• Title, Summary, Keyword: plant extracts

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Allelopathic Potential and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Several Wild Plant Species

  • Chon, Sang-Uk;Cha, Young-Ju
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2004
  • Several wild plant species are known to contain biologically active substances that are allelopathic to weed species as well as antioxidant to foods. Plant extracts or residues from leaves of 4 species, Achyranthes japonica (speedwell), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Trifolium repens (white clover), and Vicia angustifolia (narrowleaf vetch) were bioassayed against Medicago sativa (alfalfa) or Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) to determine their allelopathic effects, and used for measurement of antioxidant activities. The aqueous extracts applied on filter paper significantly inhibited root growth of alfalfa. Aqueous extracts or residues from V. angustifolia showed the most inhibitory effect on alfalfa or barnyard grass seedling growth and followed by A. japonica and T. repens. Oxidative stability by Rancimat method, antioxidant activity by TBA (2-thiobarbituric acid) method and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity for the ground samples or methanol extracts were the greatest in V. angustifolia, although were less than those of commonly used antioxidants, BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and ascorbic acid. These results suggest that the wild plant species had potent allelopathic and antioxidant activities, and that their activities differed depending on plant species.

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Direct Antimicrobial Activity and Induction of Systemic Resistance in Potato Plants Against Bacterial Wilt Disease by Plant Extracts

  • Hassan, M.A.E.;Bereika, M.F.F.;Abo-Elnaga, H.I.G.;Sallam, M.A.A.
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.352-360
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    • 2009
  • The potential of three plants extracts, to protect potato plants against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum was determined under greenhouse and field conditions. All soil drenching treatments of aqueous plant extracts of Hibsicus sabdariffa, Punica granatum and Eucalyptus globulus significantly reduced the disease severity compared with inoculated control. Although the applications of all three plant extracts resulted in similar reductions of disease severity in field up 63.23 to 68.39%, treatment of E. globulus leaf extract was found greater in restricting the symptom development than other the two plant extracts in the greenhouse. More than 94% reduction in the bacterial wilt symptom was observed in potato plants. All tested plant extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of bacterial pathogen, not only in vitro, but also in stem of potato plants as compared with the inoculated control Potato plants treated with extract of H. sabdariffa reduced bacterial growth more effectively than treatment with P. granatum and E. globulus. Activity of defence-related enzymes, including peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, were significantly increased in plants treated with the plant extracts compared to the control during the experimental period. In general, the higher enzymes activities were determined in both inoculated and non-inoculated treated potato plants after 8 days from plant extracts treatment. These results suggested that these plant extracts may be play an important role in controlling the potato bacterial wilt disease, through they have antimicrobial activity and induction of systemic resistance in potato plants.

Screening for Chemosensitizers from Natural Plant Extracts through the Inhibition Mechanism of P-glycoprotein

  • Ahn, Hee-Jeong;Song, Im-Sook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.269-275
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    • 2010
  • P-gp plays a critical role in drug disposition and represents a mechanism for the development of multidrug resistance. Flavonoids, a major class of natural compounds widely present in foods and herbal products, have been shown to inhibit P-gp. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify new candidate chemosensitizers by screening various plant extracts. The ability of natural plant extracts to inhibit P-gp activity was assessed by measuring cellular accumulation of calcein AM, daunorubicin and vincristine in P-gp overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Among more than 800 plant extracts, eight were found to inhibit P-gp activity. Curcuma aromatica extract produced greatest inhibition, followed by Curcuma longa and Dalbergia odorifera extracts. Extracts of Aloe ferox, Curcuma zedoariae rhizome, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Ageratum conyzoides showed moderate inhibitory effects. Curcumin and quercetin exhibited similar inhibition of P-gpmediated efflux of daunorubicin and vincristine, and flavones had a lesser effect. When chemosensitizing effect was evaluated by measuring daunorubicin sensitivity to MDCKII-MDR1 cells in the presence of natural plant extracts, Curcuma aromatica showed the most potent chemosensitizing effect based on daunorubicin cytotoxicity. In conclusion, natural plant extracts such as Curcuma aromatica can potently inhibit P-gp activity and may have potential as a novel chemosensitizers.

Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

  • Joung, Jae Yeon;Lee, Ji Young;Ha, Young Sik;Shin, Yong Kook;Kim, Younghoon;Kim, Sae Hun;Oh, Nam Su
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.90-99
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    • 2016
  • This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS AS SUNSCREEN AGENTS

  • Lee, K.T.;Kim, J.H.
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1998
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate several plant extracts with a view to developing UV sunscreen agents. In this study, 150 plant extracts were screened to elucidate their UV spectra using spectrophotometric method. Several plant extracts such as Phellodendron amurense, Morus alba, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Brassica alba have strong absorbency at UVA region (350nm), the suntanning wavelength. And Sophora flavescens, Caesalpinia sapper, Morus alba, Phellodendron amurense, showed absorption plateau value at UVB region (308nm), the erythema action wavelength. These extracts have a good absorbency property as synthetic filter and could be served as substitutes for synthetic UV sunscreen agents.

