• Title, Summary, Keyword: pileus

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Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Pileus and Stipe from White Beech Mushrooms (Hypsizygus marmoreus) (부위별 흰색 느티만가닥버섯 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Su Cheol;Kwon, Hyun Sook;Kim, Chul Hwan;Kim, Hye Soo;Lee, Chang Yun;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.928-935
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    • 2016
  • Hypsizygus marmoreus (white cultivar), also called white beech mushrooms, are edible mushrooms commercially cultivated in Korea and Japan. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of H. marmoreus. H. marmoreus fruit bodies were divided into pileus and stipe. The pileus and stipe were extracted into water and 80% ethanol and their antioxidant activities were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was highest in the water extract (pileus 1137.39±0.38 mg of GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g, stipe 700.86±0.06 mg of GAE/100 g) compared to the ethanol extract (pileus 923.47±0.18 mg of GAE/ 100 g, stipe 324.05±0.03 mg of GAE/100 g). Ethanol extracts from pileus showed better scavenging ability on DPPH (47.32±0.23% at 10 mg/ml) and ABTS (57.33±0.10% at 10 mg/ml) than the stipe and water extract groups. Water extract from pileus were more effective in reducing power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value than stipe and ethanol extract. The toxicity of water and ethanol extracts was investigated using WST-1 (Water Soluble Tetrazolium salt) assay on the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Overall, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of extracts from H. marmoreus increased in a dose dependent manner while pileus was showed better total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities than stipe.

Changes of Methyl trans-cinnamate Levels During Fruit-body Development in Tricholoma matsutake

  • Lee, Wi Young;Park, Youngki;Ahn, Jin Kwon;Ka, Kang Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.94 no.5
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    • pp.330-333
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    • 2005
  • The relationship between the contents of methyl trans-cinnamate and the ratio of DP/DS (diameter of pileus / diameter of stalk) in the fruit-body of Tricholoma matsutake during its development was investigated. The stages of development were divided as follows: stage A is less than 1, stage B is from 1 to less than 2, stage C is from 2 to less than 3, and stage D is more than 3 of the values of DP/DS. The contents of methyl trans-cinnamate in pileus and stalk of pine mushroom ranged from $77{\mu}g/g$ to $824{\mu}g/g$ and from $7.6{\mu}g/g$ to $22.4{\mu}g/g$, respectively during its development. In the part of pileus, there is no relevance of the methyl trans-cinnamate content of pine mushroom between the stage A and B, but there was significantly different among the stage of B, C and D. In the case of stalk, the relevance of the methyl trans-cinnamate content of pine mushroom between stage D and other stages showed a low difference. In addition, as pileus of pine mushroom developed the level of the aroma compound increased as well and showed higher correlation relationship ($r^2=0.877$) between the contents of methyl trans-cinnamate in the pileus and the ratio of DP/DS. From the results of this study, we can conclude that the aromatic component of pine mushroom can be deduced from the value of DP/DS, which indicates the stage of the development appearance.

Morphological Characters of Ganoderma lucidum(Fr.) Karsten Grown Naturally in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 자생(自生) Ganoderma lucidum의 형태적(形態的) 특성(特性))

  • Shin, Gwan Chull;Park, Yong Hwan;Seo, Geon Sik;Cha, Dong Yeul
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 1986
  • A total number of 916 fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karsten grown naturally in Korea were collected to investigate the morphological characters and some other useful characters related to the quality of the fungus and the results obtained are summarized as follows; The host tree showing the highest parasitic rate by the Genoderma lucidum(Fr.) Karsten was oak tree and the parasitic rate of the tree was 86.2%. The order of parasitic rate of the host trees by the fungus next to the oak was peach, chestnut, persimmon and acasia. The size, shape and color of fruiting bodies were varied according to the host trees. The average size of fruiting bodies collected was 40 to 100 mm by 30 to 80mm. The fruiting bodies with pileus size of 60 by 45 mm, pileus thickness of over 10mm, pileus minor axis/stipe length ratio of over 0.65 and pileus thickness/pileus minor axis ratio of over 0.22 were considered having higher commerical values. The external shape of the fruiting body was very important criterion to evaluate the quality of the Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karsten. A great variation in characters such as pileus shape, color, marginal shape, zonation of pileus, pileus thickness, poroid layer of fruiting bodies and shape of stipe were observed from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum collected in Korea. Further studies will be necessary for the genetic nature of these characters.

