• Title, Summary, Keyword: polyphenols

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Cancer Chemoprevention by Tea Polyphenols Through Modulating Signal Transduction Pathways

  • Lin, Jen-Kun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.561-571
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    • 2002
  • The action mechanisms of several chemopreventive agents derived from herbal medicine and edible plants have become attractive issues in cancer research. Tea is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide. Recently, the cancer chemopreventive actions of tea have been intensively investigated. It have been demonstrated that the active principles of tea were attributed to their tea polyphenols. Recently, tremendous progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by tea and tea polyphenols. The suppression of various tumor biomarkers including growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptor kinases, P13K, phosphatases, ras, raf, MAPK cascades, NㆍFB, IㆍB kinase, PKA, PKB, PKC, c-jun, c-fos, c-myc, cdks, cyclins, and related transducing proteins by tea polyphenols has been studied in our laboratory and others. The IㆍB kinase (IKK) activity in LPS-activated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) was found to be inhibited by various tea polyphenols including (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavin (TF-1), theaflavin-3-gal-late (TF-2) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3). TF-3 inhibited IKK activity in activated macrophages more strongly than did the other tea polyphenols. TF-3 inhibited both IKK1 and IKK2 activity and prevented the degradation of IㆍBㆍand IㆍBㆍin activated macrophage cells. The results suggested that the inhibition of IKK activity by TF-3 and other tea polyphenols could occur by a direct effect on IKKs or on upstream events in the signal transduction pathway. TF-3 and other tea polyphenols blocked phosphorylation of IB from the cytosolic fraction, inhibited NFB activity and inhibited increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in activated macrophage. TF-3 and other tea polyphenols also inhibited strongly the activities of xanthine oxidase, cyclooxygenase, EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C. These results suggest that TF-3 and other tea polyphenols may exert their cancer chemoprevention through suppressing tumor promotion and inflammation by blocking signal transduction. The mechanisms of this inhibition may be due to the blockade of the mitogenic and differentiating signals through modulating EGFR function, MAPK cascades, NFkB activation as wll as c-myc, c-jun and c-fos expression.

Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Conversion of Nicotine to Cotinine

  • Lee, Dong-Hee;Kim, Ha-Won
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2003
  • Nicotine is one of the major hazardous components in cigarettc smoke. Nicotine deals a harmful effect to smokers and passive smokers due to its rapid conversion to various carcinogenic metabolites. Nitrosamine-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is believed to cause lung cancers among the nicotine-derived carcinogens. Recent studies report that NNK synthesis can be inhibited by the metabolism pathway to produce a stable metabolite cotinine from nicotine. Tea polyphenols have been known to contain factors to prevent cancers and to retard progression of cancers. This study aims to correlate tea polyphenol's potential for cancer prevention with an accelerated formation of cotinine. The conversion from nicotine to cotinine in the presence of tea extracts or three polyphenols (Catechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate) was measured in established cell lines and in Xenopus oocytes. Among three lines of cell used, PLC/PRF5 and HEK293 cells showed a fast turnover from nicotine to cotinine while HepG2 cell line showed a marginal difference between groups treated and non-treated with tea polyphenols. When Xenopus oocytes were microinjected with nicotine, tea polyphenols appear to accelerate the conversion of nicotine to cotinine. Among the polyphenols tested in this study, (+)-catechin showed the best efficiency overall in accelerating conversion from nicotine to cotinine both in the cell lines and in the oocytes. In summary, the present study indicated that tea polyphenols have a positive effect on conversion of nicotine to cotinine.

Effects of polyphenols of Cocos nucifera husk fibreon selected indices of cardiovascular diseases in mice

  • Adebayo, Joseph Oluwatope;Adewumi, Olumuyiwa Sunday;Baruwa, Simbiat Titilayo;Balogun, Elizabeth Abidemi;Malomo, Sylvia Orume;Olatunji, Lawrence Aderemi;Soladoye, Ayodele Olufemi
    • CELLMED
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.12.1-12.7
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    • 2016
  • Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) oil is indigenously used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, coconut husk fibre (which is rich in polyphenols) has not been screened for this property. Based on the ethnomedicinal use of polyphenols in treating cardiovascular diseases, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of polyphenols of C. nucifera husk fibre on selected cardiovascular disease indices in mice. Fifty adult male Swiss albino mice were assigned randomly into five groups (A-E). Mice in groups B, C, D and E were administered 31.25, 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight polyphenols of ethyl acetate extract of C. nucifera husk fibre respectively while the control group (A) mice received 5% DMSO for seven days. The mice were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last administration of polyphenols. Heart and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and plasma lipid profile were determined. Results revealed significant reduction (*p< 0.05) in plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol with no significant change (*p> 0.05) in HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels in the plasma at all doses of polyphenols administered compared to controls. There was significant reduction (*p< 0.05) in the activities of heart AST and LDH while plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities were not significantly altered (*p> 0.05) at all doses of polyphenols administered compared to controls. These results suggest that the polyphenols of C. nucifera husk fibre possess cardio-protective properties and also indicate their possible use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Total polyphenols and antioxidant activties of the extract from leaves of Stachys sieboldii MIQ.

