• Title, Summary, Keyword: post-digital generation

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Fabrication and Characterization of Lead Oxide (PbO) Film for High Efficiency X-ray Detector (고효율 X선 검출기 적용을 위한 PbO 필름 제작 및 특성 연구)

  • Cho, Sung-Ho;Kang, Sang-Sik;Choi, Chi-Won;Kwun, Chul;Nam, Sang-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.329-329
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    • 2007
  • Photoconductive poly crystalline lead oxide coated on amorphous thin film transistor (TFT) arrays is the best candidate for direct digital x-ray detector for medical imaging. Thicker films with lessening density often show lower x-ray induced charge generation and collection becomes less efficient. In this work, we present a new methodology used for the high density deposition of PbO. We investigate the structural properties of the films using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy experiments. The film coatings of approximately $200\;{\mu}m$ thickness were deposited on $2"{\times}2"$ conductive-coated glass substrates for measurements of dark current and x-ray sensitivity. The lead oxide (PbO) films of $200\;{\mu}m$ thickness were deposited on glass substrates using a wet coating process in room temperature. The influence of post-deposition annealing on the characteristics of the lead oxide films was investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy have been employed to obtain information on the morphology and crystallization of the films. Also we measured dark current, x-ray sensitivity and linearity for investigation of the electrical characteristics of films. It was found that the annealing conditions strongly affect the electrical properties of the films. The x-ray induced output charges of films annealed in oxygen gas increases dramatically with increasing annealing temperatures up to $500^{\circ}C$ but then drops for higher temperature anneals. Consequently, the more we increase the annealing temperatures, the better density and film quality of the lead oxide. Analysis of this data suggests that incorporation and decomposition reactions of oxygen can be controlled to change the detection properties of the lead oxide film significantly. Post-deposition thermal annealing is also used for densely film. The PbO films that are grown by new methodology exhibit good morphology of high density structure and provide less than $10\;pA/mm^2$ dark currents as they show saturation in gain (at approximate fields of $4\;V/{\mu}m$). The ability to operate at low voltage gives adequate dark currents for most applications and allows voltage electronics designs.

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Analysis of the Time-dependent Relation between TV Ratings and the Content of Microblogs (TV 시청률과 마이크로블로그 내용어와의 시간대별 관계 분석)

  • Choeh, Joon Yeon;Baek, Haedeuk;Choi, Jinho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.163-176
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    • 2014
  • Social media is becoming the platform for users to communicate their activities, status, emotions, and experiences to other people. In recent years, microblogs, such as Twitter, have gained in popularity because of its ease of use, speed, and reach. Compared to a conventional web blog, a microblog lowers users' efforts and investment for content generation by recommending shorter posts. There has been a lot research into capturing the social phenomena and analyzing the chatter of microblogs. However, measuring television ratings has been given little attention so far. Currently, the most common method to measure TV ratings uses an electronic metering device installed in a small number of sampled households. Microblogs allow users to post short messages, share daily updates, and conveniently keep in touch. In a similar way, microblog users are interacting with each other while watching television or movies, or visiting a new place. In order to measure TV ratings, some features are significant during certain hours of the day, or days of the week, whereas these same features are meaningless during other time periods. Thus, the importance of features can change during the day, and a model capturing the time sensitive relevance is required to estimate TV ratings. Therefore, modeling time-related characteristics of features should be a key when measuring the TV ratings through microblogs. We show that capturing time-dependency of features in measuring TV ratings is vitally necessary for improving their accuracy. To explore the relationship between the content of microblogs and TV ratings, we collected Twitter data using the Get Search component of the Twitter REST API from January 2013 to October 2013. There are about 300 thousand posts in our data set for the experiment. After excluding data such as adverting or promoted tweets, we selected 149 thousand tweets for analysis. The number of tweets reaches its maximum level on the broadcasting day and increases rapidly around the broadcasting time. This result is stems from the characteristics of the public channel, which broadcasts the program at the predetermined time. From our analysis, we find that count-based features such as the number of tweets or retweets have a low correlation with TV ratings. This result implies that a simple tweet rate does not reflect the satisfaction or response to the TV programs. Content-based features extracted from the content of tweets have a relatively high correlation with TV ratings. Further, some emoticons or newly coined words that are not tagged in the morpheme extraction process have a strong relationship with TV ratings. We find that there is a time-dependency in the correlation of features between the before and after broadcasting time. Since the TV program is broadcast at the predetermined time regularly, users post tweets expressing their expectation for the program or disappointment over not being able to watch the program. The highly correlated features before the broadcast are different from the features after broadcasting. This result explains that the relevance of words with TV programs can change according to the time of the tweets. Among the 336 words that fulfill the minimum requirements for candidate features, 145 words have the highest correlation before the broadcasting time, whereas 68 words reach the highest correlation after broadcasting. Interestingly, some words that express the impossibility of watching the program show a high relevance, despite containing a negative meaning. Understanding the time-dependency of features can be helpful in improving the accuracy of TV ratings measurement. This research contributes a basis to estimate the response to or satisfaction with the broadcasted programs using the time dependency of words in Twitter chatter. More research is needed to refine the methodology for predicting or measuring TV ratings.

The study of stereoscopic editing process with applying depth information (깊이정보를 활용한 입체 편집 프로세스 연구)

  • Baek, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Min-Seo;Han, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Digital Contents Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2012
  • The 3D stereoscopic image contents have been emerging as the blue chip of the contents market of the next generation since the . However, all the 3D contents created commercially in the country have failed to enter box office. It is because the quality of Korean 3D contents is much lower than that of overseas contents and also current 3D post production process is based on 2D. Considering all these facts, the 3D editing process has connection with the quality of contents. The current 3D editing processes of the production case of are using the way that edits with the system on basis of 2D, followed by checking with 3D display system and modifying, if there are any problems. In order to improve those conditions, I suggest that the 3D editing process contain more objectivity by visualizing the depth data applied in some composition work such as Disparity map, Depth map, and the current 3D editing process. The proposed process has been used in the music drama , comparing with those of the film . The 3D values could be checked among cuts which have been changed a lot since those of , while the 3D value of drew an equal result in general. Since the current process is based on an artist's subjective sense of 3D, it could be changed according to the condition and state of the artist. Furthermore, it is impossible for us to predict the positive range, so it is apprehended that the cubic effect of space might be perverted by showing each different 3D value according to cuts in the same space or a limited space. On the other hand, the objective 3D editing by applying the visualization of depth data can adjust itself to the cubic effect of the same space and the whole content equally, which will enrich the 3D contents. It will even be able to solve some problems such as distortion of cubic effect and visual fatigue, etc.