• Title, Summary, Keyword: polar body

Search Result 217, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Polar Body: Indicator of Oocyte's Maturation, Have Any Function on Oocyte?

  • Dibyendu, Biswas;Hyun, Sang-Hwan
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.249-251
    • /
    • 2009
  • Polar body was usually used as a determinant of oocyte's maturation. Polar body morphology could reflect the embryo quality and implantation competence. This review only focuses on morphology of the first polar body and embryo developmental rate in the presence or absence of polar body. However, it is very difficult to describe whether polar body has any effects on embryo development in vitro or in vivo. Further intensive research is needed to determine its function on embryo development.

Sperm Component Inducing 2nd Polar Body Extrusion in Mouse Oocytes (생쥐 난자의 제2극체 방출을 유발하는 정자 성분)

  • 김은희;오현주;손채은;이은주;김동신;여영근;박영식
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.237-245
    • /
    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to elucidate whether sperm contain a factor inducing second polar body extrusion and to search for an effective collection method of the sperm factor Thus, sperm extract, dialyzed sperm-extract or liquid chromatographic fractions of sperm extract was microinjected into ovulated oocytes. And the microinjected oocytes were incubated for 24 hours to investigate about the extrusion of second polar body. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Sperm extract significantly increased the second polar body extrusion. 2. Sperm extract showed five major fractions at retention volumes (RVs) 1.25, 1.37, 1.84, 2.10 and 2.67ml after separation with Superose 12 column. These sperm extract fractions did not significantly increase the second polar body extrusion. 3. Dialyzed sperm-extract significantly increased the second polar body extrusion 4. Dialyzed sperm-extract showed three maior fractions at RVs 1.88, 2.14 and 2.77ml after separation with Superose 12 column. Of these fractions, the fraction RV2.14 significantly increased the second polar body extrusion. In conclusion, sperm extract contained a factor inducing the second polar body extrusion and the factor was contained largely in fraction RV2.14 after dialysis and liquid chromatographic fractionation of sperm extract.

  • PDF

MIXED VOLUMES OF A CONVEX BODY AND ITS POLAR DUAL

  • Chai, Y. D.;Lee, Young-Soo
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.36 no.4
    • /
    • pp.771-778
    • /
    • 1999
  • In this paper, we obtain some geometric inequalities for mixed volumes of a convex body and its polar dual. We also develop a lower bound of the product of quermassintegral of a convex body and its polar dual and give a lower bound for the product of the dual quermassintegral of any index of centrally symmetric convex body and that of its polar dual.

  • PDF

Different Developmental Competence of Porcine Oocytes Selected by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining and Polar Body Extrusion (Brilliant Cresyl Blue 염색방법과 극체 방출 여부에 따른 돼지 체외수정용 난포란 선별 방법이 배발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeon-Soo;Kim, Cheol-Wook;Kim, In-Cheol;Kwack, Dae-O;Chung, Ki-Hwa
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
    • /
    • v.33 no.1
    • /
    • pp.29-33
    • /
    • 2009
  • The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) has been used to select the developmental competent oocytes in pigs, goats and cows. Growing oocytes have a higher level of active glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PDH) compare to mature oocytes and are rarely stained compared to mature oocytes, because G6PDH converts BCB to colorless. First polar body extrusion regard as a guideline of meoisis completion. Selection of polar body extrude oocyte is more developmental competent to blastocyst than unselected. This study was conducted to compare the BCB test to the polar body extrusion on selection of developmental competent porcine oocytes for the production of blastocyst. Cumulus-Oocytes complex were exposed to 26uM BCB stain diluted in NCSU-23 for 90 min. There was no significant difference embryo development to blastocysts between BCB treated and not treated($19.58{\pm}1.99$ vs $18.75{\pm}2.27%$), which means there was no detrimental effect of BCB exposure to oocytes. Normal fertilization is not differed among treatment groups from 70.0 to 78.4% development to blastocyst, beside polyspermy did not. To compare two different selection methods, BCB test and polar body extrusion, evaluate the developmental competent of IVP embryos. BCB+PB+(blue stained and polar body extruded, $20.71{\pm}0.45%$) and BCB-PB+(colorless and polar body extruded, $20.04{\pm}l.29%$) groups are significantly (p<0.05) higher developed than those of BCB+PB-(blue stained and no polar body, $13.24{\pm}0.73%$) and BCB-PB-(colorless and no poladbody, $7.25{\pm}0.77%$). These results showed that selection of polar body extruded oocytes method is more efficient than that of BCB test.

