• Title, Summary, Keyword: pine nut gruel

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The Effect of Processing Condition on Preference in Sensory Quality of Pine Nut Gruel (잣죽의 제조조건이 관능적 품질의 기호도에 미치는 영향)

  • Zhang, Xian;Lee, Fan-Zhu;Kum, Jun-Seok;Ahn, Tae-Hoi;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2003
  • Sensory quality of pine nut gruel was investigated to determine the effects of processing conditions on its quality. Response surface methodology was applied to investigate effects of water volume and pine nut weight ratios to rice weight and heating time on the preference of pine nut gruel in terms of color, flavor, viscosity, taste, and overall acceptance. Results showed that processing conditions did not affect the color of pine nut gruel. Viscosity and overall acceptance were affected by the ratio of water volume to rice weight and heating time. $R^2$ of response surface regression equations were 0.6954, 0.8333 (p<0.05), 0.9668 (p<0.01), 0.8664 (p<0.05), and 0.8159 (p<0.10) for color, flavor, viscosity, taste, and overall acceptance respectively. No relationship was observed between color and overall acceptance. The relationship between viscosity and overall acceptance was the highest.

Studies on the Physico-chemical Properties of the Pine Nut's Gruel During Storage (잣죽의 저장에 따른 이화학적 성질변화)

  • Lee, Seog-Won;Bae, Se-Kyung;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2000
  • The physicochemical properties, such as retrogradation, fat acidity and viscosity, on the pine nut's gruel at various contents of pine nut (0, 1, 3 and 5%) during storage at 4, 25 and $40^{\circ}C$ were investigated. The degree of retrogradation was increased rapidly at the initial storage stage. The lowest value (about 10%) of the degree of retrogradation was observed in the gruel sample containing 3% of pine nut. Also, the rate constant of retrogradation was showed the lowest value (0.0422) in the gruel containing 3% of pine nut regardless of storage temperatures. The fat acidity was showed the lower value than 30 mg KOH in all samples. The viscosity increasing velocity(RVU/min) between holding strength and final viscosity was decreased as the pine nut's content was increased. However, it was not affected by the storage temperatures.

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The Effect of Processing Condition on Physicochemical Characteristics in Pine Nut Gruel (잣죽의 제조조건이 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Zhang, Xian;Lee, Fan-Zhu;Kum, Jun-Seok;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2002
  • The physicochemical characteristics of pine nuts gruel were investigated to find the effects of processing condition during the processing. Three-dimensional response surface methodology was applied to investigate effects of ratio of water volume and pine nuts weight to rice weight and heating time on dependent variables of the physicochemical characteristics. The dependent variables in physicochemical characteristics were viscosity (cP), spreadability (cm), pH, soluble solid content (%), color, total sugar (%) and amylose content (%). The F-value of ratio of water volume and pine nuts weight to rice weight and heating time to viscosity were 8.91, 4.54 and 5.02 respectively and they are significantly different at 5% level. The F-value to spreadability were 5.44, 7.88 and 8.04 respectively and they are significantly different at 5% level. These results suggest that water volume, pine nuts weight and heating time greatly affect the viscosity and spreadability of pine nuts gruel. The processing condition also affect the soluble solid content. The changes of the processing condition did not affect the pH of pine nuts gruel. We found that the L, a, b value were affected more by ratio of water volume and pine nuts weight to rice weight than by heating time. The water volume affected more the total sugar and amylose content of pine nuts gruel than pine nuts weight and heating time.

