• Title, Summary, Keyword: pickling

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Development of a Concentration Measurement System for Pickling Line Control (산세라인 자동화를 위한 농도 측정 시스템 개발)

  • Park, Hyoung-Kuk;Lee, Jong-Hyun;Noh, Ill-Hwan
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.891-895
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes the development of a new method for online analysis which measured acid concentration in a pickling line. Pickling is the most important step to remove surface scale layers and is strongly depending on the exactly controlled pickling liquor composition. Today, there is no feasible system available for the online control of pickling lines. Within this paper, new methods for online analysis of pickling liquors have been tested and implemented into an overall pickling process control tool. This method measured simultaneously the hydrochloric acid and iron ion concentration in a solution of hydrochloric acid by measuring the ultrasonic speed, the solution temperature, and the electrical conductivity. Experimental results showed excellent precision and the measurement error was ${\pm}2g/l$ compared with the neutralization titration measurement.

Studies on the Changes in the Alliinase Activity during the Aging of Pickled Garlic (마늘장아찌 숙성 중 Alliinase 활성 변화에 관한연구)

  • 채수규
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1999
  • Changes in the alliinase activity during the aging of pickled garlic samples prepared by the several methods were investigated. The activity of alliinase in raw garlic was 8,37 units/mg protein. The ac-tivity in the garlic pickled with swoy sauce was reduced to 4.57 units/mg with 52% remaining by 1st week of pickling and to 1.05 units/mg protein with 12% remaining by 2nd week of pickling. The ac-tivity of alliinase in the garlic pickled with vinegar was 2.79 units/mg protein with 32% remaining by 1st week of pickling and was 0.26 units/mg protein only with 3% remaining by 2nd week of pickling. The activity of alliinase in the garlic pickled with 10% salt solution was 5.06 units/mg protein with 58% remaining by 1st week of pickling. After one week pickling the juice of pickled garlic was removed. Then garlics were pickled again with vinegar. The allinase acting in was reduced to 0.85 units/mg pro-tein with 10% remaining by 2nd week of pickling. The activity of alliinase in the garlic pickled with vin-egar was 2.79 units/mg protein with 32% remaining by 1st week of pickling. The juice of pickled garlic was removed after one week. Then the galics were again pickled with saysauce. The allinase activity in the garlic the garlic pickled again with soy sauce was reduced to 0.43 units/mg protein with 5% remain-ing by 2 week of pickling.

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The Effects of the Residual Ba and Zr on the Acid Pickling in Case of the Recovering of Zr in Pickling Waste Acid through the BaF2 Precipitation Process (BaF2 침전 공정을 통한 폐산세정액 내 Zr 회수 시 잔존 Ba 및 Zr이 산세정에 미치는 영향)

  • An, Chang Mo;Choi, Jeong Hun;Han, Seul Ki;Park, Chul Ho;Kahng, Jong Won;Lee, Young Jun;Lee, Jong Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2017
  • Nuclear fuel cladding tubes are manufactured through pilgering and the annealing process. In order to remove the oxidized layer and impurities on the surface of the tube, a pickling process is required. Zirconium (Zr) is dissolved in a HF and $HNO_3$ acid mixture during the process and the pickling waste acid, including the dissolved Zr, is completely discarded after neutralization. This study observes the effects of the residual impurities (Ba) in the pickling solution regenerated from the $BaF_2$ precipitation process on the waste pickling solution. In addition, the concentration of Ba and Zr for the actual nuclear fuel cladding tube process was optimized. The regenerated pickling solution was tested through a pilot plant pickling process device that simulates the commercial pickling process of nuclear fuel cladding tubes, and the pickling efficiency was analyzed through AFM analysis of the roughness of the cladding tube surface.