Cumulus Oocyte Complex Expansion Inhibiting Ingredient in Porcine Follicular Fluid (돼지 난포액내 난구세포 난자복합체 팽창 억제 성분)

  • 오현주;김은희;손채은;이은주;박영식
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.203-210
    • /
    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to identify a follicular fluid ingredient inhibiting the cumulus oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Thus, follicular fluid or liquid chromatographic fractions of follicular fluid was supplemented in COC culture medium. And COCs were incubated for 48 hours to investigate about cumulus expansion and also the first polar body extrusion. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The fluid of medium follicle significantly inhibited the COC expansion. 2. The fluid of large follicle inhibited the COC expansion. 3. Follicular fluid showed six major fractions at retention volumes (RVs) 1.83, 1.91, 2.15, 2.34, 2.53 and 2.74 ml after separation with Superose 12 column. Of the major fractions, fractions RV2.15, RV2.34, RV2.53 and RV2.74 inhibited both COC expansion and polar body extrusion. Especially, fractions of RV2.15 and RV2.53 significantly inhibited COC expansion, oocyte denudation and polar body extrusion. In conclusion, porcine follicular fluid contained a COC expansion inhibiting ingredient (CEI) that may be contained largely in fractions RV2.15 and RV2.53. And CEI may inhibit oocyte maturation by inhibition of oocyte denudation and extrusion of the first polar body.

  • PDF

A Sperm Factor Inducing Second Polar Body Formation in Mouse Secondayy Oocyte

  • Park, Y.S;Min, S.H.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.369-375
    • /
    • 2002
  • A sperm factor(s) for oocyte activation during fertilization has not been clearly identified. In this study to elucidate an oocyte activation factor(s), mouse sperm were sonicated and ultra-filtered with a 30 kilo-daltons (KD) cutoff membrane and the ultra-filtrate was then sequentially fractionated over Suporose 12 column and Superdex column, The recovered fractions were micro-injected into Mⅱmouse oocytes and second polar body formation (PBF) was examined. Suporose fraction RV2.10 prepared from sperm extract significantly increased PBF. Of Superdex fractions re-separated from Suporose fraction RV2.10, fraction RV2.12 also had the strongest PBF activity. By analyzing with micro-reverse phase column (URPC), the Superdex fraction RV2.12 appeared to be glutamic acid. In microinjection test, glutamic acid significantly increased PBF. This study suggests that glutamic acid should be a type of sperm factor for second polar body formation related to oocyte activation.

Does Antarctic Krill Employ Body Shrinkage as an Overwintering Strategy? (남극크릴은 몸체축소를 월동기작으로 사용하는가?)

  • Ju, Se-Jong;Harvey, H.R.;Shin, Hyoung-Chul;Kim, Yea-Dong;Kang, Sung-Ho
    • Ocean and Polar Research
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.679-684
    • /
    • 2004
  • To determine if Antarctic krill employ body shrinkage as one of its overwintering mechanisms in the field, Euphauia superba and Euphausia crystallorophias were collected during fall and winter in and around Marguerite Bay through US Southern Ocean GLOBEC field programs during fall and winter 2001 and 2002. The relationships between the body length and weight of both krill species were exponentially correlated with no significant differences between the two species (p>0.05). The ratio between eye diameter and body length of individual krill was examined in an expectation that it could be used as an indicator of the body shrinkage as previously suggested by Shin and Nicol (2002). These ratios were significantly different between the two krill species. Especially, E . crystallorophias had bigger eyes than E. superba. In both krill species, eye diameters were highly correlated with body lengths (regression coefficients ${\geq}0.70$). For E. crystallorophias, no significant differences of the ratio of eye diameter/body length were detected between fall and winter. Even though the ratios for E. superba were seasonally varied, it was not clear whether body shrinkage was an actual and critical overwintering mechanism for the krill population found in this study area. These results suggest that some individuals of E. superba might experience the body shrinkage during a part of their liff, but this morphological index alone (eye diameter/body length) may be insufficient to unambiguously separate the shrunk krill from the non-shrunk ones in the field-collected animals.

