• Title, Summary, Keyword: polycyclic aromatics

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Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments and Organisms from Korean Coast

  • Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Hee-Gu;Kim Sang-Soo;Jeong Seung-Ryul;Lee Pil-Yong;Ok Gon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2001
  • Surface sediments (0- 5 cm), mussels (Mytilus coruscus and M. edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were sampled at 20 stations in Korean coast during a period of February to July 2000. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer detector (GC/MSD). The sediment $\sum PAH$ concentration varied from 7 to 1,214 ng/g dry weight and the level of carcinogenic PAHs of six species ranged from 1 to 563 ng/g dry weight in surface sediments. In organisms, the levels of $\sum PAH$ were in the range of 63-876 ng/g dry weight and the concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs of six species were in the range of 4-582 ng/g dry weight. The highest PAH concentrations in sediments and organisms were in samples from Station 5 in Pohang coast and Station 8 in Jinhae coast, respectively. $\sum PAH$ concentrations in sediments and organisms collected from Korean coast were slightly low or comparable to those in other countries. The contribution of ring aromatic groups to sum of 16 PAHs in sediments and organisms showed a similar pattern for most stations. In sediments, the predominant contributions were four and five ring aromatics like fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. In the organisms, four ring aromatics like fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were predominant PAH species. Several molecular indices such as phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/pyrene and LMW/HMW ratio were used to identify the origin of PAH contamination in sediments. The results indicate that PAHs of Korean coast were mainly of pyro1ytic contaminants with slight petrogenic input. A high correlation within individual PAH compound in marine sediments was observed, while correlation in organisms showed a highly significant relationship for heavier molecular weight PAHs.

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Decoloration of Polycyclic Aromatic Dyes by Mushroom Fungi (버섯균에 의한 염료의 탈색)

  • Sancheti, Sandesh;Sancheti, Shruti;Seo, Sung-Yum
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2009
  • As waste-water disposal plants and oxidative biodegradation for the removal of waste polyaromatic dyes are proved to be ineffective due to the chemical stability of dyes, we studied various strains of mushroom fungi for the removal of these dyes. 100 fungi were isolated from the mushroom samples of 230 species collected in Korea. The growth medium containing a dye (Bromophenol Blue, Congo Red, or Methylene Blue) was inoculated to 10% and incubated for 7 days without shaking. The six strains which removed dyes effectively were selected for further studies with respect to removal of polycyclic aromatic dyes. For all strains, the rate of decoloration of dyes was increasing with Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue and Congo Red. The rate of decoloration was higher with stationary culture than with shaking culture. Adsorption of the dyes was the highest with Congo Red.

A New Method to Identify PCA Oil Type through Solvent Extraction and Separation Skills in a SBR Vulcanizate (SBR 가황물에서 용매추출 및 분리에 의한 PCA 오일 Type 확인법)

  • Kim, Min-Saeng;Sohn, Kyung-Suk;Lee, Jung-Hun;Kim, Ik-Sik;Choi, Sung-Seen
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2012
  • More than 3 wt% of polycyclic aromatics (PCAs) in process oil is known to cause skin cancer. The criterion of distinguishing between low PCA oil and high PCA oil is based on 3 wt% of PCA. High PCA oil is called as a carcinogen like distillate aromatic extract (DAE). Low PCA oil is considered as safety oils like treated distillate aromatic extract (TDAE), mild extract solvate (MES), and paraffinic oil. Four types of process oils such as DAE, TDAE, MES, and paraffinic oil purified by solvent extraction and separation skills from SBR vulcanizates were measured by FT-IR techniques. The effects of rubber chemicals such as N-1,3-dimethylbutyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylnenediamine (HPPD), polymerized 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMDQ), paraffin wax as antidegradants, and processing aid like Structol 40MS on paraffinic oil from SBR vulcanizates were also studied. The type of low or high PCA was identified by the relative abundance of absorbance at the aromatic substitution patterns of 864, 810, and $754cm^{-1}$ and at the paraffinic or naphthenic pattern of $721cm^{-1}$.

Level and Origin of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from Ulsan Bay, Korea

  • Moon, Hyo-Bang;Park, Hee-Gu;Kim, Sang-Soo;Lee, Pil-Yong
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.10 no.S_3
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2001
  • Surface sediments(0~5 cm) were sampled from 22 stations in Ulsan Bay, one of the most highly industrialized regions in Korea, in November 2000. The sediment samples were analyzed for their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) content using a gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer detector(GC/MSD). The total PAH concentrations in the sediments varied from 14 to 7108 ng/g dry weight with a mean value of 1052 ng/g dry weight. The level of carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 6 to 2396 ng/g dry weight with a mean value of 433 ng/g dry weight. The highest PAH concentrations in the sediments from Ulsan Bay were found at Station U8, whereas the lowest levels were observed at Stations U2 and U 17. The PAH distribution exhibited a decreasing gradient from the inner basin to the outer bay. The predominant contributors to the aromatic ring groups of the 16 PAHs were four- and five-ring groups, such as fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzor[b]fluoranthene, benzor[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene, while two- and three-ring aromatics, like naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, only exhibited a low concentration. The molecular indices for phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthen/pyrene were used to Identify the origin of the PAH contamination in the sediments. The results indicated that the PAH contamination in Ulsan Bay was mostly Pyrolytic in origin with a Petrogenic input adjacent to Ulsan and Jangsuengpo harbor.

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Estimation of PAHs Fluxes via Atmospheric Deposition and Riverine Discharge into the Masan Bay, Korea

  • Lee Su-Jeong;Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Minkyu;Goo Jun-Ho
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2005
  • Atmospheric deposition and riverine waters were sampled throughout a year, to estimate the loading fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the Masan Bay and its vicinity, Korea. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of total PAHs in the surveyed area varied from 62.2 to 464 ${\mu}g/m^2/year$. Concentration of total PAHs in water samples from six rivers ranged from 34.6 to 239 ng/L. Contribution of the carcinogenic PAHs to the total PAHs occupied $38\%$ and $50\%$ for atmospheric deposition and river waters, respectively. Atmospheric deposition fluxes and water concentrations of PAHs were slightly low or moderate to those in locations from some countries. Correspondence analysis was used to investigate the loading characteristics of PAHs according to transport routes. Atmospheric deposition samples were corresponded to higher molecular aromatics of PAHs, while riverine water samples were associated with lower molecular weight of PAHs. The results indicate that the higher-molecular-weight PAHs can be primarily transported by atmosphere deposition and the lower-molecular-weight PAHs can be mainly contaminated by riverine discharge into the Masan Bay and its vicinity. Loadings fluxes of PAHs into the Masan Bay and its vicinity were 39.2 g/day via atmosphere and 10.3 g/day via rivers, showing that atmospheric input was about 4 times higher than riverine one. Therefore, in order to minimize the contamination burden of PAHs from terrestrial sources to the Masan Bay and its vicinity, the control and management of PAHs deriving from atmosphere will be necessary.