theory' which analyzed human desires. He distinguished human desires as desires and demands and had the basic proposition that 'human desire is the desire of the other'. J. Lacan (J. Lacan) studied in depth the relationship between oneself and others, which he defined by dividing it into an imaginary system (mirror stage), a symbolic system (Oedipus complex), and a real system (desiring subject). Based on these theories, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the comic "Monster" by Naoki Urasawa focused on the desire theory of J. Lacan based on psychoanalysis to examine what new meaning could be extracted. In order to analyze the comic "Monster", the qualitative research method was used and the method of analysis was the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi (1985). Through this analytical method, the background, characters, and symbols of "Monster" were analyzed and content analysis was performed based on the theory of Giorgi (1985) and the desire theory of J. Lacan As a result of the analysis of the meaning unit and components related to the desire theory through content analysis, the contents analysis was divided into four components: identification, reproduction of desire, alienation, and unique desire and freedom. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, on the basis of psychoanalysis, "Monster" is classified into four elements, identification of twin characters, reproduction of desire, feeling of alienation and unique desire and freedom of characters based on desire theory of J. Lacan. Second, the characters analyzed by the desire theory of J. Lacan attempted to reproduce their desires through identification and projection of twins due to their traumatic experience when they were young. Also, the characters who felt alienated in the process of reproduction made a tragic ending to complete human desire and freedom to fill in their emptiness. This result shows that desire theory of J. Lacan based on psychoanalysis can be used as a new analytical theory, a comic analysis which suggested a new meaning. The results of this study suggest that a new field of research, a comic analysis using psychological theory, needs to be created and further studies in this field are required.

The Life Experiences of the Deaf Elderly (농아노인의 생활 경험)

  • Park, Ina;Hwang, YoungHee;Kim, Hanho
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.525-540
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate what kind of experiences the deaf elderly would have in the course of life. It also aimed to promote the understanding of their living difficulties and culture among people with normal hearing and provide basic data to help them live with others as members of the community. Phenomenological qualitative research was conducted as part of the methodology. The subjects include seven deaf old people. Based on the results of in-depth interview and analysis, the life experiences of the deaf elderly were categorized into "unforgettable wounds," "life in the community," "life with the family," "marriage of the deaf elderly", and "living by adjusting to reality." First, the subcategories of "unforgettable wounds" include "receiving no treatment for fever," "damage by the Korean War," "alienation from the family," and "people's cold eyes." It turned out that the deaf elderly had led a life, suffering from the heart wounds that they could not forget. Second, the subcategories of "life in the community" include "inconvenience in life," "disadvantages in life," and "severed life." The deaf elderly were not only subjected to inconvenience and disadvantages in life, but also suffered loneliness, being cut off from the community. Third, the subcategories of "life with the family" include "not communicating with children," "being abandoned again," "being used by the family," "being lonely even with the family," and "wishing to live independently from the family." The deaf elderly were not supported by their families and were abandoned or used by them, leading a solitary life. Fourth, the subcategories of "marriage of the deaf elderly" include"send as a surrogate mother," "frequent remarriage and divorce," "lean on as a married couple." Deaf elderly form their own culture of the marriage and lean on each other. Finally, the subcategories of "living by adjusting to reality" include "getting help from neighbors," "behaving oneself right in life," "learning Hangul," "living by working," "living freely," "living by missing," and "controlling the impulse to end life," "resorting to religion." The deaf elderly made the most alienated and vulnerable group with no access to benefits due to their limitations as a linguistic and social minority, but they made efforts to form their own culture and adjust to reality for themselves. Based on those findings, the study made the following proposals: first, there is a need for practical approaches to heal the ineffaceable wounds in the hearts of deaf elderly. Second, there is a need for policies to help them experience no inconvenience and disadvantages as members of community and communicate with people with normal hearing. Third, there should be practical approaches to enable them to get recognition and support from their families and share love with them. Finally, there should be practical policy approaches to help people with normal hearing understand the culture of deaf elderly and assist the deaf elderly to receive supports from the community and live with others within the community.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT INPATIENTS WITH SEVERE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (심각한 소아 ${\cdot}$ 청소년 강박장애로 입원한 환아들의 특징)

