• Title, Summary, Keyword: pneumonia

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Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias : Radiologic Findings (특발성간질성폐렴의 방사선학적 소견)

  • Lee, Kyung Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.129-144
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    • 2003
  • Usual interstitial pneumonia/Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia(bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia : BOOP), Acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, Desquamative interstitial pneumonia, Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia.

Characteristics of Adenovirus Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel, 2012-2016

  • Yoon, Hee;Jhun, Byung Woo;Kim, Hojoong;Yoo, Hongseok;Park, Sung Bum
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.287-295
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    • 2017
  • Adenovirus (AdV) can cause severe pneumonia in non-immunocompromised host, but limited data exist on the distinctive characteristics of AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients. We evaluated distinctive clinico-laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of AdV pneumonia (n = 179), compared with non-AdV pneumonia (n = 188) in Korean military personnel between 2012 and 2016. AdV pneumonia patients had a higher rate of consolidation with ground-glass opacity (101/152) in lobar distribution (89/152) on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.001). Laboratory findings showed a higher incidence of unusual blood profiles such as leukopenia (55/179, P < 0.001) or thrombocytopenia (100/179, P < 0.001). The patients had more systemic symptoms such as myalgia (82/179, P = 0.001) or diarrhea (23/179, P < 0.001), compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients. Bacterial co-infection was identified in 28.5% of AdV pneumonia. Most of the AdV isolates typed (69/72, 95.8%) were AdV-55. Patients with a pneumonia severity index ${\geq}$ class III were more commonly observed in AdV pneumonia patients compared with non-AdV pneumonia patients (11.2% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001), and time to clinical stabilization from admission was longer in the AdV pneumonia patients compared with the non-AdV pneumonia patients (3.8 vs. 2.6 days, P < 0.001). Mechanical ventilation (n = 6) was only required in AdV pneumonia patients, one of whom died due to AdV-55. Our data showed that AdV pneumonia in non-immunocompromised patients had distinct characteristics and most of the isolates typed in our study were AdV-55. It is suggested that AdV-55 is an important pathogen of pneumonia in Korean military personnel.

The changes of prevalence and etiology of pediatric pneumonia from National Emergency Department Information System in Korea, between 2007 and 2014

  • Shin, Eun Ju;Kim, Yunsun;Jeong, Jin-Young;Jung, Yu Mi;Lee, Mi-Hee;Chung, Eun Hee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.61 no.9
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Understanding changes in pathogen and pneumonia prevalence among pediatric pneumonia patients is important for the prevention of infectious diseases. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of children younger than 18 years diagnosed with pneumonia at 117 Emergency Departments in Korea between 2007 and 2014. Results: Over the study period, 329,380 pediatric cases of pneumonia were identified. The most frequent age group was 1-3 years old (48.6%) and the next was less than 12 months of age (17.4%). Based on International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision diagnostic codes, confirmed cases of viral pneumonia comprised 8.4% of all cases, pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae comprised 3.8% and confirmed cases of bacterial pneumonia 1.3%. The prevalence of confirmed bacterial pneumonia decreased from 3.07% in 2007 and 4.01% in 2008 to 0.65% in 2014. The yearly rate of pneumococcal pneumonia also decreased from 0.47% in 2007 to 0.08% in 2014. A periodic prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) was identified. Conclusion: The increased number of patients with pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, pleural effusion, and empyema in 2011 and 2013-2014 resulted from an MP epidemic. We provide evidence that the frequency of confirmed cases of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia has declined from 2007 to 2014, which can simultaneously reflect the effectiveness of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Respiratory Review of 2012: Pneumonia

  • Yoon, Young-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.73 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2012
  • Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomarkers, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of pneumonia during the past 2 years. One of the most frequent subjects of recent papers was those about pandemic H1N1 in 2009.

