• Title, Summary, Keyword: pollack

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Competitiveness of Korea in World Pollack Markets for WTO/NAMA Negotiation (WTO/NAMA협상 대비 국제명태시장에서의 우리나라 경쟁력)

  • Jang Young-Soo;Song Jung-Hun
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.85-109
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    • 2006
  • This study is aimed to investigate the structure of world pollack markets and the position/competitiveness or Korea for WTO/NAMA Negotiation. First or all, it is clearly pointed out that many limitations and problems are inherent in FAO statistics that is widely utilized to investigate the structure of international seafood markets. Especially, it is impossible to find not only the data for Russia that is the top production and export country of pollack, but also the data for importing/exporting countries for pollack. In order to make up for these problems, the data for export and import of major countries are collected and analyzed. The results of analysis show the followings. First, it is clearly investigated that classification of fish products are different for countries. Second, it is understood the structure of international pollack market in actuality. The pollack market is segmented by frozen, fresh, dried, fillet, roe, surimi, etc. In addition, the pollack market has grown as much as 600,000 tons in amount and $1.2billion in value. Third, competitiveness of Korea in international pollack markets is measured quantitatively. It shows that Korea has low RAC index and TSI index, but high RMI index. Thus, it is identified that Korea becomes the largest pollack importing country. Fourth, the partial equilibrium analysis on pollack import market of Korea indicates that the frozen pollack has both price elasticity and substitution elasticity, while the fresh pollack has income elasticity.

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Effects of Different Drying Methods on Fatty Acids, Free Amino Acids, and Browning of Dried Alaska Pollack (명태건조방법에 따른 갈변화 관련 물질의 변화)

  • Choi, Hee-Sun;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Kim, Jae-Cherl
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.1182-1187
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    • 2007
  • Changes in composition of fatty acids and free amino acids in three differently dried Alaska pollack (sun dried, naturally cyclic freeze-thaw dried, and 1-year-aged cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack (Hwangtae)) were investigated to correlate them with browning reactions in drying and aging Alaska pollack. Major fatty acids of the sun dried Alaska pollack were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and those in the Hwangtae were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and gondoic acid. Hwangtae showed the lowest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids among the three types of dried Alaska pollack. Free amino acids content of sun dried Alaska pollack was higher than that of the cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack and Hwangtae. Lesser amount of histidine in Hwangtae (0.02%) than that in the cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack (0.087%) may indicate the degradation of histidine due to the browning reaction in aging the cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack. Significant changes in compositions of fatty acids and free amino acids among the dried products revealed the browning reaction resulted from carbonyl compounds produced by decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides and free amino acids. Aging the cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack for a year contributed to the development of browning.

Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Properties of Sun-dried and Natural Cyclic Freeze-Thaw Dried Alaska Pollack

  • Kim, Jong-Hwan;Choi, Hee-Sun;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Hong, Jeong-Hwa;Kim, Jae-Cherl
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.520-525
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    • 2007
  • The physicochemical properties of sun-dried and cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack were analyzed to compare the 2 drying processes. The moisture content and water activity of sun-dried Alaska pollack were higher than cyclic freeze-thaw dried and 1 year-aged cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack (hwangtae). The relatively low temperatures used in cyclic freeze-thaw drying retards lipid oxidation compared to sun drying based on the acid and peroxide values, and the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the dried fish. The water holding capacity of cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack aged for 1 year (hwangtae) under ambient conditions at the drying location was higher than that of sun-dried Alaska pollack. The swelling of myofibrilar filaments during cyclic freeze-thaw drying may be responsible for the softening of the dried muscle protein. Aging the cyclic freeze-thaw dried Alaska pollack for 1 year contributed to an increased yellowish color of the hwangtae.