  • Hwang, Jun-Won;You, So-Young;Chang, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Min-Sup;Cho, Soo-Churl;Hong, Kang-E;Kim, Boong-Nyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.143-151
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : Child and adolescent onset obsessive compulsive disorder(C-OCD) is known to be associated with poor drug response, high comorbid rate and strong genetic tendencies. Till now studies for C-OCD have been very rare in Korea. We conducted this study to investigate the informations about clinical features, familial psychiatric loading, treatment profiles and course of server C-OCD from the retrospective analysis of inpatient data of Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Method : Retrospective chart review and data analysis was performed. Twenty(male 16 : female 4) patients with final C-OCD diagnosis by DSM-IV at discharge from 1994 to 2002 were found and their medical chart, psychological data, family interview data and nursing reports were collected and analyzed. Results : 1) The sex ratio of C-OCD was male dominant(4:1). 2) Phenomenological, most common obsession was pathologic doubt, contamination fear, followed by aggressive obsession, need for symmetry, sexual obsession, most common compulsion was checking and washing, followed by breathing, movement, symmetry, repetitive asking, hoarding, mental compulsion. 3) Most common comorbid diagnosis was depression. Other axis-I diagnosis associated OCD were anxiety disorder, tic disorder, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder and psychosis. 4) Regarding psychiatric familial loadings, 17 patients(85%) had relatives with psychiatric disorders, OC-spectrum disorders(OCD or OCPD) were found in 9 patients(45%). 5) The majority of patients(75%) have received SSRI and antipsychotics treatment. The response rate above 'moderate improved" by CGI was 75%. 6) During follow-up period in outpatient clinic, five patients(25%) showed continuous complete remission, 10 patients (50%) did residual symptoms with chronic course. Conclusion : This seems to be the first systemic investigation of severe pediatric OCD patients in Korea. The children & adolescents with severe OCD in inpatient-setting showed the high comorbid rate, familial psychiatric loading, and combined pharmacotherapy with antipsychotics, As for symptoms, high rate of aggressive-sexual obsession and atypical compulsions like breathing and moving was reported in this study. Severe pediatric OCD patients, however, responded well to the combined SSRI and antipsychotics regimen.