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Screening of the Natural Plant Extracts for the Antimicrobial Activity on Dental Pathogens (구강 질환 유발 미생물에 대한 항생작용을 갖는 천연물 추출물 검색)

  • Baek, Dong-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.227-231
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    • 2007
  • Many of antimicrobial components used in the mouthwash have disadvantages such as coloring of periodontal tissue and homing sensation. To find the more biocompatible antimicrobial agent, we have screened the 2,125 kinds of natural plant extracts obtained from by the Plant Extract Bank (Daejeon, Korea). The antimicrobial activity was determined by spectrophotometric growth inhibition assay for the major dental pathogens. For the Porphyromonas gingivalis, 19 plant extracts had an antimicrobial activity, 17 plant extracts for the Prevotella intermedia, 45 plant extracts for the Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans and 85 plant extracts for the Streptococcus mutans. Among these effective extracts, 8 kind of natural plant extracts had an antimicrobial activity for more than 3 species of dental pathogens. In our experiment, Cudrania tricuspidata, Morus bombycis and Mallotus japonicas have antibacterial effects on the all kinds of major dental pathogens. Therefore these plant extracts have a possibility to be a candidate for major antibacterial components in dental products.

Evaluation of some Ethanobotanical Plant Extracts for Fungitoxicity against Myrothecium roridum

  • Maji, Manas Dev;Chattopadhyay, Souman;Kumar, P. M. Pratheesh;Saratchandra, B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 2007
  • Ethanolic extracts of twenty-one plant species were tested in vitro for their fungitoxic properties against leaf spot causing pathogen of mulberry Myrothecium roridum by poisoned food technique. Ethanolic extracts of twenty-plant spp. reduced mycelial growth of M. roridum significantly except E. pulcherrima. Highest inhibition of M. roridum colony growth observed in 10% extracts of E. citriodora (49.45%) followed by D. metel (39.45%), Chromolaena odoratum (25.56%) and A. sativum (25.00%). Among the concentration tested, 10% concentration was found significantly higher effective on reducing colony growth followed by 5 and 2.5%. Aqueous extract fresh leaves/bulb of seven short-listed plant spp. (inhibition>15% in ethanolic extracts) revealed that D. metel inhibited (23.43%) followed by E. citriodora (14.66%), C. odoratum (13.53%). On dry leaf extracts D. metel was found more effective than E. citriodora. The results indicated that D. metel, E. citriodora, C. odoratum and A. sativum having high fungitoxicity against M. roridum and ethanolic extract found more effective than aqueous extract.

Phytotoxic Effects of Xanthium occidentale Extracts and Residues on Seedling Growth of Several Plant Species

  • Chon Sang-Uk
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2005
  • Compositae plants are known to contain biologically active substances that are allelopathic to agricultural crops as well as weed species. Aqueous or methanol extracts and plant residues from leaves of Xanthium occidentale were assayed against alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to determine its allelopathic effects, and the results showed that the extracts applied onto filter paper significantly inhibited seed germination as well as root growth of alfalfa. Aqueous leaf extracts of $40g\;L^{-1}$ were completely inhibitory on root growth of alfalfa, while root growths of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) were less sensitive. Leaf residue incorporation at $100g\;kg^{-1}$ into soil on seedling growth of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv. var. oryzicola Ohwi) inhibited both shoot and root fresh weights of barnyard grass by 94 and $96\%$, respectively. Methanol extracts from BuOn and EtOAc fractions of X. occidentale reduced alfalfa root growth more than did those from hexane and water fractions. The results based on bioassay of extracts and residues show that X. occidentale had potent an allelopathic activity against other plant species.

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Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in In vitro

  • Kim, E.T.;Kim, C.H.;Min, K.S.;Lee, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.806-811
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with $O_2$-free $N_2$ gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II) Inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and DOPA autooxidation

  • Seok, Chang-Hyun;Won, Ii;Kim, Jeong-Ha;Kim, Beom-Jun;Kim, Jeong-Haeng;Heo, Moon-Young
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 1996
  • In eastern Asian region, cosmetic preparations containing the molecues possessing the whitening activity are promising. In this study, 100 plant extracts were screened in order to elucidate the whitening effects using in vitro tyrosinase assay and DOPA autooxidation. Several plant extracts such as Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra showed the inhibitory activity (>50%) against mushroom tyrosinase at the concentration 333$mu extrm{m}$/ml. And plant extracts including Morus alba and Bupleurum falcatum showed the inhibitory activity (>50%) at the concentration of 500($\mu\textrm{g}$/ml against DOPA autooxidation. The IC50 values of the several extracts were also found.

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