• Title, Summary, Keyword: phospholipase $A_2$

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The Action of ATP on Phospholipase $A_2$Activation in C6 Cells (C6세포에서 phospholipase $A_2$활성에 대한 ATP의 작용)

  • 심상수;김명준;윤신희;김창종;조양혁
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 2001
  • To investigate action of ATP on ischemia-induced brain injury, we measured phospholipase $A_2$activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in C6 cells. ATP alone did not have any influence on phospholipase $A_2$activity but increased NO production. Glutamate (1 mM) significantly increased phospholipase $A_2$activity whereas did not increased NO production. ATP significantly inhibited phospholipase $A_2$activation induced by 0.1 $\mu$M A23187, 1 mM glutamate and 1 mM $H_2O$$_2$, but did not inhibited 1 $\mu$M PMA-induced phospholipase $A_2$activation. From the above results, it is suggested that the action of ATP in C6 cells has dual actions, such as the inhibition of agonist-induced phospholipase $A_2$activation and the increase of NO production.

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An Experimental Study on Production of Egg Yolk Antibody(IgY) against Bee Venom (봉독의 항독소(IgY)생산을 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Hwang, Tae-Jun;Lee, Seung-Bae;Gwon, Gi-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out for production of neutral antibody to bee venom $(anti-phospholipase\;A_2IgY)$. Hen layings were injected repeatedly with bee venom and phospholipase $A_2$ with Freund's adjuvant. Specific antibody in egg yolk from immunized hen laying was separated, and purified, also immunological characteristics of anti phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$ was invested. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Phospholipase $A_2$ was showed single band at molecular weight 17,000 in SDS-PAGE and bee venom was showed two band at molecular weight 17,000 and under molecular weight 6,500 in SDS-PAGE. 2. During 70 days after hen immunized with bee venom and phospholipase $A_2$, antibodies(anti-bee venom IgY) to bee venom were showed poor ELISA value in egg yolk, but antibodies$(anti-Phospholipase\;A_2IgY)$ to phospholipase $A_2$ in egg yolk were increased ELISA value from 8 days or 15 days and found maximum ELISA value at 42 days. Also after booster at 49 days, ELISA value of anti Phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$ in egg yolk was supported at optical density(O.D) 1.0 level, continuously. 3. Titer of phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$ was showed 1: 32,000. 4. In double immunodiffusion test to phospholipase $A_2$ after double dilution of anti-phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$, only precipitation line was made in 1:1 dilution well of anti-Phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$. But In immunodiffusion test to anti-phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$ after double dilution of phospholipase $A_2$, Precipitation line to 250ul/ml well of phospholipase $A_2$ was showed. In double immunodiffusion test to bee venom(1mg/ml) after double dilution anti-phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$, all well without 1:32 dilution well were showed strong precipitation line. 5. In dot bloting test to anti-phospholipase $A_2\;IgY$ after diluting bee venom(0.5mg/ml), dot bloting color was showed clearly to $1/100(5{\mu}g/ml)$ in bee venom.

Partial Purification and Characterization of Multiple Forms of Extracellular Phospholipase $A_2$ in Human Amniotic Fluid (사람 양수중 다종의 세포외성 포스포리파제의 $A_2$의 부분정제 및 특성)

  • Jeon, Yong-Ju;Baek, Suk-Hwan;Lee, Jee-Hae;Moon, Tae-Chul;Min, Beong-Woo;Chang, Hyeun-Wook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.212-219
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    • 1997
  • Multiple forms of extracellular phospholipase $A_2$ have been detected in human amniotic fluid (HAF). When HAF was subjected to heparin-Sepharose column chromatography, phospholipase $A_2$ activity was detected in both heparin-non binding and binding fraction. The activity of heparin-non binding fraction was further purified by sequential uses of column chromatographies on butyl-Toy-opearl 650M and DEAE-Sephacel. DEAE-Sephacel fraction contained three different phospholipase $A_2$ activities (Peak I, II, III). The molecular weight of DEAE-Sephacel fraction phospholipase $A_2$ determined by SDS-PAGE were about 52KDa (Peak I). Peak II, III required micromolar $Ca^{2+}$ ion for its maximum activity, but Peak I enzyme showed calcium independent phospholipase $A_2$ activity and showed broad range of pH (6.0~10.0) optimum. All these enzymes were not recognized by a monoclonal antibody raised against phospholipase $A_2$ from human synovial fluid. These results suggest that HAF might contain multiple forms of extracellular phospholipase $A_2$, which may neither belong to the 14KDa group II phospholipase $A_2$ family nor cytosolic phospholipase $A_2$.

