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Comparison of Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus Muscles from Purebred Pigs and Three-way Crossbred LYD Pigs

  • Choi, Yeong-Seok;Lee, Jin-Kyu;Jung, Ji-Taek;Jung, Young-Chul;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Jung, Myung-Ok;Choi, Yang-Il;Jin, Sang-Keun;Choi, Jung-Seok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.689-696
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to find pork quality to meet the needs of consumers. Thus, the meat quality and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscles from purebred pigs (Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc) and three-way crossbred LYD pigs were compared and evaluated. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscles were significant (p<0.05) different among pigs. Duroc contained significant (p<0.05) higher fat contents than other pigs, whereas significant (p<0.05) higher moisture contents were observed in Landrace, Yorkshire, and LYD pigs compared to those of Duroc pigs. The values of pH24 h and pH14 d were the highest in Landrace pigs. Myoglobin contents of LYD pigs were higher (p<0.05) than those of purebred pigs. Regarding meat color, Duroc and Yorkshire pigs had higher redness values than Landrace and LYD pigs, while Landrace pigs had the lowest (p<0.05) color values among all pigs. There was no significant difference in shear force or water holding capacity (WHC). Duroc pigs maintained the lowest drip loss during 14 d of cold storage. In sensory evaluation, the marbling scores of Duroc pigs were higher (p<0.05) than other pigs. Regarding fatty acid compositions, total USFA, poly-, n-3, and n-6 contents were the highest (p<0.05) in LYD pigs, while total SFA contents were the highest (p<0.05) in Duroc pigs. Based on these results, purebred pigs had superior overall meat quality to crossbred pigs.

Performance of the Pigs Maintained in a Highland and Coastal Area of Minahasa Region, North Sulawesi

  • Umboh, J.F.;Tulung, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.1014-1018
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    • 2001
  • Pigs respond to extreme temperature (very cold or hot) by physiological and nutritional adjustments. Yet little is known about the effects of different environmental temperature (thermoneutral in the highland area, and hot temperature in the coastal area) where pigs are maintained on the performance of the pigs. Ten pigs each (10 pairs of littermates) were assigned to two treatments (2 locations): highland area (control=CA) or coastal area (hot/heat stress=HS). Experimental design was Paired 't' test. HS pigs had higher average daily water intake (p<0.05) compared to CA pigs (6,05 vs 3.89 kg/d), CA pigs had higher feed intake compared to HS pigs (2.9 vs 1.95 kg/d, p<0,05). CA pigs had higher daily gain compared to HS pigs (0.72 vs 0.58 kg/d, p<0.05). Feed conversion was not significantly different between CA pigs and HS pigs. The digestibility of dry matter, N, Na, K, Mg, CI, Ca and P was not significantly affected by the treatments. High environmental temperature in the coastal area (heat stress) increased water intake, decreased voluntary feed intake and daily gain of the pigs. The results demonstrate that different environmental temperature in the coastal area (heat stress) and highland area (control) had no pronounced effect on digestibility of nutrients.

Development of Growing Pig Diets for Environment-Friendly by Using Phytase (Phytase를 이용한 환경친화성 육성돈사료개발)

  • 김인호;홍종욱
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding phytase on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Three barrow pigs averaging 28.5$\pm$3.1kg of body weight were allotted to three treatments by 3$\times$3 latin square. Treatments included 1) com-soybean meal based-control diet and 2) and 3) control diet with phytase 500 and 1,000 unit. There were no effects of treatments on dry matter and nitrogen digestibility (P〉0.05). Ash, Ca and P digestibility in pigs fed diet with phytase were greater than those in pigs fed control diet(P〈0.05). An increased phosphorus intake was observed from pigs fed diet with treatments compared to that from pigs fed control diet. Pigs fed diet with adding phytase had improved P absorption compared to pigs fed control diet(P〈0.05). There was no significantly effect on fecal and urine excretion(P〈0.05). Ca intake was increased for pigs fed adding phytase compared to pigs fed control diet. No evident effect was observed on Ca fecal excretion among dietary treatments, however, urine excretion of pigs fed diet with treatments was decreased compared to pigs fed control diet. Cystine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine digestibility of amino acid were greater for pigs fed diet with treatments than those for pigs fed control diet(P〈0.05). Asparagine, threonine, serine, methionine and leucine digestibility were improved for pigs fed with phytase 500 unit compared to pigs fed control diet. Lysine, histidine, arginine and other animo acids digestibility were higher for pigs fed diet with phytase than control diet, but there were no significant effects by the treatments(P〉0.05). In conclusion, the results of the experiments suggest that phytase supplementation in the diets could be a very beneficial strategy in environmental aspects.

