• Title, Summary, Keyword: potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$

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Effect of potassium permanganate pretreatment of pitch on the textural properties of pitch-based activated carbons

  • Kim, Dae-Won;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2011
  • Petroleum pitch-based activated carbons (ACs) were obtained in this work from a combination of pretreatment with different amounts of potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) and chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. The surface characteristics of the pitch after the $KMnO_4$ pretreatment were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The structural characteristics of the pitch after the $KMnO_4$ pretreatment were determined by means of X-ray diffraction. The influence of the $KMnO_4$ treatment on the textural properties of the petroleum pitch-based ACs was investigated by means of $N_2$/77K adsorption isotherms. The investigation also involved the use of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation and the Dubinin-Radushkevich method. The FT-IR results show that the pretreatment promotes the formation of surface oxygen functionalities and leads to an increase of the interplanar distance ($d_{002}$) of the functional groups induced between carbon layers. Moreover, the specific surface area of the pitch-based ACs increases in proportion to the amount of $KMnO_4$ pretreatment and reaches its highest value of 2334 $m^2$/g with 2 g of $KMnO_4$ because the surface oxygen groups of the pitch act as an active site during chemical activation.

Assessing the Impact of Liquid Potassium Permanganate on Litter Quality of Poultry (액상 과망간산칼륨 적용시 육계 깔짚의 특성 평가)

  • Choi, In-Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2020
  • The effects of liquid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the litter quality of poultry were investigated. Two-hundred-forty 0-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to two treatments with four replicated pens of 30 chickens each. Treatment liquid KMnO4 at a rate of 50 g of liquid KMnO4/kg of poultry litter was sprayed onto the litter surface using a small hand pump; others served as a control that was applied without liquid KMnO4 additions. Compared with controls, the treatment liquid KMnO4 showed no differences in pH, total nitrogen and ammonia concentration. It was concluded that liquid KMnO4 did not significantly increase poultry litter quality. Mechanisms relating to increasing litter pH and ammonia using liquid KMnO4 are an oxidant agent (not acid-foaming agents).

과망간산을 이용한 지하수내 TCE 제거효과 평가

  • Yang Seung-Gwan;Go Seok-O
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2005
  • A Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater by potassium permanganate $(KMnO_4)$, Consumption of permanganate by TCE and aquifer materials was also evaluated to obtain an appropriate injection rate of $KMnO_4$. TCE degradation by $KMnO_4$ in the absence of aquifer material showed effective with pseudo-first order rate constant, $k_{obs}=1.8110^{-3}\;s^{-1}\;at\;KMnO_4=500mg/L$. TCE oxidation by $KMnO_4$ was found to be second order reaction and the rate constant, $k=0.65{\pm}0.08\;M^{-1}s^{-1}$, was independent of pH changes. $KMnO_4$ consumption rate by groundwater sampled from field site was not significant, indicating that groundwater containing negligible amount of dissolved organic matter does not have any influence on the $KMnO_4$ degradation. Meanwhile, aquifer materials from field site were actively reacted with permanganate, resulting in the significant consumption of $KMnO_4$. It might be attributed to the existence of metal oxides in aquifer materials, Based on the rate constants obtained from this study, appropriate injection rate of permanganate and TCE removal rate in groundwater could be estimated.

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Effect of Potassium Permanganate on Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy Prepared by Micro-Arc Oxidation (마이크로 아크 산화처리된 마그네슘 합금의 부식특성에 미치는 과망간산칼륨의 영향)

  • Ko, Young Gun;Lee, Kang Min;Shin, Ki Ryong;Shin, Dong Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.48 no.8
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    • pp.724-729
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    • 2010
  • The effect of potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) in an electrolyte on the corrosion performance of magnesium alloy coated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) has been investigated in this study. For this purpose, MAO coating was carried out on the present sample under AC condition in an alkaline silicate electrolyte with and without $KMnO_4$. Irrespective of the addition of $KMnO_4$, it was found from structural observation that the ceramic coating layers consisted of inner and outer layers. In the sample processed in the electrolyte with $KMnO_4$, the outer layer became dense and even contained a number of $Mn_2O_3$ atoms, resulting in high corrosion resistance. Based on the results of a potentiodynamic polarization test, it was confirmed that the coating layer formed in the electrolyte with $KMnO_4$exhibited better corrosion resistance than that without $KMnO_4$. The high corrosion resistance of the MAO-treated magnesium alloy was explained in relation to the equivalent circuit model.

A Study on the Establishment of Total Organic Carbon in Drinking Water Standard (총유기탄소의 먹는물 수질기준 설정 연구)

  • Yu, Soon-Ju;Ahn, Kyung-Hee;Park, Su-Jeong;Kim, Mi-Ah;Choi, Ja-Yoon;Lee, Youn-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.661-666
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    • 2009
  • In this study, total organic carbon (TOC) and potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) demand were examined for raw and finished tap water and the range of $KMnO_4$ demand in drinking water was investigated. By analyzing the relationship between TOC and $KMnO_4$ demand, the applicability of TOC as a drinking water standard and its regulation level was proposed. The average $KMnO_4$ demand was 1.3 mg/L in 4,638 samples from finished drinking water, tap water and finished water from small facilities. $KMnO_4$ demand of 95% of samples was 2.9 mg/L which was 29% of the drinking water standard (10 mg/L). At 12 major drinking water treatment plants, the average $KMnO_4$ demand in July and August was 8.1 and 2.4 mg/L for raw and finished water, respectively. TOC in July and August was 2.0 and 1.15 mg/L for raw and finished water, respectively. The correlation coefficient between $KMnO_4$ demand and TOC was as high as 0.8 in both raw and finished water and $KMnO_4$ demand was twice of TOC in finished water. Because the correlation coefficient and ratio between $KMnO_4$ demand and TOC varied according to season and the characteristics of raw water, it would be difficult to establish TOC standard just from the ratio of $KMnO_4$ demand to TOC. However, it is possible to set the TOC range based on the accumulated $KMnO_4$ demand data or from the satisfactory correlation results. Then, it would be reasonable to establish TOC standard level as 4 ~ 5 mg/L.

