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Speed Control of PIG Flow in Natural Gas Pipeline (천연가스배관 내 피그흐름의 속도제어)

  • Nguyen, Tan Tien;Kim, Dong-Kyu;Rho, Yong-Woo;Kim, Sang-Bong
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.253-258
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    • 2001
  • This paper introduces a simple nonlinear adaptive control method for pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) flow in natural gas pipeline. The dynamic behavior of the PIG depends on the different pressure across its body and the bypass flow through it. The system dynamics includes: dynamics of driving gas flow behind the PIG, dynamics of expelled gas in front of the PIG, and dynamics of the PIG. The method of characteristics (MOC) and Runger-Kuta method are used to solve the dynamics of flow. The PIG velocity is controlled through the amount of bypass flow across its body. A simple nonlinear adaptive controller based on the backstepping method is introduced. To derive the controller, three system parameters should be measured: the PIG position, its velocity and the velocity of bypass flow across the PIG body. The simulation has been done with a pipeline segment in the KOGAS low pressure system, Ueijungboo-Sangye line to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Three cases of interest are considered: the PIG starts to move at its launcher, the PIG arrives at its receiver and the PIG restarts after stopping in the pipeline by obstruction. The simulation results show that the proposed nonlinear adaptive controller attained good performance and can be used for controlling the PIG velocity.

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Field Study of Emission Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide by Pig Building Types (돈사 작업장 유형에 따른 암모니아와 황화수소의 실내농도 및 발생량에 관한 현장 조사)

  • Kim, Ki Youn;Park, Jae Beom;Kim, Chi-Nyon;Lee, Kyung Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 2006
  • The principal aim of this field study was to determine the concentrations and emissions of gaseous contaminants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the different types of pig buildings in Korea and allow objective comparison between Korea and the other countries in terms of pig housing types. This field study was performed from May to June and from September to October in 2002. Pig buildings investigated in this research were selected in terms of three criteria; manure removal system, ventilation mode and growth stage of pig. Measurements of concentration and emission of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were done in 5 housing types and the visited farms were 15 sites per each housing type. Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were measured at three locations of the central alley in the pig building and emission rates of them were estimated by multiplying the average concentration($mg/m^3$) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate($m^3/h$) and expressed either per pig of liveweight 75kg(mg/h/pig) or per area($mg/h/m^2$). Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the pig buildings were averaged to 7.5 ppm and 286.5 ppb and ranged from 0.8 to 21.4 ppm and from 45.8 to 1,235 ppb, respectively. The highest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the mechanically ventilated buildings with slats; 12.1 ppm and 612.8 ppb, while the lowest concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were found in the pig buildings with deep-litter bed system(2.2 ppm) and the naturally ventilated pig buildings with manure removal system by scraper(115.2 ppb), respectively(p<0.05). All the pig buildings were investigated not to exceed the threshold limit values(TLVs) of ammonia(25 ppm) and hydrogen sulfide(10 ppm). The mean emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide per pig(75kg in terms of liveweight) and area($m^2$) from pig buildings were 250.2 mg/h/pig and 37.8 mg/h/pig and $336.3mg/h/m^2$ and $50.9mg/h/m^2$, respectively. The pig buildings with deep-litter bed system showed the lowest emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide(p<0.05). However, the emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from the other pig buildings were not significantly different(p>0.05). Concentrations and emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were relatively higher in the pig buildings managed with deep-pit manure system with slats and mechanical ventilation mode than the different pig housing types. In order to prevent pig farm workers from adverse health effect caused by exposure to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in pig buildings, they should wear the respirators during shift and be educated sustainably for the guideline related to occupational safety.

Identification of loci affecting teat number by genome-wide association studies on three pig populations

  • Tang, Jianhong;Zhang, Zhiyan;Yang, Bin;Guo, Yuanmei;Ai, Huashui;Long, Yi;Su, Ying;Cui, Leilei;Zhou, Liyu;Wang, Xiaopeng;Zhang, Hui;Wang, Chengbin;Ren, Jun;Huang, Lusheng;Ding, Nengshui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of GWAS were conducted to explore the genetic mechanisms underlying variation in pig teat number. Methods: We performed three GWAS and a meta-analysis for teat number on three pig populations, including a White Duroc${\times}$Erhualian $F_2$ resource population (n = 1,743), a Chinese Erhualian pig population (n = 320) and a Chinese Sutai pig population (n = 383). Results: We detected 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed the genome-wide significant level on Sus Scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 1, 7, and 12 in the $F_2$ resource population, corresponding to four loci for pig teat number. We highlighted vertnin (VRTN) and lysine demethylase 6B (KDM6B) as two interesting candidate genes at the loci on SSC7 and SSC12. No significant associated SNPs were identified in the meta-analysis of GWAS. Conclusion: The results verified the complex genetic architecture of pig teat number. The causative variants for teat number may be different in the three populations