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Effects of Intratesticular Injection of $AgNO_3$ and Lactic Acid Solution on the Change of Scrotum Size and Steroid Concentration in the Blood of Pigs ($AgNO_3$와 Lactic acid 용액의 정소내 주입이 정소의 크기와 혈중 Steroid 호르몬의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 백광수;이은봉;정진관
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 1990
  • To study effects of intratesticular injection of AgNO3 and latic acid solution(ALS) on castration, 50 heads of crossbred(Large Yorkshire$\times$Landrace) pigs were used. ALS(1% or 5% in concentration) was injected(0.2ml or 0.5ml in amout) to testes of pigs(weighing 7.7kg) unilaterally or bilaterally and changes of scrotum size, residual concentration of Ag, and steroid concentration in the blood were measured. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. The size of testis became swollen significantly(p<0.01) on the 3rd day after the treatment and then reduced to the same size before the treatment on the 26th day. 2. The residual concentration of Ag in the bilaterally treated pigs was similar to that of the control pigs, while it was lower in the unilaterally treated pigs than in the control pigs except the 1%-0.2ml treated pigs whose concentration was similar to that of the control pigs. 3. In 92 days after the bilateral injection, the testosterone concentration was higher significantly(p<0.01) in the 5%-0.5ml treated pigs than in the control pigs. However, in 120 days it was lower significantly(p<0.05) in the treated pigs than in the control pigs. 4. In 92 days after the bilateral treatment, the androstenedione concentration was lower significantly(p<0.01) in the 1%-0.5ml treated pigs than in the control pigs and it was also lower significantly(p<0.05) in the 1% or 5% treated pigs than in the control pigs on the 120th day after the treatment.

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Comparison of Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality between Duroc and Crossbred Pigs

  • Choi, Jung-Seok;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jin, Sang-Keun;Choi, Yang-Il;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and meat quality characteristics of Duroc breed and crossbred pigs (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire ${\times}$ Duroc, LYD). Duroc and crossbred pigs did not show differences in carcass characteristics. Crossbred pigs had higher moisture and protein content than Duroc breeds. However, Duroc breeds had a higher fat content than the crossbred pigs. In meat quality characteristics, crossbred pigs showed higher values of drip loss and cooking loss over Duroc breeds, while Duroc breeds showed higher ultimate pH value compared to that of crossbred pigs. However, there were no differences in water holding capacity and shear force value. In myoglobin content, crossbred pigs had higher content compared to that in the Duroc population. In subjective evaluation and sensory characteristics, Duroc breeds showed significantly higher scores in all categories except for tenderness over the crossbred pigs. However, in storage characteristics, Duroc breeds showed reduced tendency relative to crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs had higher unsaturated fatty acid content than Duroc breeds did. In these results, Duroc breeds showed excellent meat quality characteristics with its higher intramuscular fat content and pH value, lower drip loss and cooking loss and higher juiciness and flavor, compared to the crossbred pigs.

The Effect of Food Deprivation Length of Pair House Pigs on the Running Speed and Feeding Activity in Solitary and Social Conditions

  • Hsia, L.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this experiment was to study the feeding behavior and running speed under various feed deprivation lengths and social environments. Three trials were conducted. Trial 1: ten pigs were trained individually to run a course and eat their feed at the end of the course. The pigs were deprived feed for 1, 5, 10 or 20 h. Trial 2: 1. Two pigs ran and ate together. Both pigs had 5 h of feed deprivation before the run (D5). 2. Two pigs ran and ate alone, but both pigs had 5 h of feed deprivation before the run (S5). 3. Two pigs ran and ate together. Both had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (D1). 4. Two pigs ran and ate alone and both pigs had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (S1). 5. Two pigs ran together, one had 5 h of feed deprivation, and the other had 1 h of feed deprivation before the run (51). Trial 3: 1. On the 1st day 5 pairs of pigs had 5 h feed deprivation and could eat feed together at (B) point (D1). 2. On the 2nd day the pigs ran and ate alone at (B) point after 5 h of feed deprivation. Feed was obtainable (D2). On the 3rd to 6th days, the pigs ran in pairs after 5 h of feed deprivation and only the dominant pig ate feed at point (B). The inferior pig was chased back to room and fed there. This stage was continued for four consecutive days, d 3 to 6. In trial 1, the running speed of pigs increased with the length of feed deprivation until 10 h, then being stable afterwards. Total feeding time increased with the length of feed deprivation (p<0.001). Eating speed did not increase with the length of feed deprivation (p>0.05). In trial 2, nine of ten pigs in treatment D5 ran faster than those in S5. Seven of the ten pigs in treatment S1 ran faster than those in treatment D1. The pigs in treatment D5 had significantly higher feed intake (p<0.001) and eating speed (p<0.05) than the pigs in other treatments. In trial 3, there were significant differences on running speed between D1 and D6 (p<0.01) and between D2 and D1, D3, D4 and D5. The inferior pig ran faster in D2 but from 3 to 6 it was the dominant pig that showed the greatest speed in completing the whole course. The results demonstrated that the pigs with low feeding motivation may cause low running speed to feed and low feed intake of the neighbor when compared with pigs kept individually.