Effects of Processing Conditions and Natural Antimicrobial Materials on Quality of Freeze-dried, Seasoned and Roasted Alaska Pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) (가공조건과 천연항균제의 처리가 황태양념구이의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • CHO Soon-Yeong;SHIM Jae-Man;CHOI Yong-Seok;KIM Ok-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.437-441
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    • 2003
  • This research investigated the effects of processing conditions and natural antimicrobial materials on quality of freeze-dried, seasoned and roasted Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma). The optimum dipping time and moisture contents of freeze-dried Alaska pollack were 1 sec in $1\%$ salt solution, $48.6\%$ respectively. The freeze-dried, seasoned and roasted Alaska pollack product showed high sensory value. As sterilization time increased over 30 mins in water bath at $100^{\circ}C$ the browning degree of the freeze-dried, seasoned and roasted Alaska pollack product increased. Among various antibrowning agents, $3\%$ corn starch was better in preventing browning than sporix treatment. The freeze-dried, seasoned and roasted Alaska pollack product added with lactate Ca and catechin had the antimicrobial, and the VBN contents of the product showed low level.

Effect of Powder-type Dried Alaska Pollack Addition on the Quality of Kimchi (북어 가루 첨가가 김치의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이하영;백재은;한영실
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.254-262
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    • 2003
  • Powder-type dried pollack was added to Kimchi, the groups were stored at 4$^{\circ}C$, respectively, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of the Kimchi were examined according to the stored durations. The pH appeared to have almost similar values in the early stages of the fermentation. Generally, the groups with the additional powder-type dried Pollack had high pHs in the later stages of the fermentation. For the changes in the acidity, until the optimum edible period was reached, the groups with the additional powder-type dried Pollack required longer than those groups with additional fluid anchovy sauce. With regard to the salinity, there were no significant differences between the respective groups. For changes with regard to the reducing sugar, from the early to late fermentation stages, the greatest content was shown in the no additional protein source group, however, after the optimum edible period, there were no significant differences between the treated groups. In the case of free amino acids, the total quantities of Serine, Glycine, Threonine, Proline and Alanine, which all have a sweet taste, were usually found to have increased too almost twice those in the control groups, on the addition of 0.80% powder-type dried Pollack to the Kimchi. As a result of examining the microbiological properties, the time spent reaching the maximum numbers was longer in the additional powder-type dried Pollack groups. Similarly, the maximum numbers of lactic acid bacteria also appeared at the same time, but the difference between the treated groups was small, compared with the total numbers of microorganisms. As a result of the sensory evaluation, the treated groups generally gained better evaluations for several items. corresponded to the addition of 0.65% powder-type dried Pollack.

Free amino acid, fatty acid composition and mineral content in dried alaska pollack and the changes of mineral content according to cooking time (북어의 아미노산, 지방산, 무기질 함량 및 조리시간별 무기질 함량 변화에 대하여)

  • 주은정
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 1985
  • This study designed not only to elucidate free amino acid, fatty acid composition and mineral content in dried alaska pollack but also to examine calcium, magnesium, poassium and sodium contents in its cooking broth according to each boiling time such as 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes. RESULTS : 1. Glutamic acid in dried alaska pollack was the most abundant free amino acid and was followed in order of aspartic acid, lysin, leucine and histidine. They composed of 50.95% of the total amino acid contents. 2. In dried alaska pollack the most abundant fatty acid was palmitic acid. Essential fatty acid content was 26.57% of the total fatty acid. 3. The calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents in dried alaska pollack showed 10.721 mg%, 9.235mg%, 4072.5mg% and 2299.8% respectively. The amount of magnesium and potassium in cooking broth arrived at the highest level when 20 minute boiling was undertaken and the quantities of magnesium and sodium were the highest when 30 minute boiling was made.

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Preparation of Pronase Hydrolysate from Alaska-pollack (명태단백 Pronase 가수분해물의 제조)

  • 서형주
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 1995
  • In order to enhance the utility of alaska-pollack, the optimum conditions for the preparation of pronase hydrolysate. The optimum temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of alaska-pollack by pronase were 4$0^{\circ}C$ and pH 7.0. The reaction time and enzyme concentration were 4 hr and 1,000 units per g of substrate. Under the above optimum conditions alaska-pollack was hydrolysed by pronase yielding a hydrolytic degree of about 89eye. The bitterness and hyrophobicity of pronase hydrolysate were decreased with increasing reaction time. Hydrophobic amino acids(Tyr, Met, Ala, flu, Leu, and Phe) were increased for 2 hr, but fur thor hydrolysis was showed decrease of hydrophobic amino acids content. Palatable amino acids (Asp, Glu, Pro, Ser, Thr and Gly) were increased with hydrolysis time.