Effects of Haenginbanhatang Extract on the Contraction of Isolated Guinea Pig Trachea Smooth Muscle (행인반하탕(杏仁半夏湯)이 GUINEA PIG의 기관지평활근(氣管支平滑筋)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Young-Ja
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.124-134
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    • 1992
  • Effects of Haenginbanhatang Extract on the Contraction of Isolated Guinea Pig Trachea Smooth Muscle. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Haenginbanhatang extract on the contractile force of the isolated guinea pig trachea smooth muscle and elucidate its mechanism. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The contratile response of the trachea smooth muscle of the guinea pig to histamine was significantly inhibited by Haenginbanhatang. 2. Effects of Haenginbanhatang extract on the contractile response of the isolated guinea pig smooth muscle pretreated propranolol was not significant. 3. The contractile response of isolated guinea pig smooth muscle pretreated methylene blue was significantly inhibited by Haenginbanhatang, 4. The contractile response of the trachea smooth muscle of the guinea pig to prostaglandin F2a was significantly inhibited by Haenginbanhatang. 5. Effect of prostaglandin F2a on the contractile response of guinea pig smooth muscle pretreated Haenginbanhatang was not significant. According to the above results, it was suggested that the contractile response mechanism of the guinea pig smooth muscle to Haenginbanhatang was related to cyclic GMP.

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Modelling and Simulation for PIG Flow Control in Natural Gas Pipeline

  • Nguyen, Tan-Tien;Yoo, Hui-Ryong;Park, Yong-Woo;Kim, Sang-Bong
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.448-448
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    • 2000
  • This paper deals with dynamic behaviour analysis for pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) flow control in natural gas pipeline. The dynamic behaviour of the PIG is depending on the different Pressure between the rear and nose parts, which is generated by injected gas flow behind PIG's tail and expelled gas flow in front of its nose. To analyze the dynamic behaviour characteristics such as gas flow in pipeline, and the PIG's position and velocity, mathematical model is derived as two types of a nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equation for unsteady flow analysis of the PIG driving and expelled gas, and nonhomogeneous differential equation for dynamic analysis of PIG. The nonlinear equation is solved by method of characteristics (MOC) with the regular rectangular grid under appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The Runge-Kuta method is used when we solve the steady flow equations to get initial flow values and the dynamic equation of PIG. The gas upstream and downstream of PIG are divided into a number of elements of equal length. The sampling time and distance are chosen under Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) restriction. The simulation is performed with a pipeline segment in the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) low pressure system, Ueijungboo-Sangye line. The simulation results show us that the derived mathematical model and the proposed computational scheme are effective for estimating the position and velocity of PIG with different operational conditions of pipeline.

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Sun Curing Effects and Utilization of Pig Excreta as Fertilizer (돼지분뇨의 간이건조 처리법과 비료로서의 효과)

  • 성경일;홍병주;이영철
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.228-233
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    • 1993
  • Method for the sun curing dehydration of pig excreta by using vinyl house was described. We determined effects of the dehydrated pig excreta on the yields of whole crop corn and proximate chemical composition of whole crop corn. Pig excreta were dehydrated upto 15% of moisture content by the 3-4 days of sun curing dehydration in vinyl house in the summer period. There was no significant difference between the dehydrated pig excreta treatment and the chemical fertilizer treatment on dry matter(DM) content, DM yield and crude protein contents of whole crop corn. Ca and Mg contents by the dehydrated pig excreta treatment were lower than those by thechemical fertilizer treatment. In the contrast, K content by the dehydrated pig excreta treatment was higher than those by the chemical fertilizer treatment. and dehydrated pig excreta treatments were higher in K/Ca+Mg ratio than chemical fertilizer treatment. These results suggested the availability of the sun curing dehydration of pig excreta in vinyl house in small-scale animal industry. In addition, the dehydrated pig excreta treatment showen similar effects to the chemical fertilizer treatment on dry matter yields and contents of chemical composition of whole crop corn. These results suggest that using the sun curing dehydration of pig excreta could reduce the chemical fertilizer cost. However, we need more study to the relationship between the unbalanced mineral contents and animal health.