  • Baek, Hong-Seuk;Ryu, Beung-Ho;Song, Seung-Koo
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.563-566
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    • 2003
  • This study was proposed to measure total polyphenols and antioxidant activities from leaves of Stachys sieboldii MIQ. Solvents such as acetone 60%, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, and water were used for this purpose The fraction by ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest activity by DPPH method and contained much more polyphenols than those by other solvents.

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Protective Effects of Green Tea Polyphenol Against Renal Injury Through ROS-Mediated JNK-MAPK Pathway in Lead Exposed Rats

  • Wang, Haidong;Li, Deyuan;Hu, Zhongze;Zhao, Siming;Zheng, Zhejun;Li, Wei
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 2016
  • To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of polyphenols in treating Pb induced renal dysfunction and intoxication and to explore the detailed underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control groups (CT), Pb exposure groups (Pb), Pb plus Polyphenols groups (Pb+PP) and Polyphenols groups (PP). Animals were kept for 60 days and sacrificed for tests of urea, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Histological evaluations were then performed. In vitro studies were performed using primary kidney mesangial cells to reveal detailed mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate cell viability. Pb induced cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and scavenging were tested by DCFH-DA. Expression level of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin-1-${\beta}$ (IL-1-${\beta}$) and IL-6 were assayed by ELISA. Western blot and qPCR were used to measure the expression of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38. Polyphenols have obvious protective effects on Pb induced renal dysfunction and intoxication both in vivo and in vitro. Polyphenols reduced Pb concentration and accumulation in kidney. Polyphenols also protected kidney mesangial cells from Pb induced apoptosis. Polyphenols scavenged Pb induced ROS generation and suppressed ROS-mediated ERK/JNK/p38 pathway. Downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines were inhibited in consistency. Polyphenol is protective in Pb induced renal intoxication and inflammatory responses. The underlying mechanisms lie on the antioxidant activity and ROS scavenging activity of polyphenols.

EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOLS OF Cocos Nucifera HUSK FIBRE ON SELECTED KIDNEY FUNCTION INDICES IN MICE

  • Adebayo, Joseph Oluwatope;Owolabi, O.O.;Adewumi, O.S.;Balogun, E.A.;Malomo, S.O.
    • CELLMED
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.2.1-2.6
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    • 2019
  • Decoction of Cocos nucifera husk fibre is used indigenously in Nigeria for malaria treatment. Polyphenols have been identified as the phytochemicals responsible for the antimalarial activity of Cocos nucifera husk fibre, though their toxicity has not been evaluated. The polyphenols of Cocos nucifera husk fibre were therefore evaluated for their effects on selected kidney function indices in mice. Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups (A-E) of ten mice each. Mice in group A were orally administered 5% DMSO solution while those in groups B, C, D and E were orally administered 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/Kg body weight of the polyphenols respectively for seven days. Serum urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations were determined. Serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions and kidney alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities were also determined. The results showed that the polyphenols significantly reduced (p<0.05) urea concentration at 250 mg/Kg body weight and creatinine concentration at all doses compared to controls. The polyphenols caused no significant alteration (p>0.05) in serum uric acid concentration and kidney ALP, GGT and GDH activities compared to controls. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in serum sodium ion concentration at 31.25, 125 and 250 mg/Kg body weight of polyphenols whereas significant increase (p<0.05) in serum potassium and chloride ions was observed at 62.5 and 250 mg/Kg body weight compared to controls. Thus, polyphenols of Cocos nucifera husk fibre may adversely affect some osmoregulatory functions of the kidney, especially at higher concentrations.

