• Title, Summary, Keyword: photosensitization

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Methyl Linoleate Oxidation via Electron Transfer in Competition with $^1O_2$ Formation Photosensitized N-Acetyl-L-Tryptophan 3-Methyl Indole

  • Yoon, Min-Joong;Song, Moon-Young;Cho, Dae-Won
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.291-295
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    • 1985
  • The efficiency of photosensitization of methyl linoleate (ML) oxidation by N-acetyl-L-trypophan(NAT) and 3-methyl indole(scatole) was markedly enhanced by increased concentration of ML in ethanol solution. The fluorescence intensities of sensitizers were observed to be quenched by ML, indicating that ML interacts with the indole excited singlet state. The inhibition of photosensitization by azide demonstrated a possible role of singlet oxygen in the photosensitization. The steady state kinetic treatment of azide inhibition of photosensitization was expected to show linear increase of reciprocal yield of ML oxidation product vs. reciprocal ML concentration at constant azide concentration, but the actual slope was nonlinear. This indicates another competing reaction involved in the photosensitization, As a possible competing reaction, electron transfer from ML to the excited sensitizer was proposed, since the measured fluorescence quenching rate constant closely resembled electron transfer rate constant determined from ML concentration dependence of oxidation product formation.

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Benoxaprofen-photosensitization Decomposition of Tryptophan Peptides in Aqueous Micellar Systems

  • Yoon, Min-Joong;Lee, Ki-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 1987
  • Benoxaprofen (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-${\alpha}$ -methyl-5-benzoxazole acetic acid) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that causes acute cutaneous phototoxicity. The ability of benoxaprofen (BXP) and its photoproduct, decarboxybenoxaprofen (DBXP) to photosensitize the decomposition of tryptophan was evaluated in various media such as water, ethanol and aqueous micellar dispersions of surfactants. The weak photosensitization of BXP in water was found to be enhanced in cationic CTAB micelle system, but yielded little difference in anionic SDS micelles. In ethanol solution, BXP was determined to photosensitize the decomposition of tryptophan, but no photosensitization was observed with DBXP. All of these results implicate that the anion radical of BXP may play a major role in the photosensitization in hydrophobic micellar phase, forming superoxide through interaction with oxygen as demonstrated by observation that the photosensitization was inhibited by superoxide dismutase.

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Photosensitization due to the ingestion of Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli) in a Holstein calf (피삼에 의한 송아지 광과민증 1례)

  • Jang, Kwang-ho;Lee, Joo-myoung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.436-440
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    • 1998
  • Photosensitization occurred in a 4-month old Holstein calf soon after going onto the pasture lush with green Japanese millet(Echinochloa crusgalli). Skin lesions were restricted to the unpigmented white area of skin. They were most pronounced on the dorsum of the body, diminishing in degree down the sides and were absent from the ventral part. The demarcation between lesions and normal skin was clearcut. There were edema, exudation and sloughing of affected skin on the left gluteal region, and erythema, edema and scab on right scapular region. Interception of the light, discontinuance of Japanese millet ingestion, and the administration of antihistamine and penicillin made the calf rapid recovery. This disease was considered photosensitization due to chlorphyll in ingested Japanese millet.

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Invirto alternatives to photosensitization Test (광감작성 시험에서의 동물대체 시험법)

  • Lee, Ho;Nam, Ki-Taek;Koh, Jae-Sook;Park, Won-Jae
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.84-101
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    • 1996
  • To minimize the use of animals in toxicity testing, and to reduce the cost in vivo test, more rational test method was described which determines, in the same animal, photoxic and photoallergic potential of a substance, and is daptable to routine testing. The other purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of in vivo alternatives ; photostability and spectrophotometric carbonyl assay. In this modified photosensitization model, animal numbers and resting periods, the number and method of topical application were simplified. Two positive photoreactive agents, Benzocaine and 6-methyl coumarine, showed a similar photoallergic potential to that of Ichikawa's method. Two sunscreens, Octyl methoxy cinnamate, Butyl methoxyl dibenzoyl methane, hardly showed photoallergic potentials. The photostability test could be used in the step of prescreening of photosensitization potential because most of the photoreactive agents represented the reduction of more than 20% in the absorbance. And photoreactive agents have a high potential of photosensitization in the sddessment of spectrophotometric carbonyl level although two sunscreens have a low possibility of photosensitization. Therefore this method was assumed as a valuable in vivo alternatives in the respect even in the very low concentrations which phototoxicity test using almonella showed no phototoxic potential.

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Decreased Stability of Bisphenol A by Photosensitization (감광제 광산화에 의한 Bisphenol A 안정성 감소)

  • Park, Chan-Uk;Lee, Jae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.277-280
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    • 2010
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor frequently used in food containers, including epoxy resin and polycarbonates. BPA concentrations were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) under photosensitization of riboflavin (RF), methylene blue (MB), rose bengal (RB), or titanium dioxide ($TiO_2$) and the involvement of singlet oxygen was determined using sodium azide ($NaN_3$). The stability of BPA decreased significantly in the order of RF, RB, and MB photosensitization (p<0.05), while the concentration of BPA in samples with $TiO_2$ was not significantly different from that of control samples without photosensitizers under light (p>0.05). The stability of BPA decreased in an MB concentration-dependent manner and increased as the concentration of added $NaN_3$ increased, implying that singlet oxygen was involved in the photodegradation of BPA during MB photosensitization. The results of this study may help control the BPA content in foods or the environments using photosensitized oxidation and visible light irradiation.