An Investigation of Mild Steel with Nitrogen-containing Inhibitor in Hydrochloric Acid

  • Horng, Y.T.;Tsai, Yi-Liang;Tu, Ching-Fang;Lee, Chien-Ming;Wei, F.I.;Shih, H.C.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.5
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 2003
  • Pickling inhibitors can be used to form an adsorbed layer on the metal surface to hinder the discharge of H^+$ and dissolution of metal ions. Nitrogen-containing inhibitors were selected as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel (MS) in pickling acid process. In this study, the addition of inhibitor, the pickling temperatures and the pickling times were the parameters to investigate the effects on the inhibition efficiency (IE) for MS by using weight loss measurement. Preliminary results show that the IE increased with the increase in pickling time from 10 minutes to 60 minutes, and the IE also increased with the increase in temperature at room temperature and $40^{\circ}C$. At the higher temperature. the IE values are higher and almost independent with the pickling time. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit corrosion potential-time and corrosion current-time studies show that nitorgen-containing inhibitor behaves predominantly as cathodic polarization. The roughness test and SEM investigation are also studied in this paper.

Evaluation of SMUT Properties according to Nb Content in the Pickling Process of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Tube (핵연료 피복관의 산세 공정 시 Nb 함량에 따른 SMUT 특성)

  • Moon, Jong Han;Lee, Young Jun;Lee, Jin Hang;Hong, Jong Won;Lee, Jong Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2019
  • Currently, the Korean nuclear industry uses ZIRLO as material for nuclear fuel cladding(zirconium alloy). KEPCO Nuclear Fuel is in the process of developing a HANA alloy to enable domestic production of cladding. Cladding manufacture involves multistage heat treatments and pickling processes, the latter of which is vital for the removal of defects and impurities on the cladding surface. SMUT that forms on the cladding surface during such pickling process is a source of surface defects during heat treatment and post-treatment processes if not removed. This study analyzes ZIRLO, HANA-4, and HANA-6 alloy claddings to extensively study the SEM/EDS, XRD, and particle size characteristics of SMUT, which are second phase particles that are formed on the cladding surface during pickling processes. Using the analysis results, this study observes SMUT formation characteristics according to Nb concentration in Zr alloys during the washing process following the pickling process. In addition, this study observes SMUT removal characteristics on cladding surfaces according to concentrations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in the acid solution.

Effects of Dill Pickling Process, $H_2O_2$ and Storage Duration on Lipoxygenase, Peroxidase and Catalase Activities in Cucumber and Brine (Pickle 제조과정, $H_2O_2$, 저장기간에 따른 refrigerated dill pickle과 brine중의 lipoxygenase, peroxidase, catalase 활성의 변화)

  • Jang, Mi-Jin;Cho, Il-Young;Lee, Si-Kyung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.222-226
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    • 1996
  • Lipoxygenase, peroxidase and catalase activities were determined in tissues and brines of refrigerated dill pickling cucumbers in response to pickling process, storage and $H_2O_2$. Lipoxygenase was almost inactivated within 1 day exposure to dill pickling brine, and then gradually declined during storage. In contrast, peroxidase activity in cucumber tissue decreased steadily for 4 days after exposure to dill pickling brine. Catalase was present in fresh cucumber tissues, but only slight activity was observed after submerging cucumbers in pickling brine. Lipoxygenase, peroxidase and catalase activities were rapidly inactivated in cucumbers exposed to brine containing $H_2O_2$.

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Acid Pickling Characteristics of Stainless Steel by the Mixed Solution of Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid and Hydrogen Peroxide (염산-불산-과산화수소 혼합용액에 의한 스테인레스강의 산세 특성)

  • Chun, Heedong;Choi, SangGyo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2005
  • Nitric acid free pickling solution was applied to solve the severe environmental problems attributed to nitric acid during pickling process of stainless steel product. In points of pickling capability and erosion of stainless steel base metal, a solution contains I% of hydrochloric acid and 2% of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide was revealed as the best alternative to conventional mixed acid of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid. To keep the pickling capability, it was necessary to maintain the concentration ratio of hydrogen peroxide to hydrochloric acid above 0.5.