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Phospholipase Activities in Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Acanthamoeba

  • Matin, Abdul;Jung, Suk-Yul
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2011
  • The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Acanthamoeba infections remain incompletely understood. Phospholipases are known to cleave phospholipids, suggesting their possible involvement in the host cell plasma membrane disruption leading to host cell penetration and lysis. The aims of the present study were to determine phospholipase activities in Acanthamoeba and to determine their roles in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. Using an encephalitis isolate (T1 genotype), a keratitis isolate (T4 genotype), and an environmental isolate (T7 genotype), we demonstrated that Acanthamoeba exhibited phospholipase $A_2$ (PLA$_2$). and phospholipase D (PLD) activities in a spectrophotometry-based assay. Interestingly, the encephalitis isolates of Acanthamoeba exhibited higher phospholipase activities as compared with the keratitis isolates, but the environmental isolates exhibited the highest phospholipase activities. Moreover, Acanthamoeba isolates exhibited higher PLD activities compared with the PLA$_2$. Acanthamoeba exhibited optimal phospholipase activities at $37^{\circ}C$ and at neutral pH indicating their physiological relevance. The functional role of phospholipases was determined by in vitro assays using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. We observed that a PLD-specific inhibitor, i.e., compound 48/80, partially inhibited Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate cytotoxicity of the host cells, while PLA$_2$-specific inhibitor, i.e., cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine, had no effect on parasite-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity. Overall, the T7 exhibited higher phospholipase activities as compared to the T4. In contract, the T7 exhibited minimal binding to, or cytotoxicity of, HBMEC.

Detection and Characterization of Novel Extracellular Phospholipase $A_2$ in Urine of Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

  • Park, Jae-Hyeun;Lee, Jee-Hye;Baek, Suk-Hwan;Moon, Tae-Chul;Lee, Jong-Myung;Kim, Nung-Soo;Nam, Kyung-Soo;Chang, Hyeun-Wook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 1997
  • Extracellular phospholipase $A_2$ activity has been detected in urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). This enzyme required micromolar $Ca^{2+}$ ion for its maximum activity and showed a broad range of pH (4.5~10) optimum. Urine enzyme hydrolyzed phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) more effectively than phosphatidylcholine (PC). $PLA_2$ activity in the urine of patients with APN was about 5-fold higher than that of healthy individuals. When urine was subjected to heparinSepharose column chromatography, phospholipase $A_2$ activity was detected in both heparin-non-binding and binding fractions. Both phospholipase $A_2$ activities were sensitive less than a micromolar calcium concentration and did not react with anti-human 14-kDa group II phospholipase $A_2$ monoclonal antibody, HP-l. These findings suggest that two kinds of novel extracellular phospholipase $A_2$. which may not belong to the 14-kDa group II phospholipase $A_2$ family, exist in the urine of patients with APN.

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Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylcholine in Aerosol-OT/Isooctane Reversed Micelles by Phospholipase $A_2$ (역미셀계내에서 인지질분해효소 $A_2$에 의한 레시친의 가수분해)

  • Chang, Pahn-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 1997
  • Bee venom (Apis mellifera) phospholipase $A_2$ solubilized in reversed micelles containing small amount of water stabilized by surfactant could catalyze the hydrolysis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC). A sensitive and simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methodology of phospholipase $A_2$ assay for the hydrolysis of DPPC was developed. Kinetic analysis of the phospholipase $A_2$-catalyzed reaction was found to be possible in reversed micelles. Among the surfactants and organic solvents tested, aerosol-OT and isooctane were most effective for the hydrolysis of DPPC in reversed micelles. Optimal temperature, optimal pH, $K_{m,app.},\;V_{max.,app.}$ and activation energy were determined to be $35{\sim}40^{\circ}C$, 7.0, 8.73 mM, 2.83 units/㎎ protein and 12.31 kcal/mole, respectively. The hydrolysis activity was dependent on water content and maximum activity was obtained at R value (=[water]/[aerosol-OT]) of 10.0.

