• Title, Summary, Keyword: positive recurrent

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SOME LIMIT THEOREMS FOR POSITIVE RECURRENT AGE-DEPENDENT BRANCHING PROCESSES

  • Kang, Hye-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2001
  • In this paper we consider an age dependent branching process whose particles move according to a Markov process with continuous state space. The Markov process is assumed to the stationary with independent increments and positive recurrent. We find some sufficient conditions for he Markov motion process such that the empirical distribution of the positions converges to the limiting distribution of the motion process.

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Asymptotic Distributions of Maximum Queue Lengths for M/G/1 and GI/M/i Systems

  • Park, You-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 1995
  • In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic distributions of maximum queue length for M/G/1 and GI/M/1 systems which are positive recurrent. It is well knwon that for any positive recurrent queueing systems, the distributions of their maxima linearly normalized do not have non-degenerate limits. We show, however, that by concerning an array of queueing processes limiting behaviors of these maximum queue lengths can be established under certain conditions.

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The Role of State Budget Expenditure on Economic Growth: Empirical Study in Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Hieu Huu
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2019
  • Many authors have examined the impact of public spending on economic growth. This study uses ordinary least-squares technique to test the effect of state budget expenditure with two major components: development investment expenditure and recurrent expenditure on Vietnamese economy for the period 2000-2017. The empirical results show that the state budget expenditure of Vietnam has positive effect on the economy, however each main component has different impacts. Recurrent expenditure has significant positive impact on Vietnamese economy while there has no evidence to affirm the relationship between the development investment expenditure and the economic growth. Vietnamese government should restructure the state budget to enhance the positive effect on the economy. In the short run, Vietnam should not increase development investment expenditure due to low efficency in public investment. In the long run, it is necessary to economize recurrent expenditure to reserve a reasonable proportion of state budget for development investment expenditure to build infrastructure for developing the economy. The state budget expenditure should be restructured towards prioritizing recurrent expenditure on human and social relief, reducing public administration expenditure, allocating investment capital from the state budget for key and pervasive projects, avoiding spreading out investments as well as crowding out private investments.

Imaging Surveillance for Survivors of Breast Cancer: Correlation between Cancer Characteristics and Method of Detection

  • Chu, A Jung;Chang, Jung Min;Cho, Nariya;Moon, Woo Kyung
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics of primary and recurrent breast cancers and the correlation between cancer subtypes and detection modes. Methods: Between 2003 and 2013, 147 cases of recurrent breast cancer in 137 women (mean age, $45.30{\pm}10.78years$) were identified via an annual clinical examination using radiological studies among 6,169 patients with a breast cancer history (mean followup period, $13.26{\pm}1.78years$). Clinical, radiological, and pathological findings including immunohistochemistry findings of primary and recurrent cancers were reviewed. The size of the tumor in primary and recurrent cancers, disease-free survival, methods of surgery, and the recurrence detection modalities were analyzed with respect to the breast cancer subtype. Results: Ipsilateral and contralateral in-breast recurrence occurred in 105, 21 had axillary lymph node recurrence, and 21 had chest wall recurrences. The subtypes of the primary cancers were hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative (HR+HER2-) in 57, HER2 positive (HER2+) in 39, and triple-negative type in 51, and the recurrent cancers in each subtype showed the same type as the primary cancer in 84.3% of cases. In the in-breast recurrent cancers, the HR+HER2- cancers were most frequently detected using ultra-sonography (15/43) followed by mammography (MG) (11/43). The HER2+ recurrent cancers were most commonly detected using MG (14/31, 45.2%), whereas triple-negative type recurrent cancers most commonly presented as symptomatic masses (15/31) (p=0.028). Conclusion: Most recurrent breast cancers showed the same cancer subtype as the primary tumor, and recurrent breast cancer subtypes correlated with the detection modality. Imaging surveillance of survivors of breast cancer might be more beneficial in cases of HR+HER2- type breast cancer or HER2+ type breast cancer than in cases of triple-negative type breast cancer.