A Study on Gruel Intake and Preference of Cheongju Area Adults and Gruel Development according to Age (연령에 따른 청주지역 성인의 죽 섭취실태, 선호도 및 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Mi-Ja;Lee, Mee-Sook;Choi, Mee-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.449-460
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate gruel intake, preference and opinions about gruel development to produce new products for breakfast. The subjects of this study were 307 adults in Chungju city. People who favored gruels were 212(69.5%) and 50.2% of the subjects liked the gruel because of good digestion and absorption. They liked midium thick or thin gruel and also liked grain granules with some stuff as contents. The gruels often taken were abalone gruel(45.9%), pumpkin gruel(41.7%), chicken gruel(34.9%), vegetable gruel(33.6%), beef and mushroom gruel(30.3%) etc. in order. The frequency of gruel intake was 1-2 times/year and 59.6% of subjects got gruels from the special gruel restaurant. People who need gruels most were patients, indigestible person, the elderly, weaning babies, workers and students missing breakfast in order. Sesame taste obtained the highest score of all, that of bitter taste was significantly higher in over fifty year old people (p<0.05), and hot taste score was significantly higher in 30-40 year old people (p<0.01). The gruels preferred most were abalone gruel, pumpkin gruel, chicken gruel, beef and mushroom gruel, vegetable gruel, red bean gruel, pine nut gruel, egg gruel, sesame gruel, plain grain gruel etc. in order. Fifty seven percent of subjects wanted to develope new gruels fortified nutrients. In conclusion, when the substitute gruel for breakfast is developed, it is better to use food materials to be easy to digest, to have grain granules with some stuff inside and to be sesame taste.

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A Study on Changes in the Cooking Process of Gruel in Cook Books Written during Last 100 Years (근대 이후 죽의 조리과정 변화 연구 -팥죽, 잣죽, 타락죽을 중심으로-)

  • Cho, Mi-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.589-601
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the cooking process of $Pat-juk$(red beans porridge), $Jat-juk$(pine-nut porridge) and $Tarak-juk$(milk porridge) in cooking books published after Korean modern era, approximately from late 19th century to the present. We analyzed 11 historical cook books were analyzed. It is found that the amount of red beans used for $Pat-juk$ was the same or more than that of rice but never less than rice. Only one cook book suggested sugar as seasoning for final taste, but all the other cook books mentioned salt for final taste. $Hangukeumat$(1987) suggested the method for obtaining optimum color for $Pat-juk$. After smashing and passing through the cooked red beans, collecting the red bean water to boil first and then adding the passed through red beans to boil together, in which rice will be added the last to be boiled. For $Jat-juk$, the ratio of the amount of pine-nut and rice were varied among cook books that the amount of pine-nut can be more, same or less than rice. $Jat-juk$ can have salty or sweet, so sugar, honey or salt were used for final seasoning. Pine-nut and rice were cooked together or cooked successively depending on cook books. The changes in cooking procedures of $Tarak-juk$ were the portion of milk used and the method of preparing rice before making the porridge. Firstly, the portion of milk increased over time. $Tarak-juk$ can be also tasting both sweet or salty, so sugar or salt was used for final seasoning. Secondly, two method of preparing rice were found; one is that rice was ground after soaking in water and the other is that rice was ground and toasted before putting into the porridge. When the ground rice was toasted, the milk was added with water at the same time because the cooking time of the porridge with toasted rice was shortened so that the milk could be added earlier than the other method without the risk of sticking on the bottom of the pot. In further studies, the cooking procedures used in the previous period of the late 19th century should be examined. Also after restoring all the cooking methods suggested in cook books, the comparison of the sensorial and nutritional value needs to be carried out for applying or reinventing new recipe for food industry.

The Impact of Demographical Characteristics on Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction for In-Flight Catering Service (인구통계학적 특성이 항공기내식 서비스 품질과 고객 만족에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, Tong-Kyung;Park, Shin-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.305-317
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    • 1999
  • An attempt was made to provide valuable information to improve service quality and customer satisfaction for in-flight catering service. The customers' demographic characteristics that impact on service quality and customer satisfaction were examined for a group of customer. 474 customers who have been used the airplane within 1 year were participated in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software program (version 6.01) for descriptive analysis, factor analysis, t-test and ANOVA. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: 1. Service Quality in In-flight catering was assessed on the basis of 18 service quality attributes and 5 dimensions derived from a factor analysis. After comparing customers' perception to customers' expectation regarding in-flight service quality, the quality of dimensions for 'meals', and 'sanitation' were not showed any significant differences. However, the expectation for dimensions of 'diversity of menu', 'providing information', and 'the degree of concern to the customers' were rated significantly higher than the perception for those. 2. Among the demographic variables, age and gender had highly influences on the customers' expectation and perception regarding service quality and customer satisfaction. 3. The korean food that the customers wanted to have for in-flight meals was investigated. Among the kinds of gruel(jook), abalone gruel(jeonbok-jook), pumpkin gruel(hobak-jook), and pine-nut gruel(jat-jook) were chosen to have for in-flight korean meals. It was rated that the preferences for beef soup(sogogikook), hot spicy beef soup(youkgaejang), brown sea-weed soup(miyoukkook) were higher than others in soup group. The preferences for boiled rice with assorted mixture(bibimbab) showed the highest and beef and rice soup(seoleongtang), boiled rice with four the staple cereals(ogogbab) were preferred higher than the others in main dish group. Bulgogi was rated the most popular dish. Korean style punch with omiza(whachae), sweet rice dish(yaksik) and fried glutinous rice cake(gangjeong)showed high preferences in dissert.

