• Title, Summary, Keyword: potassium balance

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A Comparative Study of Acidemia-induced Hyperkalemia and Hyperkalemia-induced Acidemia (산혈증 유발 고칼륨혈증과 고칼륨혈증 유발 산혈증의 비교 연구)

  • Yoon, Jun-Oh;Park, Choon-Ok;Hwang, Sang-Ik;Kim, Chong-Whan;Kim, Woo-Gyeum
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1990
  • A comparative study of acid-base balance has been made between acidemia-induced hyperkalemia and hyperkalemia-induced acidemia. A group of rabbits was infused 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution and metabolic acidosis was induced. Another group was administered 20 mM potassium chloride solution and hyperkalemia was induced. The third group was infused 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and 20 mM potassium chloride solution, simultaneously. Acid-base data and plasma potassium ion concentration were monitored every thirty minutes in these three groups of rabbits. Following results were obtained: 1 ) Along with the infusion of hydrochloric acid, acute metabolic acidosis was induced in the rabbits. Plasma bicarbonate ion concentration decreased primarily in this group. As a respiratory compensation, there was a tendency of reduction of arterial $Pco_{2}$. The alteration of data became larger along with the amount of administration and the time elapsed. However, hyperkalemia was not so severe compared with the second group. 2) In potassium chloride infused group, plasma potassium ion concentration increased along with the time elapsed and the amount of infusion. And the alteration of acid-base data was parrallel to the level of potassium ion concentration, above all depression of pH was prominent. 3) Above data suggest that when acute metabolic acidosis was induced, exchange of intracellular potassium ion with extracellular hydrogen ion seems significant for the regulation of extracellular acid-base balance. And when hyperkalemia was induced with the infusion of potassium chloride solution, the exchange of intracellular hydrogen ion with extracellular potassium ion also seems significant for the regulation of extracellular potassium balance. 4) In the group of rabbits infused hydrochloric acid and potassium simultaneously, disturbances of acid-base balance and potassium balance were much more severe than two other groups. In these mixed disturbances, the process of compensatory mechanism might be inhibited and one disturbance might aggregate each other. 5) Through above data it has been postulated that in acid-base disturbance potassium balance can be sacrificed as a compensatory mechanism, and vice versa in disturbance of potassium balance. And our data also suggest that hydrogen ion and potassium ion are compensatory pair, one another.

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Sodium and Potassium Balance and Their Relation to Nutrient Intakes in Young Adult Men and Women

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate sodium and potassium balances, as well as correlations among the relating factors in adult males and females. We collected blood, urine and feces samples as well as a dietary intake survey from 50 subjects. Then, we analyzed the sodium and potassium contents in blood, urine and feces, and evaluated their state of balance. The average ages of the study targets were 24.7 years old for males and 22.8 years old for females. The daily energy intake by the males was 1733.4 kcal and by the females was 1570.3 kcal. Sodium intakes were 138.3 mEq and 127.5 mEq for males and females, respectively. Potassium intakes were 43.1 mEq and 49.3 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of sodium through urine were 136.6 mEq by males and 97.0 mEq by females and the excretions through feces were 2.2 mEq and 2.0 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of potassium through urine were 20.2 mEq and 16.5 mEq by males and females respectively, and the excretions through feces were 7.7 mEq and 7.5 mEq male to female. The retention rates of sodium were 11.7% and 14.1% male to female, respectively, and the apparent absorption rates were 98.5% and 97.8%. Additionally, the retention rates of potassium were 32.9% and 39.8% and the apparent absorptions were 81.9% and 81.3%, both male and female. It was noted that, overall, the sodium intake of adult males and females is still higher than the recommended daily sodium intake, while the potassium intakes and excretions were found to be lower. Based on the results of this study, nutritional guidance and education is recommended to encourage decreased sodium intake and increased potassium intake, according to recommended standards.

The effect of Ca Supplementatin on the Metabolism of Sodium and Potassium and Blood Pressure in College Women (칼슘보충이 여대생의 나트륨, 칼륨 대사 및 혈압에 미치는 영향)

  • 김희선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 1997
  • This study was desiged to investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on the metabolism of sodium and potassium and blood pressure in seven healthy college women, aged from 19 to 21 years old. For this purpose, metabolic studies were conducted for two weeks. During the first week, the subjects ate experimental diet of which nutrients composition was similar to their usual intake. And during the consecutive second week, they ate the same experimental diet supplemented with 500mg or calcium daily. The results were summarized as follows : 1) Urinary excretion of sodium was significantly increased(p<0.05), but fecal excretion and retention of it was not affected by supplementary intake of calcium. 2) Potassium balance was not changed after additional intake of calcium. 3) Serum sodium and potassium level decreased significantly(p<0.05), but aldosterone and renin levels in serum were not changed by additional intake of calcium. 4) Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was not affected, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by supplementation of calcium. The above results showed that daily supplementary intake of calcium can be effective to decrease diastolic blood pressure through inducing the change of sodium metabolism in young women eating usual Korean diets.