Comparison of Nuclear Status and Developmental Potential between Polar Body Extruded Oocytes and Non-extruded Oocytes on in vitro Maturation and Development of Porcine Follicular Oocytes (돼지 난모세포의 체외 성숙 후 극체 방출 및 미방출란의 핵형과 배발달율)

  • Kim, H.J.;Cho, S.R.;Choe, J.Y.;Choi, S.H.;Han, M.H.;Son, D.S.;Kim, Y.G.;Lee, S.S.;Ryu, I.S.;Kim, I.C.;Kim, I.H.;Im, K.S.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.169-175
    • /
    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was carried out to examine the polar body extrusion of in vitro matured porcine follicular oocytes as a non-invasive marker of oocyte quality to know the developmental competence in advance. The porcine oocytes matured for 48 hours were examined the polar body extrusion and some parts were stained. The examined oocytes were matured for additional $16{\sim}18$ hours and activated with 7% ethanol and cultured in $5{\mu}g/ml$ cytochalasin B for 5 hours for diploid formation. The treated oocytes were washed and cultured for 7 days. The polar body extrusion and degeneration rates were varied with $9.9{\sim}52.4%$ and $21.4{\sim}61.8%$ by repetition. The polar body extruded oocytes were shown the polar body chromosome and metaphase II plate by staining. However the non-extruded oocytes were shown expanded nucleus with 39.1%, premature chromosome condensation with 19.6%, metaphase I plate with 10.9 %, metaphase II with 13%, condensed chromatin with 6.5%, and absent nuclear material with 8.7%. The oocytes that were not examined for the polar body extrusion were cleaved 45.0%, and developed to blastocyst stage with 11.3%. In examined oocytes for polar body extrusion,. the polar body extruded oocytes were cleaved 94.2% and developed with 42.5%. This result suggests that discarding of the degenerating oocytes and oocytes that not extruded polar body will be effective for experiments of culturing effect in porcine embryos and embryo biotechnology.

Effect of Thymeleatoxin on Mouse Oocyte Maturation (마우스 난 성숙과정에서의 Thymeleatoxin의 영향)

  • Lim E. A.;Shin J. H.;Choi T. S.
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.187-190
    • /
    • 2004
  • Protein kinase C exists as a family of serine/threonine kinases which are broadly classified into three groups as cPKC nPKC and aPKC depending on their cofactor requirements. Previous studies have shown that the role of PKC in the process of mouse oocyte maturation. For example, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate which is known as an activator of cPKC and nPKC inhibits germinal vesicle break down and 1st polar body extrusion in maturing oocytes. In this study, the effect of thymeleatoxin, a specific activator of cPKC not nPKC, was tested comparing with PMA to address the roles of cPKC and nPKC during mouse oocyte maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complex were cultured in M16 medium for 6 or 12 hr with each of these PKC activators to investigate the effect of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) or the extrusion of 1st polar body. IC/sup 50/ of GVBD were at concentrations of 50nM in PMA and 400nM in thymeleatoxin and of 1st polar body extrusion were 20nM in PMA and 200nM in thy- meleatoxin. The results suggest that activation of nPKC is more closely related to the inhibition of GVBD and 1st polar body extrusion than activation of cPKC. Additionally, we found that the oocytes inhibited 1st polar body extrusion with PMA or thymeleatoxin were arrested in metaphase I of first meiosis.

Development of a New Improvement and Multiplication System in Domestic Animals Using a Embryonic Manipulation Technique I. Effect of Maturation Time on the Extrusion Rate of First Polar Body and the Enucleation Rate of Bovine Follicular Oocytes (세포조작 기술을 이용한 새로운 축산개량증식 체계 개발 I. 소 난포란의 성숙시기가 제 1극체 출현율과 핵제거율에 미치는 영향)

  • 임경순;김현종;오성종;양보석
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.181-189
    • /
    • 1995
  • In this study, methods on fabrication of microtool and setting of micromanipulator were examined and relationship between first polar body extrusion rate and maturation time of follicular oocyte, enulceation rae and repetition of trial, and enucleation rate and maturation period were investigated. The results are as follows: 1. Suitable outside diameter of micropipette tube was 1mm. Holding pipette with less than diameter of oocyte was fitred for manipulation, and zona dissection needle was easily operated when its sharp-point had diameter of about 8 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and length of 300${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$. The injection pipette with 20~35${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ outside diameter was adequate for injection of blastomere into perivitelline space. 2. Separation of blastomere was effective when zona pellucida had cut with zonadissection needle and the embryo was pipetted gently with the pipette that had narrower diameter than that of embryo until separation of blastomeres had completed. 3. The extrusion rate of first polar body was 78% during 20~24% hours incubation for maturation. 4. According to repetitions of micromanipulation, the enucleation rate was increased to 85% and the time required for enucleation of a oocyte was shortened to 3 min. 5. The extrusion rate of first polar body and enucleation rate were 82 and 76% respectively, in the group of the oocytes cultured for 22 hours. However in the group cultured for 24 hours, the extrusion rate of first polar body and enucleation rate were 53 and 100% respectively.

  • PDF