Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study discusses the architectural space's phenomenology, focusing on the physical environment and psychological behavior. Kim, Ju-Tae House, which is divided by special relationship, was analyzed by method of constructing space, and behavioral meaning with the perspective of visual structure. Kim, Ju-Tae House was constructed in a clear way by reflecting the users social, and cultural relationship. It has a relational and independent territories by physically surrounding Chae and wall. Each independent limited space is suggesting the space being opened by accessing the space stage by stage. This method of constructing the space makes the user aware of the relative difference from the induced space experience, and recognize the incremental strong isolation. Between the yard, which is located in the center of the house, forms a three-dimensional layer between Sarangchae and Anchae, emphasizing the spacial depth. The physical space is relatively small but because of the environmental conditions, such as the positioning of the observer's perspective, short cycle reorientation, and overlapped layer, it is recognized as far or deep compared to the actual size. This is the relative method as a visual perspective that is intended, and is understood as an active element that induces the psychological attitude by the recognized environment affordability of the user.
When most middle-aged women live in a time when they have to take responsibility for their lives, they feel lonely when they realize that their experience of not expressing their feelings properly has ended up being left alone due to their own existence and loss. As the first step in conscious awareness of unconsciousness of middle-aged women through analytical psychology, we performed "Mandara" and "Nanhwa Mandara," which meet me inside. The intermediate stage can be divided into transition and work phase. The working phase, develops one's own advantages and unique strengths that meet the inner world of promoting and acting values, correctly looks at reality, corrects emotion perception and balance, and is self-contained, seed mandala, associative mandala. They performed the strong points of mandala, the free mandala, and the Western mandala. The results of the study showed that mandala art therapy was found in middle-aged women. First, Mandarin art therapy experience affects the physical, psychological and human relations aspects of middle-aged women. Second, middle-aged women's experience of individualization through mandala art therapy shows psychological reversals and affects positive thinking and self-effectiveness. This study was suitable for qualitative research that approached the essence through practical understanding and direct exploration of research participants, and it is meaningful to suggest that it is necessary to develop an art therapy program through various mediums considering the lack of art therapy research in middle-aged women and problems experienced by the physician.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study examined the experiences of the suicide crisis and recovery process by elderly women living alone to identify the essential meaning and components of life as a life to live again. In addition, the recovery of the research participants, as well as the phenomenon of such changes in thought and life, were examined. The results of this study were as follows. Data analysis yielded four components, eight sub-components, and 16 semantic unit reductions. There were four components of suicide attempts and recovery experiences of elderly women. They were "disconnection and disqualification," "repeated hardships," "road of prosperity in trouble," and "generous tolerance." The essential topics of these components have emerged not as individual but as holistic and contextually connectable topics. Finally, to summarize the results, the essential semantic structure of the suicide attempt and recovery experience of elderly women living alone is a result of a dysfunctional social structure and environment, which has placed pressure on the life of research participants. As an alternative method to overcome, they tried to solve the problem through the extreme practice of suicide attempts, but positive energy to live again due to emotional recovery factors recognized through suicide failures have made it possible to cope with the difficult reality.
This article aims to deconstruct the mechanism of male domination that constantly reproduces the hegemonic class of men. In order to overcome misogyny, we should no longer deny the ontological dimension of the reality of women's oppressions and the pre-eminence of the material condition of women's existence. In addition, the possibility of the category of women as a modality of resistance should be taken into consideration. First, I will highlight the correlation between penis and phallus according to which the phallus refers to the penis which is malleable and fragile and which disappears without being castrated by the external factor. From here we could deduce the fragility and imperfection, the non-absoluteness of the phallic order. Secondly, I will analyze the mechanism of penis-narcissism, which is the modality of the constitution of the individual identity of man. The penis is not only a physiological organ, but a site of self-estimation and the validity of the succession of power and authority of the father's law. With this penis-narcissism, man is constituted as a hegemonic body that can let itself go without worrying about the reactions of others. Thirdly, I will focus on the mechanism of the penis-cartel which is the modality of the formation of the collective identity. The penis-cartel is reinforced by the mutual affirmation of the superiority of men among themselves, but also by the permission and the tacit agreement of their absurdity and lack of rationality and corruption. Because the privilege of men is not monopolized by a small part of the elite, but is consciously and unconsciously shared by all men who are part of the hegemonic and collective category. In order to deconstruct the penis-narcissism and the penis-cartel, it is necessary to demonstrate that the penis is not a self-sufficient body, nor a closed and impermeable body, but that it is a porous body where the organ serves both ejaculation and urinary ejection. The penis is a porous body that is at once the site of sublimity and degradation, purity and impurity. In addition, the penis is no longer an all-powerful and aggressive organ, but it is a malleable and fluid flesh that constantly changes its shape. Linked to a phallus-organ that is the notion of Jacques-Alain Miller, it is a site of deficiency and vulnerability that is not the axis of the penis-cartel. It is through the notion of the double porosity of the penis and the phenomenology of the flesh of the penis, I try to provide the modality of undoing the reproductive mechanism of predatory masculinity. Because this would be an effective strategy to overcome misogyny.