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Study on the Herb Remedies of ENT, Eyes, Teeth and Skin Problems (이비인후, 안, 치아 및 피부증상의 민간요법에 관한 고찰)

  • Cho, Kyoul-Ja;Kang, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of East-West Nursing Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.50-71
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    • 1997
  • The intention of this study is to apprehend the con. tents and methods of herb remedies that are commonly conducted when there are health-problem cases of ENT, eyes, teeth and skin. Methods of this study are divided into two stages : 1) For a period of six months from December 1994 to June 1995, some 40 persons who are believed to be well versed with herb remedies have been randomly chosen, and we made a survey on herb remedies by symptoms: and 2) we have endeavored to make their grounds evident through the studies on literatures with the focus on the basic data collected. Their results are as follows: 1) When one feels a pain in ears, such herb remedies are employed as pouring the vapor into ears, which is made by steaming Alaska pollack, or as applying or wiping with the juices of radish or the ginkgo, or' alum. Applying the radish juice is effective for sterilization and fever removal: and applying the ginkgo juice is effective for cleanliness. But, plastering alum, sesame oil or castor oil, or pouring the vapor of Alaska pollack into ears are perhaps effective but do not have any pharmacologic grounds. 2) When one bleeds at the nose, such kinds of herb remedies are applied as stimulating nose or head with cold water, pressing nose or ridge of nose, or filling up nares with mashed mugworts. In addition, they have utilized garlic or leeks. Such methods as stimulating with cold water or just pressing nose and ridge of nose is based on reasonable grounds, i.e. vasoconstriction and vascular compression ; and applying mashed garlic on the sole of foot is good for the circulation of Qui ; and the use of mugworts and leeks is based upon the pharmacological function of hemostasis. 3) When one feels a sore throat such kinds of herb remedies are employed as gargling or rinsing throat with brine, drinking hot gruel or water, or drinking the juice of mugwort, radish, ginger or Chinese quince. Gargling with brine or drinking the juice of mugwort, radish or ginger is based upon the pharmacological function of pain alleviation, fever removal, and detoxication. 4) When a boil is formed in mouth, such herb remedies are applied as spreading honey, brine or alum water, and taking gall nut, Chinese matrimony vine, lotus root, etc, for drugs. Spreading honey, brine or water that is made by infusing gallnut, Chinese matrimony vine, lotus root is based upon such functions as hematosis, astriction, antibacterial, and antiphlogistic, Alum, eggplant and licorice are said to be effective, but their pharmacological effects have no grounds. 5) When one has conjunctivitis such herb remedies are commonly applied as irrigation with brine and dropping breast milk in eyes. Moreover, such other drugs are used as plantain. shepherd's purse, and purslane, etc. The use of brine, breast milk, plantain, shepherd's purse and purslane is based upon such functions as sterilization, antiphlogistic, disinfection and pain relieving. Eriocaulon sieboldianum, bean stem, bean pod and narcissus leaves are said to be effective, but their pharmacological action have no basis. When one has a stye, such herb remedies are applied as extracting eyelashes, stimulating by a massage of middle finger, third finger or big toe, as well as sear ing with a heated bamboo comb that is fine-toothed. Other than these, plantain and nightshade's nuts are used as drugs for it. Extracting eyelashes corresponds with exclusing suppurative node and draining the stye of pus ; and the use of plantain is based upon disinfection: and nightshade's nuts are said to be effective, however, their pharmacological action has no grounds. 6) For a treatment of toothache, such herb remedies are commonly employed as rinsing mouth with brine and holding cold water or gasoline in the mouth ; and as the drugs that are believed to be effective have been Welsh onion, ginger and castor-oil, plant, etc. The use of Welsh onion is based upon pain killing, antiinflammatory actions, and the use of ginger is based upon detoxication and disinfection ; and seeds of castor-oil plants are said to be effective, but they have no pharmacological basis. 