A Study of Lupus Anticoagulants and Anticardiolipin Antibodies in Patients with Infertility and Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (불임환자와 반복자연유산 환자에서 루프스 항응고인자와 항카디오리핀 항체에 대한 연구)

  • Nam, Yoon-Sung;Cha, Kwang-Yul;Baek, Jin-Young;Kim, Nam-Keun;Kang, Myung-Seo;Oh, Do-Yeon
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2002
  • Objective : To report the prevalence of lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and infertility. Material and Method: Lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies were analyzed by Diluted Russell's Viper Venom Test (DRVVT) and solid phase enzyme immunoassay, respectively. Results : In 200 patients with infertility, there were 6 cases (3%) with positive lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies. Of these, 3 patients (1.5%) showed positive lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies, respectively. In 120 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion, there were 13 cases (10.8%) of positive lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies. Of these, one patient (1%) showed lupus anticoagulants and 12 patients (10%) showed anticardiolipin antibodies. But in two groups, there was no cases with positive lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies. Conclusion: Lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies are definite cause of recurrent spontaneous abortion. There has been a speculation that they might be associated with infertility and repeated IVF failures. But it was found that the role of lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies in these cases are not clear.

Biceps Load Test: A Test of SLAP lesion in the Recurrent Anterior Dislocation of the Shoulder (이두건 부하 검사(Biceps Load Test): 견관절 재발성 전방 탈구시 SLAP 병변 진단의 새로운 검사방법)

  • Kim Seung-Ho;Ha Kwon-Ick;Han Kye-Young
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 1998
  • The following will describe a method of evaluating the SLAP lesion in the recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. We have named it the biceps load test. The biceps load test is performed with the patient in the supine position and the arm to be examined is abducted 90/sup°/, and the forearm is in the supinated position. First, the anterior apprehension test is performed. When the patient become apprehensive, the patient is allowed active flexion of the elbow, while the examiner resists elbow flexion. If the apprehension is relieved or diminished, the test is negative. If aggravated or unchanged, the test is positive. A prospective study was performed, in which 75 patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent unilateral anterior instability of the shoulder underwent the biceps load test and arthroscopic examination. The biceps load test showed negative results in 64 of these patients, of which the superior labral-biceps complex was intact'in 63 cases and only I shoulder revealed a type n SLAP lesion. E]even patients with a positive test were confirmed to have type n SLAP lesions. A positive biceps load test represents an unstable SLAP lesion in a patient with recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. The biceps load test is a reliable test for evaluating the SLAP lesion in the recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder(sensitivity: ,9] .7%, specificity: 100%, positive predictive value: 1.00 and negative predictive value: 0.98). Biceps contraction increases the torsional rigidity ?of the glenohumeral joint and long head of biceps tendan act as internal rotator of the shoulder in the abducted and externally rotated position. These stabilize the shoulder in abduction and external rotation position in the biceps load test.

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DISTRIBUTIONAL CHAOS AND DISTRIBUTIONAL CHAOS IN A SEQUENCE OCCURRING ON A SUBSET OF THE ONE-SIDED SYMBOLIC SYSTEM

  • Tang, Yanjie;Yin, Jiandong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.57 no.1
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this paper is to show that for the one-sided symbolic system, there exist an uncountable distributively chaotic set contained in the set of irregularly recurrent points and an uncountable distributively chaotic set in a sequence contained in the set of proper positive upper Banach density recurrent points.

Incidence Analysis of Recurrent Milk Fever in Korean Domestic Dairy Cattle (국내 사육중인 젖소에서 발생하는 재발성 유열의 특징 분석)

  • Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon;Rho, Gyu-Jin
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-34
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    • 2019
  • Milk fever is a metabolic disease with manifestation of clinical signs due to hypocalcemia, which usually occurs within 48-72 h after delivery. However, even after a successful treatment of milk fever, recurrence of milk fever may occur, and studies on recurrent milk fever are still lacking. Accordingly, the present study was conducted for the purpose of identifying the characteristics of recurrent milk fever according to farm, season, parity, and dystocia that can cause physiological changes in the mother during peri- and postpartum periods. The analysis results showed that the incidence rate of initial and recurrent milk fever according to breeding farm was 5.7%-14.1% and 3.1%-7.2%, respectively, demonstrating a positive correlation between the initial and recurrent milk fever (r = 0.613, p < 0.01). With respect to season, the incidence rate of initial and recurrent milk fever during summer was 12.3% and 7.5%, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of other seasons (p < 0.05). In addition, the recurrence rate, the ratio of recurrence relative to initial milk fever, was highest during summer with 62.7%. Regarding parity, the incidence rate of initial and recurrent milk fever in 3rd parity was 11.1% and 5.8%, respectively, which was significantly higher than in 1st and 2nd parity (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the recurrence rate in 4th parity was 64.1%, showing a pattern of increase in incidence rate with increase in parity. Finally, there were no differences in the incidence rate of initial and recurrent milk fever according to eutocia and dystocia. The findings indicated that the incidence rate of initial milk fever should be reduced to effectively prevent the recurrent milk fever, while animals with 3rd parity or higher should be expected to occur high rate of recurrent milk fever, especially during summer, and the necessary preparations should be made for intensive treatment of such individuals.

Recurrent Neural Network with Backpropagation Through Time Learning Algorithm for Arabic Phoneme Recognition

  • Ismail, Saliza;Ahmad, Abdul Manan
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1033-1036
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    • 2004
  • The study on speech recognition and understanding has been done for many years. In this paper, we propose a new type of recurrent neural network architecture for speech recognition, in which each output unit is connected to itself and is also fully connected to other output units and all hidden units [1]. Besides that, we also proposed the new architecture and the learning algorithm of recurrent neural network such as Backpropagation Through Time (BPTT, which well-suited. The aim of the study was to observe the difference of Arabic's alphabet like "alif" until "ya". The purpose of this research is to upgrade the people's knowledge and understanding on Arabic's alphabet or word by using Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Backpropagation Through Time (BPTT) learning algorithm. 4 speakers (a mixture of male and female) are trained in quiet environment. Neural network is well-known as a technique that has the ability to classified nonlinear problem. Today, lots of researches have been done in applying Neural Network towards the solution of speech recognition [2] such as Arabic. The Arabic language offers a number of challenges for speech recognition [3]. Even through positive results have been obtained from the continuous study, research on minimizing the error rate is still gaining lots attention. This research utilizes Recurrent Neural Network, one of Neural Network technique to observe the difference of alphabet "alif" until "ya".

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Recurrent macrophage activation syndrome since toddler age in an adolescent boy with HLA B27 positive juvenile ankylosing spondylitis

  • Park, Joon Hyeong;Seo, Yu Mi;Han, Seung Beom;Kim, Ki Hwan;Rhim, Jung Woo;Chung, Nack Gyun;Kim, Myung Shin;Kang, Jin Han;Jeong, Dae Chul
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.10
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    • pp.421-424
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    • 2016
  • Recurrent macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is very rare. We present the case of an adolescent boy with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), who experienced episodes of recurrent MAS since he was a toddler. A 16-year-old boy was admitted because of remittent fever with pancytopenia and splenomegaly after surgical intervention for an intractable perianal abscess. He had been diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) 4 different times, which was well controlled with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids since the age of 3. We were unable to identify the cause for the HLH. He remained symptom-free until the development of back pain and right ankle joint pain with swelling at 15 years of age. He was diagnosed with HLA B27-positive AS with bilateral active sacroiliitis. He showed symptom aggravation despite taking naproxen and methotrexate, and the symptoms improved with etanercept. On admission, his laboratory data showed leukopenia with high ferritin and triglyceride levels. Bone marrow biopsy examination showed histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis. There was no evidence of infection. He received naproxen alone, and his symptoms and laboratory data improved without any other immunomodulatory medications. Genetic study revealed no primary HLH or inflammasome abnormalities. In this case, underlying autoimmune disease should have been considered as the cause of recurrent MAS in the young patient once primary HLH was excluded.