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Physiological Activities of Fresh Pleurotus eryngii Extracts (새송이버섯 추출물의 생리활성 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ku;Han, Ho-Suk;Lee, Gee-Dong;Kim, Kong-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.439-445
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    • 2005
  • Physiological activities of pileus and stipe extracts from fresh Pleurotus eryngii were examined. Electron donating ability (EDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, tyrosinase inhibitory effect, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, total polyphenol contents and nitrite scavenging ability were examined for extracts of pileus and stipe of Pleurotus eryngii extracted with water, $50\%$ and $100\%$ ethanol. Volume of the solvent used was 50 time of sample on a weight/volume basis. EDA was $88\%$ in $50\%$ ethanol extract (pileus). Also, SOD-like activity was $62.57\%$ in water extract (pileus). Tyrosinase inhibitory effects of all samples were higher than $0.1\%$ L-ascorbic acid solution. ACE inhibitory activity of water extract of pileus was found to be the highest value of $95.14\%$. In addition, total polyphenol contents were the highest in water and $50\%$ ethanol extracts of pileus $(1427.25\;mg\%,\;1426.82\;mg\%)$. Finally, nitrite scavenging ability of $50\%$ ethanol extract of pileus at pH 1.2 showed approximately $95\%$. The results will be useful for understanding the physiological activities of Pleurotus eryngii extracts.

Studies on the Changes of Amino acid Contents on Pleurotus ostreatus (느타리버섯의 배지별 Amino acid 함량변화에 관한 연구)

  • Ryu, Jeong;Lee, Gong-Joon;Jung, Gi-Tai;Na, Jong-Seong
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.338-342
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    • 1994
  • Amino acids of Pleurotus ostreatus in various cultural media(rice straw, sawdust and cotton waste) were analyzed to recognize the compositional differences depending on pileus size and portions(pileus and stipe) Total amino acids of rice straw were a little less than that of sawdust and cotton waste. Seventeen amino acids were identified and quantified. Among the amino acids glutamic acid was higest and cystine was lowest. The amino acid contents depending on the pileus size was higest in $3{\sim}7\;cm$ of rice straw, under 3 cm of sawdust, over 7 cm of cotton waste, respectively. The content of them was found to be higher in pileus than stipe.

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Drying Characteristics and Content Change of Major Components of Shiitake Mushroom(Lentinus edodes) 2. Changes in Major Components of Shiitake Mushroom by Drying Temperature (표고버섯의 건조 특성 및 주요성분의 변화 2. 건조온도에 따른 표고버섯의 주요성분 변화)

  • Seo, Jae-Sin;Gang, Seong-Gu;Choe, Byeong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1997
  • The effect of drying temperature (30, 40, 50, 60$^{\circ}C$) on chemical components of Shiitake mushroom(Lentinus edodss) was investigate. When compared proximate composition on pileus and stipe of raw and dried materials, all of them were found to be higher in the stipe part than in the pileus part. The major components of organic acid were oxalic, citric, malic, malonic and pyroglutaric acid. The contents of free and total amino acids in pileus and stipe were 3458.4, 7640.2mg% for pilueus; 2298.0, 6171.5mg% for stipe on dry basis, respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the changes of crude ash and organic acids content of Shiitake mushroom among drying temperatures. But the amount of crude fats was increased and that of reducing sugars was decreased with increase of drying temperature. The contents of crude proteins of pileus part of dried materials were increased with increased drying temperature, but those of stile part were gradually decreased. The contents of free amino acids decreased with increase in drying temperature, but those of total amino acids were gradually increased.