7) When one has hives, such herb remedies are commonly applied as rubbing burned straw in affected parts, exposing to its smoke, rubbing with salt, sweeping down with a broom, and spreading and drinking boiled water of trifoliate orange. The use of cassia tora seeds, walnut, aloe and radish is said to be effective. The use of cassia tor a seeds has the functions of intestinal order, anti-paralysis, etc. The use of walnut has resulted in an increase of blood by invigorating spirits ; and the use of aloe is based upon disinfection, antibiotic, anti-salt, antihistamine and detoxication action. But, the effects of radish juice and straw's smoke have no pharmacological grounds. 8) When one gets a boil, such herb remedies are commonly used as applying a plaster, paste of flour mixed with yolk, soy sauce or honey, as well as spreading pounded elm tree. Other remedies that have been said to be effective are ; heating with mugwort, brine, wild rocambole, aloe, onion, squid's bone, etc. The use of mugwort is based upon pain killing, astringent antiinflammatory and tranquility. Wild rocambole is based upon the generation and maintenance functions of cell-joining textures ; elm tree upon antiphlogistic ; aloe upon fever removal and antiphlogistic ; onion on pain killing, fever removal, antiphlogistic and tranquility ; squid's bone on astriction: and brine or vinegar on sterilization. Pine resin and gardenia seed are said to be effective, but they have no pharmacological basis. 9) When one cuts his skin, such herb remedies are commonly employed as spreading mugwort's juice or squid's bone powder, or pressing the wounds. In addition, kalopanax, onion and fine soil are employed. The use of mugwort, kalopanax and squid's bone is based upon such functions as hemostasis, sedation, pain killing, antibacterial ; and fine soil is said to be effective, but it has no pharmacological basis. 10) When one suffers from whitlow, such herb remedies are commonly utilized as heating with boiled soy sauce, spreading soybean paste, or dipping into eggs, etc. Other drugs that have been employed are onion root, brine, eggplant, potato, loach, etc. The use of onion is based upon pain killing and antiphlogistic functions ; and that of brine upon antiphlogistic function. The use of soy sauce or soybean paste, fomentation, eggplant, potato and loach is said to be effective, but it has no pharmacblogic ground. 11) For the treatment of frostbite, such herb remedies are commonly used as dipping the affected part into frozen soybean sack, using boiled water of eggplant stem, garlic caulis, onion, hot pepper, caulis. Onion is based upon antiphlogistic and tranquility actions garlic upon disintection, metabolic exacerbation, tonic and aphrodisiac actions and the use of eggplant and hot pepper is based upon help blood circulation, dissolution and excretion of waste matters in vein. 12) For the treatment of burn, such herb remedies or drugs are commonly used as cleansing with Korean gin, spreading eggs, cleansing with cold water and soap water ; and as brine, cactus, moss, soybean paste, oil, etc. The cleansing with Korean gin, cold water, soap water, brine, vinegar is based upon cleaning and sterilizing functions ; and the use of cucumber is based upon nu. trition provision, and strengthening of resisting power by adjustment of metabolism. The use of potato, cactus, moss, oil and eggs is said to be effective, but their phamacological functions are not clarified. In view of the above results, we can realize that the drugs that have been employed in herb remedies are quite diverse. However, in regard to majority of herb remedies that have been employed by symptoms, the pharmacological functions of their drugs have not been clarified, and they are merely known as effective. Furthermore, they have not been recorded in the literature as yet ; and we confirm that there have been many herb remedies that were executed without the proper knowlege of their effects. It is now our view that the results of this survey may be utilized for consulting data in regard to the use of herb remedies.

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