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Maximization of Poly-$\beta$-Hydroxybutyrate Accumulation by Potassium Limitation in Methylobacterium organophilum and Its Related Metabolic Analysis

  • Kim, Seon-Won;Kim, Pil;Kim, Jung-Hoe
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 1999
  • When methanol was the sole carbon source, Methylobacterium organophilum NCIB 11278, a facultative methylotroph, accumulated Poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as 59% (w/w) of dry cell weight under potassium limitation, 37% under sulfate limitation, and 33% under nitrogen limitation. Based on a stoichiometric analysis of PHB synthesis from methanol, it was suspected that PHB synthesis is accompanied by the overproduction of energy, either 6-10 ATP and 1 $FADH_2$ or 6 ATP and 3 NADPH to balance the NADH requirement, per PHB monomer. This was confirmed by observation of increased intracellular ATP levels during PHB accumulation. The intracellular ATP with limited potassium, sulfate, and ammonium increased to 0.185, 0.452, and 0.390 $\mu$moles ATP/g Xr (residual cell mass) during PHB accumulation, respectively. The intracellular ATP level under potassium limitation was similar to that when there was no nutrient limitation and no PHB accumulation, 0.152- 0.186 $\mu$moles ATP/g Xr. We propose that the maximum PHB accumulation observed when potassium was limited is a result of the energy balance during PHB accumulation. Microorganisms have high energy requirements under potassium limitation. Enhanced PHB accumulation, in ammonium and sulfate limited conditions with the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol, which dissipates surplus energy, proves this assumption. With the addition of 1 mM of 2,4-dinitrophenol, the PHB content increased from 32.4% to 58.5% of dry cell weight when nitrogen limited and from 15.1 % to 31.0% of dry cell weight when sulfate limited.

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Effects of Rice Straw Compost Application on Exchangeable Potassium in Long-term Fertilization Experiments of Paddy Soils

  • Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2016
  • In an experiment conducted at the research field of the National Institute of Agricultural Science, we investigated the effects of mineral fertilizer and rice straw compost on exchangeable potassium and K balances, and rice grain yield under a rice single system. The treatments were no fertilization (No fert.), inorganic fertilization (N), inorganic fertilizer (N, P, K) plus rice straw compost at rates of 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and $30.0ton\;ha^{-1}$ (NPKC7.5, NPKC15.0, NPKC22.5, and NPKC30.0, respectively). The inorganic fertilizers(N, P, K) were added with standard fertilizer application rate in which nitrogen (N), phosphate ($P_2O_5$), and potassium ($K_2O$) were applied with $75{\sim}150kg\;ha^{-1}$, $70{\sim}86kg\;ha^{-1}$, $75{\sim}86kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. Exchangeable potassium for NPKC15.0 NPKC22.5, and NPK30.0 treatments was higher by $0.05{\sim}0.19cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ than that of NPKC7.5 treatment. Increasing levels of rice straw compost resulted in an increase in the K balance from - $19.9kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ (No fert.) to $41.9kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ at NPKC22.5 treatment and $62.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ at NPKC30.0 treatment. Continuous application of rice straw compost with NPK fertilizers affected significantly the rice grain yields. The result of the study imply that the application of more than $22.5ton\;ha^{-1}$ of rice straw compost with NPK fertilizers are recommended as the best fertilization practice for enhancement of crop production and K supplying power of soil in the continuous rice cropping system.

Characteristics and functions of shaker like potassium channels in rice (벼 shaker like potassium channel들의 특성과 기능)

  • Hwang, Hyun-Sik;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Jeong, Min-A;Kim, Dong-Hern;Byun, Myung-Ok;Kim, Beom-Gi
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.539-548
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    • 2010
  • Potassium ($K^+$) is one of the most abundant cations in higher plant. It comprises about 10% of plant dry weight and it plays roles in numerous functions such as osmo- and turgor regulation, charge balance of plasma membrane and control of stomata and organ movement. Several potassium transporters and potassium channels regulate $K^+$ homeostasis in response to $K^+$ uptake systems. In this review, we describe the biological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of shaker like potassium channels in higher plant. Especially, we searched the rice genome databases and analysized expressed genes, genome structures and protein domain characteristics of shaker like potassium channels.