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Action of Phospholipase $A_2$in Histamine Release from Mast Cells (비만세포에서 Histamine유리에 관여하는 Phospholipase $A_2$의 작용)

  • 이윤혜;이승준;서무현;장용운;윤정이
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2001
  • To investigate whether phospholipase $A_2$pathway is involved in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells, we measured histamine release in the presence of various enzyme inhibitors involved in eicosanoid pathway, such as phospholipase $A_2$, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Phospholipase $A_2$inhibitors, manoalide and OPC, significantly inhibited histamine release induced by 100 $\mu$M ATP and 1$\mu$g/ml compound 48/80. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, ibuprofen and indomethacin, significantly inhibited ATP-induced histamine release and lipoxygenase inhibitors, baicalein and caffeic acid, also significantly inhibited. To investigate the involvement of protein kinase in ATP- and compound 48/80-induced histamine release, we observed effects of protein kinase inhibitors on histamine release. Bisindolmaleimide (protein kinase C antagonist) dose-dependently inhibited both ATP and compound 48/80-induced histamine release. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (methyl 2,5-dihydroxy cinnamate and genistein) dose-dependently inhibited ATP and compound 48/80-induced histamine release. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase seem to be involved in histamine release induced by ATP and compound 48/80. These results suggest that phospholipase $A_2$pathway as well as protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells by ATP and compound 48/80.

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Modulation of Uterine Phospholipase $A_2$ Activity by Estradiol During the Delayed Implantation Process in Rats (흰쥐의 착상기간중 Estradiol이 자궁의 Phospholipase $A_2$ 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Mi-Chung;Kim, Chang-Mee;Choe, Rim-Soon;Ryu, Kyung-Za
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 1991
  • The present study was performed to determine whether estradiol, via cAMP mediation, induces prostaglandin synthesis by modulating phospholipase $A_2$ activity which hydrolyzes phospholipids into arachidonic acids, a precursor for prostaglandin synthesis, during the implantation process in rats. Uterine phospholipase $A_2$ activity was elevated on day 5 of pregnancy when implantation normally occurs in rats. Moreover, phospholipase $A_2$ activity was higher in the implant sites than in the non-implant sites of uterus on day 6. In delayed implantation model, phospholipase $A_2$ activity was increased at 12 hrs after estradiol administration and at 8 hrs after dbcAMP administration. In addition, higher activity of phospholipase $A_2$ was induced by the treatment of estradiol plus theophylline, compared with estradiol-only treated group. The simultaneous treatment of indomethacin with estradiol or dbcAMP did not alter phospholipase $A_2$ activity compared with estradiol or dbcAMP-only treated group although significant suppression was observed in uterine PGE and $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ concentrations. These results suggest that estradiol or cAMP stimulates uterine phospholipase $A_2$ activity, thereby increasing prostaglandin synthesis during the implantation process in rats.

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Isolation of Phospholipase-A2 Inhibitors from MeOH Extract of Scutellaria bicalensis

  • Joe, Yoon-ki;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, So-Hee;Moon, Dong-Chul;Chang, Hyun-Wook;Son, Jong-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.55-55
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    • 1995
  • 황금 뿌리로부터 Phospholipase-A2 저해제의 분리, 구조결정 방법: 황금의 MeOH 추출물로부터 용매분획과 column chromatography를 통하여 Phospholipase A2 저해작용을 가진 물질들을 분리하고, 이들의 구조를 확인하였다. 결과: Bioassay를 기초로 하여 Phospholipase-A2 저해작용이 있는 기지물질 6종을 분리, 구조확인 하였다.

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