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Superbacterial Activity of Polyphenols Isolated from Black Raspberry

  • Kim, Seong Keun;Kim, Hyuna;Kim, Song Ah;Park, Hee Kuk;Kim, Wonyong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2013
  • The fruit of the black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) has been employed in traditional medicine, and recent studies have demonstrated its measureable biological activities. However, the root of the black raspberry has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of the root and unripe fruit polyphenols of the black raspberry. Both polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the decreased nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 ($PGE_2$) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, root polyphenols showed stronger anti-inflammatory activity than fruit polyphenols. LPS-induced mRNA and protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels were also decreased, confirming the anti-inflammatory activity. Root polyphenols showed lethal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), and Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, the black raspberry fruit did not demonstrate these properties. These data provide the first demonstration that black raspberry root has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-superbacterial properties that can be exploited as alternatives for use in the food and cosmetic industries and/or as pharmaceuticals.

Studies on the Distribution of Polyphenols in the Parts of Quercus acutissima (상수리 나무중 Polyphenol 성분들의 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Ja Young;Cho, Sung Hye
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.478-484
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    • 1998
  • Distribution of polyphenolic compounds in oak tree (Quercus acutissima, three years old) collected from Forest Research Institute located in Kwang Leung, Kyeonggi-do, Korea, was investigated using chromatographic studies. Total 25 polyphenolic fractions were separated from an oak tree, of which 15, 11, 7, 7, and 4 were in leaf, stem, root, bark, and seed, respectively. Catechins are predominant compounds in the polyphenols and some flavonoids were also identified. Distribution of polyphenols was relatively different in each part. Polyphenols in all of the part studied, except leaf where polymer was not detected, were existed as polymeric, oligomeric, and monomeric forms. Relative contents of total polyphenols in Quercus acutissima were the highest in bark, followed by root, leaf, acorn, and stem. Monomeric polyphenols were the predominant compounds present in all of the part of the oak tree.

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Preparation and Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibers Containing Natural Antimicrobials (천연 향균물질 함유 나노섬유의 제조 및 특성분석)

  • Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Sang-Nam;Kwon, Oh-Kyoung;Park, Mi-Ran;Kang, Inn-Kyu;Lee, Se-Geun
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.307-312
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    • 2009
  • The fabrication of PHBV nanofibers containing various plant polyphenols by electrospinning has been examined. It has been found that the average diameters of fibers increased by the adding of polyphenols. The resulting fibers exhibited a uniform diameter ranging from 340 to 450 nm. As the concentration of polyphenols increased, the diameter of fibers increased due to the hydrogen bonding interaction between the ester groups of PHBV and hydroxyl groups of polyphenols. The interaction between PHBV and polyphenols, which forms a complex together in solution, was verifed by UV measurement. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed the existence of the hydrogen bonding interaction. The semicrystalline structure of the PHBV nanofiber was observed from XRD pattern. The crystallinity of PHBV nanofibers was increased by the adding of polyphenols. PHBV nanofibers containing polyphenols showed superior antimicrobial activities.

Effects of Chlorophyll Addition and Light on the Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Changes of Perilla Oil Emulsion (들기름 에멀젼의 산화안정성 및 산화방지제에 대한 클로로필 첨가 및 빛의 영향)

  • Choe, Jeesu;Choe, Eunok
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2013
  • Lipid oxidation and antioxidants changes in perilla oil emulsion added with chlorophyll were studied during storage in the dark or under 1,700 lux light at $25^{\circ}C$ for 48 h. The emulsion was consisted of perilla oil (33.12 g), 5% acetic acid (66.23 g), egg yolk powder (0.5 g), and xanthan gum (0.15 g), and Chlorophyll b was added to the emulsion at 0, 2.5 and 4 mg/kg. The lipid oxidation was evaluated by headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide formation, and tocopherols and polyphenols were monitored by HPLC and spectrophotometry at 725 nm, respectively. The lipid oxidation of the perilla oil emulsion in the dark was not significant regardless of the addition of chlorophyll. Light increased and accelerated the lipid oxidation of the emulsion, and increased addition level of chlorophyll under light increased it further. However, there was no significant change in fatty acid composition in any case. Contents of tocopherols and polyphenols in the emulsion were not significantly changed during storage in the dark regardless of chlorophyll addition, indicating their little degradation. Tocopherols and polyphenols in the emulsion were significantly degraded during storage of the emulsion under light, and the degradation rate of polyphenols was increased with addition level of chlorophyll. The lipid oxidation of the perilla oil emulsion was inversely related with the residual amounts of tocopherols and polyphenols, with more dependent on the retention of polyphenols than that of tocopherols.