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The Effect of the Oceanic Condition on Variations of the Catches of Alaska Pollack in the East Sea (the Japan Sea)

  • HONG Chul-hoon;CHO Kyu-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.997-1004
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    • 1997
  • The effect of the oceanic condition on variations of the catches of Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma) in the East Sea (the Japan Sea) is examined using monthly catches data of this fish and temperature data during 1972 to 1991. Since 1973 the catches of Alaska pollack have gradually increased, showing a peak in 1981, and then rapidly decreased after 1986. A significant negative correlation was found between variations of the catches and the temperature at 50 m depth offshore Mukho. In 1981, the year of the highest catches in the study period, the water mass in the Eastern Korean Coastal Sea of the East Sea was extremely cold, while the year of poor catch, 1979, was much warmer than the annual mean temperature. The results show that the temperature variations around the Eastern Korean Coastal Sea play an important role in the variations of the catches of Alaska pollack, implying that the effect of the Tsushima Warm Current is also very important.

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Effects of Alaska Pollack Addition on the Quality of Kimchi (Korean salted cabbage) (명태를 첨가한 김치의 품질특성)

  • Sung, Jung-Min;Choi, Hae-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.772-781
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    • 2009
  • We investigated the effects of Alaska pollack addition on the quality of Kimchi during 20 days of fermentation at 10C. Alaska pollack was added to salted cabbage at concentrations of 0%, 6%, 12%, or 18% (all w/w). The quality characteristics determined were pH, acidity, salinity, reducing sugar content, color, free amino acid level, and lactic acid bacterial counts, at 4 d intervals over 20 d, during progressive fermentation at constant temperature (10C). Changes in pH, acidity, and reducing sugar content during fermentation were increased when Alaska pollack was added, whereas salinity decreased. Total lactic acid bacterial counts achieved maximum levels on day 8 for Kimchi with 18% (w/w) Alaska pollack, and the other Kimchi samples attained their highest values on day 12. In terms of color, the L, a, and b values of Kimchi rose with addition of Alaska pollack. The free amino acid content of Kimchi increased as the level of added Alaska pollack rose but gradually fell as fermentation progressed. Upon sensory evaluation, Kimchi with 6% (w/w) Alaska pollack scored highest in terms of appearance, texture, taste, and overall acceptance. In conclusion, our results indicate that Alaska pollack has a positive effect on the quality of Kimchi, increasing the content of free amino acids.

Changes in Taste Compound of Low Salt Fermented Pollack Tripe during Controlled Freezing Point Aging (저식염 창란젓의 저온숙성중 정미성분의 변화)

  • Park, Seong-Min;Park, Chan-Kyu;Lee, Keun-Tai;Kim, Sang-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 1998
  • For the effective utilization of by-products from pollack, Theragra chalcogramma, processing, low salt fermented pollack tripe were produced and changes in taste compounds of low salt fermented pollack tripe during the controlled freezing point aging were investigated. No significant changes in contents of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash were found during aging. The volatile base nitrogen of low salt fermented pollack tripe increased steadily as aging progressed. Contents of amino nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds of extract reached a peak in 50 days of aging, as 190.7 mg% and 2085.8 mg%, respectively. Inosine(HxR) of low salt fermented pollack tripe increased as controlled freezing point aging progressed for 60 days. 18 species of amino acid were detected in raw pollack tripe and law salt fermented pollack tripe aged for 50 days. The major amino acids were tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, arginine, lycine, leucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in raw pollack tripe. After 50 days aging, increase of a series of bitter taste amino acid such as methionine, valine and isoleucine were higher than other amino acids.

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