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The Research on Online Game Hedonic Experience - Focusing on Moderate Effect of Perceived Complexity - (온라인 게임에서의 쾌락적 경험에 관한 연구 - 지각된 복잡성의 조절효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jong-Ho;Jung, Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.147-187
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    • 2008
  • Online game researchers focus on the flow and factors influencing flow. Flow is conceptualized as an optimal experience state and useful explaining game experience in online. Many game studies focused on the customer loyalty and flow in playing online game, In showing specific game experience, however, it doesn't examine multidimensional experience process. Flow is not construct which show absorbing process, but construct which show absorbing result. Hence, Flow is not adequate to examine multidimensional experience of games. Online game is included in hedonic consumption. Hedonic consumption is a relatively new field of study in consumer research and it explores the consumption experience as a experiential view(Hirschman and Holbrook 1982). Hedonic consumption explores the consumption experience not as an information processing event but from a phenomenological of experiential view, which is a primarily subjective state. It includes various playful leisure activities, sensory pleasures, daydreams, esthetic enjoyment, and emotional responses. In online game experience, therefore, it is right to access through a experiential view of hedonic consumption. The objective of this paper was to make up for lacks in our understanding of online game experience by developing a framework for better insight into the hedonic experience of online game. We developed this framework by integrating and extending existing research in marketing, online game and hedonic responses. We then discussed several expectations for this framework. We concluded by discussing the results of this study, providing general recommendation and directions for future research. In hedonic response research, Lacher's research(1994)and Jongho lee and Yunhee Jung' research (2005;2006) has served as a fundamental starting point of our research. A common element in this extended research is the repeated identification of the four hedonic responses: sensory response, imaginal response, emotional response, analytic response. The validity of these four constructs finds in research of music(Lacher 1994) and movie(Jongho lee and Yunhee Jung' research 2005;2006). But, previous research on hedonic response didn't show that constructs of hedonic response have cause-effect relation. Also, although hedonic response enable to different by stimulus properties. effects of stimulus properties is not showed. To fill this gap, while largely based on Lacher(1994)' research and Jongho Lee and Yunhee Jung(2005, 2006)' research, we made several important adaptation with the primary goal of bringing the model into online game and compensating lacks of previous research. We maintained the same construct proposed by Lacher et al.(1994), with four constructs of hedonic response:sensory response, imaginal response, emotional response, analytical response. In this study, the sensory response is typified by some physical movement(Yingling 1962), the imaginal response is typified by images, memories, or situations that game evokes(Myers 1914), and the emotional response represents the feelings one experiences when playing game, such as pleasure, arousal, dominance, finally, the analytical response is that game player engaged in cognition seeking while playing game(Myers 1912). However, this paper has several important differences. We attempted to suggest multi-dimensional experience process in online game and cause-effect relation among hedonic responses. Also, We investigated moderate effects of perceived complexity. Previous studies about hedonic responses didn't show influences of stimulus properties. According to Berlyne's theory(1960, 1974) of aesthetic response, perceived complexity is a important construct because it effects pleasure. Pleasure in response to an object will increase with increased complexity, to an optimal level. After that, with increased complexity, pleasure begins with a linearly increasing line for complexity. Therefore, We expected this perceived complexity will influence hedonic response in game experience. We discussed the rationale for these suggested changes, the assumptions of the resulting framework, and developed some expectations based on its application in Online game context. In the first stage of methodology, questions were developed to measure the constructs. We constructed a survey measuring our theoretical constructs based on a combination of sources, including Yingling(1962), Hargreaves(1962), Lacher (1994), Jongho Lee and Yunhee Jung(2005, 2006), Mehrabian and Russell(1974), Pucely et al(1987). Based on comments received in the pretest, we made several revisions to arrive at our final survey. We investigated the proposed framework through a convenience sample, where participation in a self-report survey was solicited from various respondents having different knowledges. All respondents participated to different degrees, in these habitually practiced activities and received no compensation for their participation. Questionnaires were distributed to graduates and we used 381 completed questionnaires to analysis. The sample consisted of more men(n=225) than women(n=156). In measure, the study used multi-item scales based previous study. We analyze the data using structural equation modeling(LISREL-VIII; Joreskog and Sorbom 1993). First, we used the entire sample(n=381) to refine the measures and test their convergent and discriminant validity. The evidence from both the factor analysis and the analysis of reliability provides support that the scales exhibit internal consistency and construct validity. Second, we test the hypothesized structural model. And, we divided the sample into two different complexity group and analyze the hypothesized structural model of each group. The analysis suggest that hedonic response plays different roles from hypothesized in our study. The results indicate that hedonic response-sensory response, imaginal response, emotional response, analytical response- are related positively to respondents' level of game satisfaction. And game satisfaction is related to higher levels of game loyalty. Additionally, we found that perceived complexity is important to online game experience. Our results suggest that importance of each hedonic response different by perceived game complexity. Understanding the role of perceived complexity in hedonic response enables to have a better understanding of underlying mechanisms at game experience. If game has high complexity, analytical response become important response. So game producers or marketers have to consider more cognitive stimulus. Controversy, if game has low complexity, sensorial response respectively become important. Finally, we discussed several limitations of our study and suggested directions for future research. we concluded with a discussion of managerial implications. Our study provides managers with a basis for game strategies.

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