Human hunted and picked to survive and a vessel was made naturally to store something being hunted and picket, which was a great invention. In modern times, society changed and development of science gave us convenience in making a vessel and various kinds of store instruments which was made of pure natural material, of new stuff, such as plastic and iron. but human became to be inclined to regress into nature because of problems of environment. We can say that the representative trend is well-being, after all this is a symptom to return to life being persued by predecessors before the science civilization was developed. Ancestors have lived with nature, adapted themselves to it. For examples they have built the house which became to be a part of nature and just like it, and studied a method of storing food to eat for four seasons, then displayed a storagehouse and storage containers everywhere of the house. Now Korean has the custody of kimchi in refrigerator at every house, but our forefathers controled a timing to eat food with studying a method of storage to put to use nature. With hot wind of well-being, Korean food is becoming to be globalized, according to this, concern about the wisdom of progenitors is growing more and more. It's an example that the world shows concern seriously about the pottery, which have stored kimchi for a long time fleshly, in globalization of kimchi. This study have three purposes, the first. checking documents about the development history of pottery which is a kind of ceramic, and then the second, through an scientific experiment, with studying characteristic of pottery being built by the wisdom of ancestors, informing the merit of pottery and necessity to the world, and futhermore, the third, working up the development of close environmental vessels putting to use the characteristic of pottery.
Animal models can provide a useful tool for the study of some aspects of psychiatric disorders and their treatment. The four criteria for the evaluation of animal models of psychiatric disorders are as following : 1) similarity of inducing conditions 2) similarity of behavioral state 3) common underlying neurobiological mechanisms 4) reversal by clinically effective treatment techniques. Several animal models have been proposed for schizophrenia : phenylethylamine model, L-dopa model, hallucinogen model, cocaine model, amphetamine model, phencyclidine model, noradrenergic reward system lesion model, reticular stimulation model, social isolation model, conditioned avoidance reaction, catalepsy test, paw test, self-stimulation paradigms, latent inhibition paradigms, blocking paradigms, prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, rodent interaction, social behavior in monkeys, hippocampal damage, high ambient pressure, and models using selective breeding. Among them, animals with bilateral lesion of the hippocampus may provide an adequate animal model for several symptoms of schizophrenia, and ketamine model can reproduce negative symptoms and cognitive deficits as well as positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In conclusion, no model of schizophrenia is entirely representative of the disease, and findings gleaned from model systems must be cautiously interpreted. Furthermore, the process of developing and validating animal models must work in concert with the process to identify reliable measures of human phenomenology.