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Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Turnip Pickle Prepared with Different Pickling Spices During Storage (Pickling Spice를 달리하여 제조한 순무 피클 저장 중 이화학적ㆍ관능적 특성)

  • 오상희;오윤경;박현희;김미리
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.347-353
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    • 2003
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of turnip pickle prepared with different pickling spices were investigated. Turnip root slices(4${\times}$1${\times}$0.5 cm) were salted with NaCl and CaCl$_2$, and then soaked into pickling solution added to commercial (pickle P) or manufactured (pickle M) pickling spice, and then stored at 2$0^{\circ}C$. Throughout the whole storage periods, the acidity, pH, saltiness and reducing sugar content of two pickles were 3.1∼3.5%, 1.4∼1.7, 0.2∼0.6% and 25.2∼30.4 mg/mL, respectively. There were no significant differences between two pickles in saltiness, anthocyanin, reducing sugar content, color(Hunter L, a and b value) and hardness. However, acidity of pickle M was higher than that of pickle P throughout the storage time. Sensory results showed that the best edible time was the 14th day of storage, and at that time, scores of pickle M was higher in 리avor(7.3 and 6.9), taste(7.8 and 5.4) and over-all preference(8.0 and 6.1) than those of pickle P, and pickle M maintained good sensory qualities until 28th day of storage, compared to pickle P(p<0.05).

Studies on the Control of Fusarium Wilt of tile Cucurbitaceous Plants(1) Investigation on the Pathogenicity of Fusarium Isolates from tile Wilted Cucurbitaceous Plants (오이류 덩굴 쪼김병 (만할병) 방제에 관한 연구 (1) 오이류 덩굴쪼김병균(만할병균)의 기생성에 관한 조사)

  • Lee Du Hyung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.7
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1969
  • These studies aimed to investigating the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates from the wilted cucur bitaceous plants and the pathogenicity of 24 isolates to cucumber, oriental cantaloup, oriental pickling melon, sponge gourd. muskmelon and watermelon were as follows. 1) The isolates from wilted watermelon and melon severely and one of the isolates was slightly pathogenicon oriental pickling melon or oriental cantaloup. 2) The isolates from wilted cucumber were four types. some of the isolates were severely pathogenic on cucumber and infected oriental cantaloup. oriental pickling melon and melon. Some of the isolates were not pathogenic or slightly pathogenic on cucumber. but these were severely pathogenic on oriental pickling melon. One of the isolates was severely pathogenic on oriental cantaloup oriental pickling melon and melon, but no pathogenic on cucumber and one of the isolates was also severely pathogenic on oriental cantaloup. oriental pickling melon and melon and moderatly pathogenic' on water melon. 3) The isolates from wilted oriental cantaloup were four types some of the isolates infected oriental cantaloup, oriental pickling melon and melon severely and some of the isolates were pathogenic on oriental cantaloup. oriental pickling melon. melon and watermelon. One of the isolates, was slightly pathogenic on oriental pickling melon and melon but one of the isolates was highly pathogenic on melon and infected watermelon slightly. 4) Wilt Fusarium of the cucurbitaceous plants could divide into the group of wilt Fusarium of watermelon, cucumber and muskmelon according to the pathogenicity but it will have to rearrange to one form species from several form species of wilt Fusarium of the cucurbitaceous plants and ought to divide to races according to pathogenicity on severely fixed differential varieties which selected from the cucurbitaceous plants. because of the degree of pathognicity and host range are not surely fixed between isolates of wilt Fusarium of the cucurbitaceous plants tested.

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Electrorefining of CuZr Alloy Using Ba2ZrF8-LiF Electrolyte

  • Lee, Seong Hun;Choi, Jeong Hun;Yoo, Bung Uk;Lee, Jong Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.672-678
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    • 2017
  • In the production of zirconium cladding tube, a pickling acid solution is used to remove surface contaminants, which generates tons of pickling acid waste. The waste pickling solution is a valuable resource of Hf-free Zr. Many studies have investigated separating the Hf-free Zr source from the waste pickling acid. The results showed that $Ba_2ZrF_8$ precipitates prepared from the waste pickling acid were useful as an electrolyte for the electrorefining of Zr in molten salt. In the present work, electrorefining was performed in a $Ba_2ZrF_8-LiF$ binary electrolyte to recover Zr from a Hf-free CuZr ingot anode prepared by electroreduction. Before electrorefining, two pretreatments are performed. First, electrolyte melting was carried out to determine the eutectic temperature, and second, the electrolyte was treated to eliminate impurities, mainly hydride. After electrorefining, the cathode deposits were analyzed by $O_2$ gas analyzer and SEM-EDX to explore the possibility of recovering nuclear-grade Zr metal. Moreover, the anode was analyzed by SEM-EDX to determine the Zr dissolution depth.