Observations of pneumonia in slaughtered pigs according to season (계절에 따른 출하돈에서의 폐렴관찰)

  • Lee, Seok-kyu;Han, Jeong-hee;Jeong, Hyun-kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 1999
  • From 2,373 slaughtered pigs examined, 1,899 of them had visible evidence of pulmonary lesion. The lungs with pulmonary lesion were examined by grossly, histopathological technique to investigate the prevalence according to season, severity of pulmonary lesion, types of the pneumonia and relationship between rearing management and prevalence of pulmonary lesion. The results were as follows : 1. Prevalence of pneumonia according to season was 72.3% to 85.9% and the highest prevalence was in winter. 2. In the severity of pulmonary lesion, rates mild, moderate and severe lesions were 38.3%, 47.0% and 14.7%, respectively. Prevalence of mild lesion was the highest in autumn. Prevalence of moderate and severe lesions was the highest in winter. 3. In the type of pneumonia, rates of interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fibrinous pneumonia were 23.6%, 13.0%, and 3.4%, respectively. Prevalence of interstitial pneumonia was high in spring and autumn while that of broncho-pneumonia and fibrinous pneumonia was high in winter and summer, respectively. 4. In relationship of pulmonary lesions according to severity of pulmonary lesion and types of pneumonia, similarity was observed in prevalence of mild lesion and bronchopneumonia.

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Respiratory Review of 2010: Pneumonia (호흡기내과 의사를 위한 폐렴 리뷰)

  • Kim, Yun-Seong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.68 no.6
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    • pp.319-327
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    • 2010
  • Pneumonia represents a spectrum of diseases that range from community-acquired to health care-associated pneumonia. Despite advances in diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and supportive care, pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients and in those with significant comorbidities. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease in Korea. This article provides a synopsis of recent studies regarding various types of pneumonia, with a focus on CAP.

Comparative Study of Pneumonia Caused by Streptococcus pneumonia and Legionella pneumophila (레지오넬라 폐렴과 폐렴구균 폐렴 환자의 임상 양상에 대한 비교)

  • Lyu, Ji-Won;Song, Jin-Woo;Choi, Chang-Min;Oh, Yeon-Mok;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Mi-Na;Shim, Tae-Sun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.68 no.2
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    • pp.74-79
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    • 2010
  • Background: Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as an important cause of pneumonia. However, limited data are available in the literature regarding legionella pneumonia in Korea. The objective of this study was to compare epidemiological data and clinical presentation of legionella pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods: We retrospectively compared clinical, radiological, and laboratory data, antimicrobial treatment, and treatment outcomes between 28 cases of legionella pneumonia and 56 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Diagnoses of both legionella and pneumococcal pneumonia were based on commercial urinary antigen tests. Results: Legionella pneumonia patients included 23 men and 5 women, with a mean age of 61.6 years (range 36~88). Fifteen were smokers and 26 had some underlying diseases. Legionella pneumonia occurred more frequently in healthcare-associated settings than pneumococcal pneumonia (42.9% vs 21.4%, respectively, p=0.040). There were no significant differences in clinical signs and symptoms. Compared to patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, patients with legionella pneumonia presented more frequently with anemia (39.3% vs 8.9%, p=0.001), increased C-reactive protein (57.1% vs 30.4%, p=0.018) and increased alkaline phosphatase (46.4% vs 16.1%, p=0.003). Also, legionella pneumonia patients more often showed pleural effusion on simple chest X-rays (50.0% vs 12.5%, p<0.001). Conclusion: Legionella pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia can not be distinguished by clinical manifestations alone. However, legionella pneumonia occurred as a healthcare-associated pneumonia more frequently and was more often associated with anemia and increased CRP and alkaline phosphatase levels.