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF DENTAL LASERS ON THE GROWTH AND THE FUNCTION OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS (각종 치과레이저의 Streptococcus mutans에 대한 증식 및 기능억제 효과)

  • Han, Kang-Seog;Kook, Joong-Ki;You, So-Young;Kim, Hwa-Sook;Park, Jong-Whi;Park, Heon-Dong;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.439-447
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    • 2003
  • This was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of laser on the growth of S. mutans. The bacterial pallets containing S. mutans KCTC 3065 were irradiated with Er:YAG laser and Nd :YAG laser by non-contact method at an intensity of 50mJ for 5 sec with the pulse repetition rates of 10Hz and 30Hz, respectively. The following results were obtained on colony count, acid producing ability, and the amount of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide synthesis. 1. The irradiation of Nd:YAG laser after photosensitization with Chinese ink inhibited the proliferation of S. mutans the most, and the irradiation of Er:YAG also inhibited the proliferation. However, the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser alone could not inhibited the proliferation of S. mutans. The pulse repetition rate did not affect significantly on the proliferation of bacteria in overall. 2. The irradiation of Nd:YAG laser after the photosensitization with Chinese ink inhibited the acid production of S. mutans the most for a certain period of time. Er:YAG laser also inhibited acid production. When Nd:YAG laser was used alone, the acid production of S. mutans was not been inhibited. The irradiation of Nd:YAG laser after photosensitization with Chinese ink inhibited the acid production ability of bacteria the most as the pulse repetition rate increased. 3. Laser irradiation did not inhibited the synthesis of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide of S. mutans. From these results, we conclude that the irradiation of Er:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser after photosensitization with Chinese ink would inhibit the proliferation and acid production by S. mutans, which may prevent dental caries. However, this effect does not last long time so that the laser irradiation should be repeated frequently in order to obtain clinical effect; thus, this laser irradiation would not have a clinical usefulness in preventing dental caries when used solely.

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Mycosporine-like Amino Acids as Natural Scavengers of Singlet Oxygen in Marine Organisms: Photoprotection of Biological Systems

  • Suh, Hwa-Jin;Lee, Hyun--Woo;Jin Jung
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.63-65
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    • 2002
  • This report concerns a putative role of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) as natural scavengers of singlet oxygen ($^1$O$_2$) in marine organisms. MAA prepared from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella were found to protect biological systems against detrimental effects of the type II photosensitization in vitro. L. patella MAA were resolved into five components, and the relative $^1$0$_2$ quenching efficiencies were measured for three major components in aqueous media. It turned out that they were all effective in scavenging $^1$0$_2$, to different degrees albeit. The results suggest that physiological relevance of MAA in marine organisms may be found in a 'built-in' defense against photooxidative effects of sunlight.

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Effects of Photooxidation and Chlorophyll Photosensitization on the Formation of Volatile Compounds in Lard Model Systems

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Min, David B.
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 2009
  • Effects of chlorophyll and visible light exposure on the volatile formations and headspace oxygen content were studied in lard model systems at $55^{\circ}C$. Samples with or without addition of chlorophyll under light underwent photosensization or photooxidation, respectively. Total volatiles (TI) in lard with 5 ppm chlorophyll photosensization were 19 times higher than those in visible light photooxidized samples for 48 hr while TI in lard with chlorophyll in the dark were not significantly different from those in photooxidized samples (p>0.05). Headspace oxygen content in photosensitized lard decreased from 21 to 15% for 48 hr but that in photooxidized lard or that in lard with chlorophyll in the dark did not change significantly (p>0.05), which indicates that lard system used in this study is a photosensitizer-free model system and the presence of chlorophyll accelerated the lipid oxidation only under visible light. Oxidation mechanisms of photooxidation with or without presence of photosensitizers under visible light were not the same based on the difference of oxidized volatile profiles and headspace oxygen depletion.

Photosensitized Lysis of Egg Lecithin Liposomes by L-Tryptophan and N-Acetylphenylalanyl-L-Tryptophan

  • Cho, Dae-Won;Yoon, Min-Joong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 1986
  • The photosensitized lysis of egg lecithin lipid membranes (liposomes) have been performed to UV-B light (270-320 nm) by L-tryptophan(L-Trp) and its peptide such as N-acetylphenylalanyl-L-tryptophan(NAPT) incorporated in the liposomes(ca. 0.1% by weight) or in the external buffer (0.1-0.3 mM). Requirement of oxygenation suggests that the lysis of liposomes is caused by the photosensitized oxidation of lipids. There was significant protection against lysis photosensitized by Trp in the external buffer by low concentration of ferricyanide (0.8 mM), but there was no effect on the lytic efficiency by $N_3^-$ which is singlet oxygen($^1O_2$) quencher, indicative of an electron transfer mechanism involved in the photosensitization. The small change of the lytic efficiency with increasing pH from 4 to 9 was interpreted by large target theory and subsequently indicates that superoxide($O_2^-$) may be an active intermediate for the oxidation. The efficiency of photosensitization of Trp was higher than that of NAPT under the same experimental condition. The weak lytic efficiency of liposomes photosensitized by NAPT was enhanced by incorporating NAPT in liposomes, but it was again quenched by ${\beta}$-carotene incorporated in the bilayer of liposomes. These results indicate that a portion of liposome lysis may be due to $^1O_2$ formation from the excited NAPT.

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