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The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

  • Park, Seon-Joo;Kim, Hong Beum;Kim, Jeeho;Park, Sanggon;Kim, Seok Won;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2017
  • The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colon-derived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer.

Investigation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Porcine Chromosome 2 Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat Quality Traits

  • Do, K.T.;Ha, Y.;Mote, B.E.;Rothschild, M.F.;Choi, B.H.;Lee, S.S.;Kim, T.H.;Cho, B.W.;Kim, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2008
  • Several studies have reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for meat quality on porcine chromosome 2 (http://www.animalgenome.org/QTLdb/pig.html). For application of the molecular genetic information to the pig industry through marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were analyzed by comparative re-sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of 13 candidate genes with DNA from commercial pig breeds such as Berkshire, Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and Korean Native pig. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in 15 PCR products producing an average of one SNP in every 253 bp. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays were developed for 11 SNPs and used to investigate allele frequencies in five commercial pig breeds in Korea. Eight of the SNPs appear to be fixed in at least one of the five pig breeds, which indicates that different selection among pig breeds might be applied to these SNPs. Polymorphisms detected in the PTH, CSF2 and FOLR genes were chosen to genotype a Berkshire-Yorkshire pig breed reference family for linkage and association analyses. Using linkage analysis, PTH and CSF2 loci were mapped to pig chromosome 2, while FOLR was mapped to pig chromosome 9. Association analyses between SNPs in the PTH, CSF2 and FOLR suggested that the CSF2 MboII polymorphism was significantly associated with several pork quality traits in the Berkshire and Yorkshire crossed F2 pigs. Our current findings provide useful SNP marker information to fine map QTL regions on pig chromosome 2 and to clarify the relevance of SNP and quantitative traits in commercial pig populations.

Modeling and Simulation for PIG Flow Control in Natural Gas Pipeline

  • Nguyen, Tan-Tien;Kim, Sang-Bong;Yoo, Hui-Ryong;Park, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1165-1173
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    • 2001
  • This paper deals with dynamic analysis of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) flow control in natural gas pipelines. The dynamic behaviour of PIG depends on the pressure differential generated by injected gas flow behind the tail of the PIG and expelled gas flow in front of its nose. To analyze dynamic behaviour characteristics (e.g. gas flow, the PIG position and velocity) mathematical models are derived. Tow types of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations are developed for unsteady flow analysis of the PIG driving and expelled gas. Also, a non-homogeneous differential equation for dynamic analysis of the PIG is given. The nonlinear equations are solved by method of characteristics (MOC) with a regular rectangular grid under appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Runge-Kutta method is used for solving the steady flow equations to get the initial flow values and for solving the dynamic equation of the PIG. The upstream and downstream regions are divided into a number of elements of equal length. The sampling time and distance are chosen under Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) restriction. Simulation is performed with a pipeline segment in the Korea gas corporation (KOGAS) low pressure system. Ueijungboo-Sangye line. The simulation results show that the derived mathematical models and the proposed computational scheme are effective for estimating the position and velocity of the PIG with a given operational condition of pipeline.

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Modeling and Simulation for PIG with Bypass Flow Control in Natural Gas Pipeline

  • Nguyen, Tan-Tien;Kim, Sang-Bong;Yoo, Hui-Ryong;Park, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1302-1310
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    • 2001
  • This paper introduces modeling and simulation results for pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) with bypass flow control in natural gas pipeline. The dynamic behaviour of the PIG depends on the different pressure across its body and the bypass flow through it. The system dynamics includes: dynamics of driving gas flow behind the PIG, dynamics of expelled gas in front of the PIG, dynamics of bypass flow, and dynamics of the PIG. The bypass flow across the PIG is treated as incompressible flow with the assumption of its Mach number smaller than 0.45. The governing nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations for unsteady gas flows are solved by method of characteristics (MOC) with the regular rectangular grid under appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The Runge-Kuta method is used for solving the steady flow equations to get initial flow values and the dynamic equation of the PIG. The sampling time and distance are chosen under Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) restriction. The simulation is performed with a pipeline segment in the Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) low pressure system, Ueijungboo-Sangye line. Simulation results show us that the derived mathematical model and the proposed computational scheme are effective for estimating the position and velocity of the PIG with bypass flow under given operational conditions of pipeline.

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