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Studies on the Physico-chemical Properties of the Pine Nut's Gruel During Storage (잣죽의 저장에 따른 이화학적 성질변화)

  • Lee, Seog-Won;Bae, Se-Kyung;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2000
  • The physicochemical properties, such as retrogradation, fat acidity and viscosity, on the pine nut's gruel at various contents of pine nut (0, 1, 3 and 5%) during storage at 4, 25 and $40^{\circ}C$ were investigated. The degree of retrogradation was increased rapidly at the initial storage stage. The lowest value (about 10%) of the degree of retrogradation was observed in the gruel sample containing 3% of pine nut. Also, the rate constant of retrogradation was showed the lowest value (0.0422) in the gruel containing 3% of pine nut regardless of storage temperatures. The fat acidity was showed the lower value than 30 mg KOH in all samples. The viscosity increasing velocity(RVU/min) between holding strength and final viscosity was decreased as the pine nut's content was increased. However, it was not affected by the storage temperatures.

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Study on the Herb Remedies of ENT, Eyes, Teeth and Skin Problems (이비인후, 안, 치아 및 피부증상의 민간요법에 관한 고찰)

  • Cho, Kyoul-Ja;Kang, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of East-West Nursing Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.50-71
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    • 1997
  • The intention of this study is to apprehend the con. tents and methods of herb remedies that are commonly conducted when there are health-problem cases of ENT, eyes, teeth and skin. Methods of this study are divided into two stages : 1) For a period of six months from December 1994 to June 1995, some 40 persons who are believed to be well versed with herb remedies have been randomly chosen, and we made a survey on herb remedies by symptoms: and 2) we have endeavored to make their grounds evident through the studies on literatures with the focus on the basic data collected. Their results are as follows: 1) When one feels a pain in ears, such herb remedies are employed as pouring the vapor into ears, which is made by steaming Alaska pollack, or as applying or wiping with the juices of radish or the ginkgo, or' alum. Applying the radish juice is effective for sterilization and fever removal: and applying the ginkgo juice is effective for cleanliness. But, plastering alum, sesame oil or castor oil, or pouring the vapor of Alaska pollack into ears are perhaps effective but do not have any pharmacologic grounds. 2) When one bleeds at the nose, such kinds of herb remedies are applied as stimulating nose or head with cold water, pressing nose or ridge of nose, or filling up nares with mashed mugworts. In addition, they have utilized garlic or leeks. Such methods as stimulating with cold water or just pressing nose and ridge of nose is based on reasonable grounds, i.e. vasoconstriction and vascular compression ; and applying mashed garlic on the sole of foot is good for the circulation of Qui ; and the use of mugworts and leeks is based upon the pharmacological function of hemostasis. 3) When one feels a sore throat such kinds of herb remedies are employed as gargling or rinsing throat with brine, drinking hot gruel or water, or drinking the juice of mugwort, radish, ginger or Chinese quince. Gargling with brine or drinking the juice of mugwort, radish or ginger is based upon the pharmacological function of pain alleviation, fever removal, and detoxication. 4) When a boil is formed in mouth, such herb remedies are applied as spreading honey, brine or alum water, and taking gall nut, Chinese matrimony vine, lotus root, etc, for drugs. Spreading honey, brine or water that is made by infusing gallnut, Chinese matrimony vine, lotus root is based upon such functions as hematosis, astriction, antibacterial, and antiphlogistic, Alum, eggplant and licorice are said to be effective, but their pharmacological effects have no grounds. 5) When one has conjunctivitis such herb remedies are commonly applied as irrigation with brine and dropping breast milk in eyes. Moreover, such other drugs are used as plantain. shepherd's purse, and purslane, etc. The use of brine, breast milk, plantain, shepherd's purse and purslane is based upon such functions as sterilization, antiphlogistic, disinfection and pain relieving. Eriocaulon sieboldianum, bean stem, bean pod and narcissus leaves are said to be effective, but their pharmacological action have no basis. When one has a stye, such herb remedies are applied as extracting eyelashes, stimulating by a massage of middle finger, third finger or big toe, as well as sear ing with a heated bamboo comb that is fine-toothed. Other than these, plantain and nightshade's nuts are used as drugs for it. Extracting eyelashes corresponds with exclusing suppurative node and draining the stye of pus ; and the use of plantain is based upon disinfection: and nightshade's nuts are said to be effective, however, their pharmacological action has no grounds. 