We can't deny Korean EE has basically developed on the basis of Environmental Possibilism (Environmental management or Reformism) in lots of aspects. I would show three representative proofs here, the first, the philosophy of Korean EE has been mainly focused on dichotomy of human-techno centrism and eco-centrism with no considering other alternative environmentalism since 4th Formal Curriculum, 1981. The second, simultaneously, the concept of EE has not distinguished from it of Science education. (Furthermore, unfortunately some says EE has been a part of Science education, although there should be many differences on its contextual aspect.) And the third one is that the limit of possibilism which market economists have worried, has scarcely mentioned in various kinds of EE-related teaching materials. Possibilism is basically likely to be accompanied by science and economics-oriented approach, and in this aspect this dichotomy, human-techno centrism and eco-centrism, has come from perspectives of Economical development process and over-addicted belief to Science. So it is enough to say that Korean EE has basically developed with biased to Environmental possibilism, in other words, biased to preference to it. And I'll critically focus on these two axes of possibilism, Science and Economics and its dichotomy. Of course, we should accept there are so many same parts in its contents between EE and Science, but we should know its contextual differences for triangular position of environmentalism suitable to EE and also overcome science-dependant approach to EE. Although science-dependant approach to EE and dichotomy could provide some tools for clearing up the causes of environmental problem, especially always it has insisted fundamental causes of environmental problem originated in human faults and over-use of eco-source or over-economic development, but now it is old-fashioned discourse, furthermore it come to have unavoidable limits in the debates of problem-solving mechanism to environmental problems. The paramount important thing is to supply the ways or thoughtful mechanism for solving or coordinating the Environmental problems, not just searching for cause of it. But scientific approach and its dichotomy based on possibilism have continuously born cause & effect in EE-related discourse. So there are so much needs to transfer from continuous bearing of cause & effect to constructive alternatives at least in environmentalism of EE. Traditionally, dichotomical division in EE Environmentalism, human-techno centrism and eco-centrism, couldn't have Provided any answers to our real society, it just gives us only cause & effects of Environmental problems. And also we can't find the description on the limits of capitalism market approach to Environmental problems especially in Korean EE text books, other teaching materials and its teaching-learning process, although market approach economist has been proved its fault beyond its functional merits as Environmental management tools. So we should introduce other alternative Environmental philosophy instead of Possibilism such as eco-socialism insisted by Schmacher M. and Boochin etc, or marxist-environmentalism for relative and comparative views to market-thought such as commodification. In this aspect we need to accept Oriental philosophy based on moderation(中庸) as new another alternatives with the reflection that we have recognized monism as representative Oriental philosophical environmentalism. Fundamentally monism has done its role with providing relative concepts to Dichotomy Enlightenment, but we can't say it has been core concept for understanding of oriental environmentalism, and we can't distinguish monism from oriental philosophy itself, just because oriental thought itself was basically monism. So conceptual difference should be recognized between EE and Science education in teaching-learning process on the basis of life-philosophy(Philosophie des Lebens) from epistemology. For this transformation, we should introduce existentialism in Science education, in other words, only existential Science education based on phenomenology or interpretivism can be EE. And simultaneously we need some ways for overcoming of scientific foundationalism which has been tradition making science not stand on existentialism, formulating and featuring of almost all of natural things and its phenomenon from after enlightenment in western world, but it has malfunctioned in fixing conception of science just into essentialism itself. And we also introduce integrated approach to science and society for EE like STS. Those are ways for overcoming of Environmental possibilism in EE.
In Korea, modern art therapy was developed in the 1960s and 1970s in the form of supplementary activities for patients in psychiatry. Along with the foundation of the Korean Association for Clinical Art in 1982 by psychiatric doctors, the therapy involved more various arts forms such as music, art, dance, poetry therapy, and psychodrama. More organizations with specific expertise opened such as the Korean Art Therapy Association, Korean Art Therapy Association, etc. in the 1990s and the Korea Arts Therapy Institute in 2001. As of April 2015, the members of the Korean Art Therapy Association total 15,000, including 6,200 regular members. The arts in integrative arts therapy (IAT) is an individual's creative activity which is related to his inner world, and the forms of IAT include music, drawing, dance and poetry therapy. From the aspect of phenomenology, IAT is psychophysical therapy involving the arts that helps patients recognize and perceive their experiences with an aim of at a recovery of the body and creativity from the phenomenological aspect. It is also a therapeutic activity that targets growth and development of the body and mind. Meta-analysis of the effects of art therapy with a focus on that involving music, drawing, dance movement and IAT in recent years in Korea, significant effects were observed in all factors but physical function. The biggest effect was mentality adaptation followed by activity adaptation and physiology. In the run up to the implementation of the daily flat-rate system for the health insurance reimbursement for palliative care in July 2015, the Ministry of Health and Welfare is reviewing the coverage of music therapy, drawing therapy and flower therapy, which are currently practiced by 56 hospice institutes in Korea. This is a meaningful step because the coverage of hospice and palliative care came after that of art therapy for psychiatric patients was approved in 1977. Still, there is a need clarify the therapeutic mechanism by exploring causality among the treatment media, mediation type and treatment effects. To address the issue of indiscriminately issued licenses, more efforts are needed to ensure expertise and identity of the licensed therapists through education, training and supervision.
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