A Study on the Intkae-Balance of Sodium and Potassium of College Men of Korea (한국 남자 대학생의 Sodium 과 Potassium 평형에 관한 연구)

  • 오승호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.538-545
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    • 1991
  • This study measured the daily intake and excretion of sodium and potassium of eight 20-26years old college men during four weeks by means of analyzing their food intake, urine and feces, keeping their normal living pattern and body weight. This study also compared the actual measurement value of sodium and potassium intake by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the conversion value of them by food table. The results are as follows ; Daily mean sodium intakes conversed ($2.36{\pm}0.03g/day$) was about 63% lower than those intakes meansured($6.36{\pm}0.13g/day$). Daily mean potassium intakes conversed($1.71{\pm}0.03g/day$) was not different of sodium and potassium were $5.49{\pm}0.19g/day\;and\;1.33{\pm}0.08g/day$, respectively. Daily mean fecal excretions of sodium and potassium were $0.24{\pm}0.02g/day\;and\;0.45{\pm}0.03g/day$, respectively. Mean prooportion of Na/K in urine was $4.3{\pm}0.1$.

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Sensitivity of Rice Plant to Potassium Stress at Various Growth Stages -I. Effect of potassium depression on the nutrient content (생육시기별(生育時期別) 수도(水稻)의 가리부족(加里不足)에 대(對)한 감수성(感受性) -I 양분함량(養分含量)에 대(對)한 가리흠제(加里欠除)의 영향(影響))

  • Park, Hoon;Mok, Sung Kyun;Kwon, Hang Gwang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 1974
  • Effect of tow or three week potassium depression on nutrient contents in two rice varieties, Jinheung (a leading local) and IR 667-Suwon 214 (high yielding tropical line), was investigated at various growth stages in water culture system for the nutritional elucidation of potassium top dressing. According to potassium content, potassium ratio beween leaf blade and leaf sheath plus culm, relative potassium content ($-k/+k{\times}100$) and balance between potassium and other nutrients (K/N or K/Ca+Mg) it could be concluded as follows: 1) Rice plants have three sensitive growth stages to potassium stress in the orther of ear formation stage (20 to 30 days before heading) early tillering (15 to 25 days after transplanting) and at heading. 2) IR 667 is more sensitive to potassium stress than Jinheung, especially in early stage due to lower uptake of potassium. 3) Leaf sheath of IR 667 appears to have a role as potassium reservoir to greater extent than that of Jinheung.

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Effects of Dojuksan on the Renal Function in Rats (導赤散이 白鼠 腎臟機能에 미치는 影響)

  • Yun, Hyun-ja;Yun, Young-gap;Kang, Sun-soo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 1999
  • This study has been carried out to investigate the effects of Dojuksan on the renal functions and internal secretion system, as water balance, urine volume, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, free water clearance, urinary excretion of creatinine, plasma levels of artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plasma levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity, comparing experimental group which Dojuksan water extract were administrated with control group. Sprague-Dawley rats, about 200-250 g, were used for this experiment. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Water balance decreased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract. 2. Urine volume increased significantly after the administration of $100{\mu}l$ Dojuksan water extract per 100g rat. 3. Urinary excretion of sodium increased significantly but urinary excretion of potassium did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract. 4. Free water clearance decreased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 5. Urinary excretion of creatinine increased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 6. Plasma renin activity did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 7. Plasma levels of artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 8. Plasma levels of aldosterone decreased significantly after the administration of 200 ${\mu}Dojuksan water extract per l00g rat The results suggest that Dojuksan increase the urinary excretion of sodium. and thus reduce the water balance, which resulted from suppression of sodium reabsorption into renal tubule by increasing glomerular filtration rate and decreasing aldosterone.

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A Study on Sodium and Potassium Balance of College Women in Seoul (서울지역 일부 여대생의 나트륨과 칼륨평형에 관한 연구)

  • 이영근;승정자;최미경
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate Na and K balances in healthy adult women. Anthropometric assessments, biochemical analysis of blood, 3-day dietary flood records and collections of 3-day food, 24-hr urine and faces were performed to evaluate intakes and excretions of Na and K in 20 college women living in Seoul. The mean BMI and blood pressure of the subjects were 21.08 and 110.25/67.50mmHg, respectively. Mean daily intake of energy was 1578.84kcal, 79% of Korean RDA. Also, daily intakes of Na and K ware 120.86mEq and 44.20mEq. The urinary and fecal excretions of Na were 99.88 and 4.45mEq/day, and those of K were 30.41 and 8.66mEq/day, respectively. The body retention, retention rate, and apparent absorption of Na were 17.11mEq, 13.23%, and 96.31%, and those of K were 5.82mEq, 8.69%, and 80.12%, respectively. The urinary and fecal Na/K ratio were 3.48 and 0.52. There were significantly positive correlations between 1) urinary Na, K excretions and intakes of Na or K, 2) urinary K and BMI, 3) serum K and serum globulin, and 4) urinary Na excretion and serum haptoglobin level, respectively. The results of this study show that Na intake was higher and K intake was lower than those of other advanced nations. Therefore, nutrition education show instruct people to reduce Na intake and to increase K intake.

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