'Pneumonia Weather': Short-term Effects of Meteorological Factors on Emergency Room Visits Due to Pneumonia in Seoul, Korea

  • Sohn, Sangho;Cho, Wonju;Kim, Jin A;Altaluoni, Alaa;Hong, Kwan;Chun, Byung Chul
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.82-91
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Many studies have explored the relationship between short-term weather and its health effects (including pneumonia) based on mortality, although both morbidity and mortality pose a substantial burden. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the influence of meteorological factors on the number of emergency room (ER) visits due to pneumonia in Seoul, Korea. Methods: Daily records of ER visits for pneumonia over a 6-year period (2009-2014) were collected from the National Emergency Department Information System. Corresponding meteorological data were obtained from the National Climate Data Service System. A generalized additive model was used to analyze the effects. The percent change in the relative risk of certain meteorological variables, including pneumonia temperature (defined as the change in average temperature from one day to the next), were estimated for specific age groups. Results: A total of 217 776 ER visits for pneumonia were identified. The additional risk associated with a $1^{\circ}C$ increase in pneumonia temperature above the threshold of $6^{\circ}C$ was 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 2.61). Average temperature and diurnal temperature range, representing within-day temperature variance, showed protective effects of 0.07 (95% CI, 0.92 to 0.93) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.98), respectively. However, in the elderly (65+ years), the effect of pneumonia temperature was inconclusive, and the directionality of the effects of average temperature and diurnal temperature range differed. Conclusions: The term 'pneumonia temperature' is valid. Pneumonia temperature was associated with an increased risk of ER visits for pneumonia, while warm average temperatures and large diurnal temperature ranges showed protective effects.

A nationwide study of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency De­partment in South Korea in 2012

  • Lee, Chang Hyu;Won, Youn Kyoung;Roh, Eui-Jung;Suh, Dong In;Chung, Eun Hee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Acute respiratory infection, particularly pneumonia, is the most common cause of hospitalization and death among children in developing nations. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department (ED) in South Korea in 2012. Methods: We analyzed National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) records from 146 EDs in South Korea for all pediatric patients aged ${\leq}18years$ who were diagnosed with pneumonia between January and December 2012. Results: Among 38,415 subjects, the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.8. Patients aged <12 months comprised 18.0% of the study population; those aged 1 to 3 years, 54.4%; those aged 4 to 6 years, 16.8%; those aged 7 to 12 years, 7.4%; and those aged 13 to 18 years, 3.4%. Presentation rates were highest in April, followed by January, March, and May. The hospital admission rate was 43.5%, of which 2.6% were in intensive care units. The mortality rate was 0.02%. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, diagnostic codes, the types of pneumonia according to cause were viral pneumonia (29.0%), bacterial pneumonia (5.3%), Mycoplasmal pneumonia (4.5%), aspiration pneumonia (1.3%), and pneumonia of unknown origin (59.3%). Conclusion: Despite the limited data due to the ED data from the NEDIS lacking laboratory results and treatment information, this study reflects well the outbreak patterns among children and adolescents with pneumonia. Our results provide a basis for future studies regarding ED treatment for children and adolescents with pneumonia.

A Study of Mycoplasmal Pneumonia developed around a Chunnam Coastal Area in 1993 (1993년 전남의 한 해안지역에서 발생한 Mycoplasmal 폐렴에 대한 고찰)

  • Byun, Joo-Nam;Yang, Eun-Suck
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 1993
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae(M. pneumoniae) is a primary pathogene of the respiratory tract in children. Most studies of such pneumonia involve a group of admitted patients in hospital, usually with major medical illness. We retrospectively studied the epidemiologic and clinical feature of 105 patients with serologically proven M. pneumoigic pneumonia treated at Gwang-Yang Hospital during a epidemic period of Jun. 1993 to Dec. 1993. All cases of pneumonia developed in this period were also reviewed and compared with serologically proven group. The results were as follows. 1. There were 63 males and 42 females, and the male /female ratio was 1.5 : 1. 2. More than half(57%) of cases belonged to 5-9 years of age group, and mean age was 6.5 years old. 3. Mean age was steadily decreased as prevalence of mycoplasmal pneumonia had been subsided. 4. The date of index case was June 26th, and that of median case was 3 months after the index case. 5. A major determinant of the outbreak seemed to be the population density rather than the population size. 6. Recurrence and serious complication were not observed in this period. 7. All cases of pneumonia developed in this period might be attributed to M. pnemoniae. These epidemiologic and clinical characteristics would contribute to the prevention and diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia.

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