Oxidative Degradation Kinetics of Trichloroethylene in Groundwater by Permanganate (과망간산을 이용한 지하수내 TCE 분해의 동력학적 해석)

  • Yang, Seung-Guan;Ko, Seok-Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.397-401
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    • 2006
  • A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of oxidation of trichloroethylene(TCE) in groundwater by potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$). Consumption of permanganate by TCE and aquifer material was also evaluated to obtain an appropriate injection rate of $KMnO_4$. TCE degradation by $KMnO_4$ in the absence of aquifer material was effective with a pseudo-first order rate constant, $k_{obs}=5.24{\times}10^{-3}s^{-1}\;at\;KMnO_4=500mg/L$. TCE oxidation by $KMnO_4$ was found to be second order reaction and the rate constant, $k=0.65{\pm}0.08M^{-1}s^{-1}$. Meanwhile, aquifer materials from the field site were actively reacted with permanganate, resulting in the significant consumption of $KMnO_4$. It might be attributed to the existence of metal oxides in the aquifer materials.

Manganese removal by KMnO4: Effects of bicarbonate and the optimum conditions (과망간산칼륨을 이용한 용해성 망간 제거: 중탄산염 영향 및 최적조건)

  • Lee, Yong-Soo;Do, Si-Hyun;Kwon, Young-Eun;Hong, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2016
  • This study is focused on manganese (Mn(II)) removal by potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) in surface water. The effects of bicarbonate on Mn(II) indicated that bicarbonate could remove Mn(II), but it was not effectively. When 0.5 mg/L of Mn(II) was dissolved in tap water, the addition of $KMnO_4$ as much as $KMnO_4$ to Mn(II) ratio is 0.67 satisfied the drinking water regulation for Mn (i.e. 0.05 mg/L), and the main mechanism was oxidation. On the other hand, when the same Mn(II) concentration was dissolved in surface water, the addition of $KMnO_4$, which was the molar ratio of $KMnO_4/Mn(II)$ ranged 0.67 to 0.84 was needed for the regulation satisfaction, and the dominant mechanisms were both oxidation and adsorption. Unlike Mn(II) in tap water, the increasing the reaction time increased Mn(II) removal when $KMnO_4$ was overdosed. Finally, the optimum conditions for the removals of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/L Mn(II) in surface water were both $KMnO_4$ to Mn(II) ratio is 0.67 - 0.84 and the reaction time of 15 min. This indicated that the addition of $KMnO_4$ was the one of convenient and effective methods to remove Mn(II).

Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

  • Rahman Md. Mokhlesur;Park, Jong-Woo;Park, Man;Rhee In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.

Oxidation of PVA fibre by Potassium Permanganate (폴리비닐알코올섬유의 과망간산가리에 의한 산화)

  • 박천욱;진탁언
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1971
  • Both heat-treated PVA fibre and the untreated one are alike degradated oxidatively by aqueous potassium permanganate. The degradation is proportioned to the concentration and temperature of KMnO4 solution, but is small in the acidic oxidation. In the degradation, Carboxyl-groups and Carbonyl-groups are produced at the ends of molecules, and the amount of the former is larger than that of the latter. In the acidic oxidation, the amount of the Carbonyl-groups increases. In the main chain also, the carbonyl-groups are produced and its total amount is nearly twice as large as that of the degradation. In proportion to the concentration and temperature of KMnO4, the strength and elongation decreases, and the denier increases. In the heat-treated fibres, compared with the untreated ones, degradation is great, but the decrease of the strength and elongation is small.(Received November 16, 1970)

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In Vitro Hemolysis and Methemoglobin Formation in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Erythrocytes Induced by Potassium Permanganate, Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide, Formalin and Copper Sulphate (과망간산칼륨, 안정화이산화염소, 포르말린, 황산동이 넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 적혈구에 미치는 시험관내 용혈작용 및 메트헤모글로빈 생성 효과)

  • Jung, Sung-Hee;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2005
  • In Vitro hemolysis and methemoglobin (MetHb) formation in olive flounder rythrocytes were investigated using potassium permanganate ($KMnO_4$) ranging from 2 to 250 ppm, stabilized chlorine dioxide ($S-ClO_2$)ranging from 3.13 to 400 ppm, formalin (37% formaldehyde) ranging from 31.3 to 2,000 ppm and copper sulphate ($CuSO_4$) ranging from 0.04 to 5 ppm. Remarkable hemolysis was found to be induced at $KMnO_4$ concentrations of 31.3-250 ppm and $CuSO_4$ concentrations of 0.63-5 ppm. On the other hand, MetHb formation could not be found at the same treatment concentrations. It is suggested that the cell-damaging system of $KMnO_4$ may be similar from that of $CuSO_4$ in the erythrocytes of olive flounder. Remarkable hemolysis and MetHb formation were found to be induced at $S-ClO_4$ concentrations of more than 25 ppm and 6.25 ppm, respectively. Only $S-ClO_2$ showed both hemolysis and MetHb formation among the chemicals used in the present study. Formalin did not provoke hemolysis at the highest concentration of 2,000 ppm but induced MetHb formation at ranging from 250 to 2,000 ppm. These findings reveal that the mechanism involved in formalin-induced cell-damaging effects differs from that induced by $S-ClO_2$ to olive flounder erythrocytes compared with $KMnO_4$ and $CuSO_4$.