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Studies on the Extracts Preparation of Korean Shiitake Mushroom(Lentinus edodes) (한국산 표고버섯 Extract 제조에 대한 연구)

  • Chang, Young-Sang;Lee, Ho-Bong;Lee, Seung-Ryeol;Shin, Zae-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.828-832
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    • 1990
  • Pileus and stipe extracts of shiitake mushroom were prepared with various ethanol concentration by different extraction time at $60^{\circ}C$. Yields, total reducing sugars, free amino acids and nucleotides in ultrafiltrated extracts were analyzed. Yields were higher in hot water extracts but there was no difference depending on changes of extraction time. Total reducing sugar contents got higher by hot water extraction than by solvent extraction. In hot water extracts of the pileus and stipe, reducing sugar content were in the range of $416.18{\sim}488.18\;mg%\;and\;435.37{\sim}452.12\;mg%$, respectively. Threonine+serine, glutamic acid, lysine and arginine were dominent in the free amino acids pool of raw material. The contents of free amino acids in hot water extracts of pileus and stipe were about 528.46mg% in 2 hr and 221.01 mg% in 3 hr. The proportion of bitter amino acids in extracts to total free amino acid contents was in the range of $16{\sim}29%,\;35{\sim}37%$ in pileus and stipe extracts, respectively. Nucleotides contents were higher in pileus than in the stipe. When the 25% ethanol solution was used for extraction solvent, nucleotides contents in pileus and stipe extracts was high.

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Effects of growth characteristics of 'Nongjingo'(Lentinula edodes) according to relative humidity with sawdust cultivation (표고 톱밥재배 시 상대습도가 자실체 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Tae-Seok;Park, Youn-Jin;Lee, Myung-Hak;Kim, Tae-Kwon;Kim, Chang-Ho;Jang, Myoung-Jun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.263-266
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    • 2018
  • This study was investigated the growth characteristics of 'Nongjingo' cultivar(Lentinula edodes) according to relative humidity(RH). The color difference of the pileus showed the highest L(Lightness, L) value in RH65 and the a(Redness, a) value in RH95. b(Yellowness, b) values were similar in all treatments. The hardness of pileus is highest at RH95. As the relative humidity increased, the length of pileus and stipe tended to increase. The diameter and thickness of pileus were high at RH95%. The diameter of stipe could not see the big difference in the three treatment groups. This study growth characteristics and yield were increased at higher relative humidity, but quality was decreased. Therefore, must adjust the relative humidity to produce high quality mushrooms.

Studies on Constituents of the Higher Fungi of Korea(XLII) -Inorganic Components of Ganoderma lucidum- (한국산(韓國産) 고등(高等) 균류(菌類)의 성분(成分) 연구(硏究)(제42보)(第42報) -영지(靈芝)의 무기(無機) 성분(成分)-)

  • Shin, Hea-Won;Kim, Ha-Won;Choi, Eung-Chil;Kim, Byong-Kak
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.53-55
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    • 1985
  • To determine contents of inorganic elements of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karsten, the horn-shaped carpophores and the pileus of Ganoderma lucidum were incinerated and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The ash contents of the pileus and the horn-shaped carpophore were 1.48 and 1.40 % respectively. The pileus contained calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, iron, zinc and germanium in that order. The horn-shaped carpophore contained magnesium, calcium, zinc, manganese, iron, copper and germanium in that order.

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Studies on Inorganic Composition and Immunopotentiating Activity of Ganoderma lucidum in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 영지(靈芝)의 무기(無機) 성분(成分) 및 면역(免疫) 증강(增强) 작용(作用)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Shin, Hea-Won;Kim, Ha-Won;Choi, Eung-Chil;Toh, Sang-Hak;Kim, Byong-Kak
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 1985
  • To determine contents of inorganic elements of Ganoderma lucidum, the horn-shaped carpophores and the pileus of Ganoderma lucidum were incinerated and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The ash contents of the pileus and the horn-shaped carpophore were 1.48% and 1.40%, respectively. The pileus contained calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, iron, zinc and germanium in that order. The horn-shaped carpophore contained magnesium, calcium, zinc, manganese, iron, copper and germanium in that order. To examine the protein-bound polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum for immunopotentiating activity, its fruit bodies were extracted with hot water. Purification of the extract was carried out by acetone precipitation and dialysis. The fraction obtained during the purification procedure consisted of a polysaccharide moiety (51%) and a protein moiety (5%). When the compound was administered intraperitoneally to the mice at a dose of 50mg/kg, it enhanced the accumulation of the peritoneal exudate cells, macrophage and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, thereby indicating immunopotentiation.

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