Effects of Organic Acids on Growth Performance, Gastrointestinal pH, Intestinal Microbial Populations and Immune Responses of Weaned Pigs

  • Li, Zheji;Yi, Ganfeng;Yin, Jingdong;Sun, Peng;Li, Defa;Knight, Chris
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.252-261
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    • 2008
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of feeding organic acids and antibiotic growth promoters in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 nursery pigs (Large White$\times$Landrace; initial weight $7.80{\pm}0.07kg$) were randomly allotted into one of four dietary treatments. Pigs in treatment 1 were fed a complex starter diet. Treatments 2 to 4 were the same as treatment 1 but supplemented with antibiotics (200 ppm chlortetracycline plus 60 ppm Lincospectin), 0.5% potassium diformate or 0.5% dry organic acid blend ACTIVATE Starter DA (ASD). During the 4-week post-weaning period, pigs fed ASD or antibiotics had better gain (p = 0.03) and feed efficiency (p = 0.04) than pigs fed the control diet. On d 14 post-weaning, pigs fed the control diet had the lowest fecal lactobacilli count among all dietary treatments (p = 0.02), whereas pigs fed ASD or antibiotics had a trend for lower fecal E. coli count compared to the control pigs (p = 0.08). Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) of pigs fed ASD did not differ from pigs fed the control diet (p>0.05) at d 14 after weaning. In Exp. 2, 24 weaned pigs (Large White$\times$Long White; initial weight $5.94{\pm}0.33kg$) were allotted into four groups and housed individually. Pigs were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 ppm colistin sulfate, 50 ppm Kitasamycin plus 60 ppm Olaquindox), 0.5% or 1% ASD. All pigs were orally challenged with E. coli $K88^+$ on d 5. During d 5 to 14 after challenge, pigs fed antibiotics, 0.5% or 1% ASD had better gain (p = 0.01) and feed efficiency (p = 0.03) than pigs fed the control diet. On d 14, compared to the control pigs, pigs fed 0.5% ASD had higher lactobacilli in the duodenum and pigs fed 1% ASD and antibiotics had a trend for higher lactobacilli in the ileum (p = 0.08). Pigs fed antibiotics, 0.5% or 1% ASD diets tended to have decreased ileal E. coli count compared to those fed the control diet (p = 0.08). Serum interleukin-6 and cortisol and digesta pH values were not affected by treatment or time. These results indicate that feeding ASD can improve the growth performance of weaning pigs, mainly via modulating intestinal microflora populations without affecting gastrointestinal pH or immune indices.

Effects of Cellulase Enzymes and Bacterial Feed Additives on the Nutritional Value of Sorghum Grain for Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, I.H.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.;Kim, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.538-544
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    • 1998
  • One hundred and twenty-eight finishing pigs (51.3 kg average initial body weight) were used to determine the effects of adding cellulase enzymes and lactobacillus acidophilus to sorghum-based diets on growth performance, carcass merit, and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. Treatments were: 1) corn-soybean meal-based positive control; 2) sorghum-soybean meal-based negative control; 3) Diet 2 with celluloytic enzymes; and 4) Diet 2 with a bacterial feed additive (lactobacillus acidophilus). There was a trend for greater average daily gain (ADG) in pigs fed com versus the sorghum treatments for day 0 to 28 (p < .09), but there was no effect of treatment (p > .15) on overall ADG (i.e., day 0 to 63). Feed consumption was not affected by treatment during the experiment (p > .19). Pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based diet had 3.5% greater overall gain/feed than pigs fed the other diets (p < .009). Dressing percentage was not affected by treatment (p > .22), but there was a trend for backfat thickness at the last rib to be greater for pigs fed com versus the sorghum treatments (p < .09). Pigs fed the sorghum treatments had 1 % greater fat free lean index (p < .10) compared to pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based positive control. Pigs fed com had greater apparent digestibilities of DM, N, and GE than pigs fed the sorghum treatments (p < .03), and greater DE intake (p < .07) suggesting that the increased carcass fatness for pigs fed the corn-based control diet resulted from greater energy status of those pigs. In conclusion, pigs fed the corn-soybean meal-based control diet had no improved growth performance but tended to be fatter than pigs fed sorghum. Adding cellulolytic enzymes or a bacterial feed additive to diets for finishing pigs did not affect growth performance, carcass merit, or nutrient utilization.