6) For a treatment of toothache, such herb remedies are commonly employed as rinsing mouth with brine and holding cold water or gasoline in the mouth ; and as the drugs that are believed to be effective have been Welsh onion, ginger and castor-oil, plant, etc. The use of Welsh onion is based upon pain killing, antiinflammatory actions, and the use of ginger is based upon detoxication and disinfection ; and seeds of castor-oil plants are said to be effective, but they have no pharmacological basis. 7) When one has hives, such herb remedies are commonly applied as rubbing burned straw in affected parts, exposing to its smoke, rubbing with salt, sweeping down with a broom, and spreading and drinking boiled water of trifoliate orange. The use of cassia tora seeds, walnut, aloe and radish is said to be effective. The use of cassia tor a seeds has the functions of intestinal order, anti-paralysis, etc. The use of walnut has resulted in an increase of blood by invigorating spirits ; and the use of aloe is based upon disinfection, antibiotic, anti-salt, antihistamine and detoxication action. But, the effects of radish juice and straw's smoke have no pharmacological grounds. 8) When one gets a boil, such herb remedies are commonly used as applying a plaster, paste of flour mixed with yolk, soy sauce or honey, as well as spreading pounded elm tree. Other remedies that have been said to be effective are ; heating with mugwort, brine, wild rocambole, aloe, onion, squid's bone, etc. The use of mugwort is based upon pain killing, astringent antiinflammatory and tranquility. Wild rocambole is based upon the generation and maintenance functions of cell-joining textures ; elm tree upon antiphlogistic ; aloe upon fever removal and antiphlogistic ; onion on pain killing, fever removal, antiphlogistic and tranquility ; squid's bone on astriction: and brine or vinegar on sterilization. Pine resin and gardenia seed are said to be effective, but they have no pharmacological basis. 9) When one cuts his skin, such herb remedies are commonly employed as spreading mugwort's juice or squid's bone powder, or pressing the wounds. In addition, kalopanax, onion and fine soil are employed. The use of mugwort, kalopanax and squid's bone is based upon such functions as hemostasis, sedation, pain killing, antibacterial ; and fine soil is said to be effective, but it has no pharmacological basis. 10) When one suffers from whitlow, such herb remedies are commonly utilized as heating with boiled soy sauce, spreading soybean paste, or dipping into eggs, etc. Other drugs that have been employed are onion root, brine, eggplant, potato, loach, etc. The use of onion is based upon pain killing and antiphlogistic functions ; and that of brine upon antiphlogistic function. The use of soy sauce or soybean paste, fomentation, eggplant, potato and loach is said to be effective, but it has no pharmacblogic ground. 11) For the treatment of frostbite, such herb remedies are commonly used as dipping the affected part into frozen soybean sack, using boiled water of eggplant stem, garlic caulis, onion, hot pepper, caulis. Onion is based upon antiphlogistic and tranquility actions garlic upon disintection, metabolic exacerbation, tonic and aphrodisiac actions and the use of eggplant and hot pepper is based upon help blood circulation, dissolution and excretion of waste matters in vein. 12) For the treatment of burn, such herb remedies or drugs are commonly used as cleansing with Korean gin, spreading eggs, cleansing with cold water and soap water ; and as brine, cactus, moss, soybean paste, oil, etc. The cleansing with Korean gin, cold water, soap water, brine, vinegar is based upon cleaning and sterilizing functions ; and the use of cucumber is based upon nu. trition provision, and strengthening of resisting power by adjustment of metabolism. The use of potato, cactus, moss, oil and eggs is said to be effective, but their phamacological functions are not clarified. In view of the above results, we can realize that the drugs that have been employed in herb remedies are quite diverse. However, in regard to majority of herb remedies that have been employed by symptoms, the pharmacological functions of their drugs have not been clarified, and they are merely known as effective. Furthermore, they have not been recorded in the literature as yet ; and we confirm that there have been many herb remedies that were executed without the proper knowlege of their effects. It is now our view that the results of this survey may be utilized for consulting data in regard to the use of herb remedies.

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