• Title, Summary, Keyword: power intensity

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The Effects of Muscle Fatigue by Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (경피신경전기자극이 근피로에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Rae-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of muscle power by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TBNS), low frequency-low intensity(20pps, invisible muscle contraction intensity), low frequency-high intensity(20pps, visible muscle contraction), high frequency-low intensity(100pps, invisible muscle contraction intensity) and high frequency-high intensity(100pps, visible muscle contraction). The results were as follows. 1. Increased muscle power after 30 minutes of treatment by low frequency-low intensity TENS, and post-treatment 30 minutes muscle power were increased more than pre-treatment power(p<0.05). 2. Decreased muscle power after a 30 minute treatment by low frequency-high intensity TENS, and after the 30 minute treatment was terminated muscle power didn't recover to pre-treatment levels. 3. Decreased muscle power after 30 minute treatment by high frequency-low intensity TENS, but post-treatment 30 minute, muscle power didn't recover to pre-treatment levels. 4. The muscle power was remarkably decreased by high frequency-high intensity TENS after 30 minute treatment, in addition treatment terminated after 30minutes didn,t recover to pre-treatment power(p<0.05). 5. Lower frequency-low intensity TENS are good methods for preventing muscle fatigue, buty high intensity (TENS) are increased muscle fatigue. 6. Traditional TENS by high frequency-low intensity is a good method for preventing muscle fatigue.

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Effect of Ohmic Thawing on Physico-Chemical Properties of Frozen Hamburger Patties

  • Kim Jee-Yeon;Hong Geun-Pyo;Park Sung-Hee;Spiess Welter E. L.;Min Sang-Gi
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of ohmic power intensity on the physico-chemical properties of hamburger patties. Six different ohmic power intensities (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50V) were delivered by controlling the power with the sine wave at 50Hz. The ohmic power intensity influenced the thawing rate, and increasing ohmic power intensity increased the thawing rate. The faster thawing rate was obtained at higher ohmic power intensity (50V) with 0.5% NaCl added meat patties in comparison to no NaCl added hamburger patties. The pH values of all patties were not significantly different with increasing ohmic power intensity (p<0.05). Increasing thawing rate did not tend to improve the water holding capacity (WHC) of all patties by ohmic thawing. Cooking losses were almost the same regardless of increasing ohmic power intensity. Increasing ohmic power intensity tended to increase the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. TBARS levels of all hamburger patties without NaCl were significantly higher than that of 0.5% NaCl added hamburger patties (p<0.05) at higher ohmic intensity (50V). In conclusion, these results indicated that a higher ohmic power intensity at 50 V induced the lipid oxidation of all patties.

Effects of Ohmic Thawing on the Physicochemical Properties of Frozen Pork

  • Kim, Jee-Yeon;Hong, Geun-Pyo;Park, Sung-Hee;Lee, Sung;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.374-379
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of frozen pork muscle which has been thawed using the ohmic thawing process, and to establish the optimal ohmic power intensity. The samples were frozen at $-40^{\circ}C$ and thawed at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 V by ohmic thawing. Increasing ohmic power intensity correlated with increased thawing rates. The relationship between ohmic power intensity and thawing rate can be represented as a polynomial function. The pH value decreased with increasing ohmic power intensity (p<0.05). With regard to color measurement, the $L^*$, a, and b values of thawing at all ohmic power intensities were not significantly different. The water holding capacity showed a peak value of 41.62% with an ohmic thawing intensity of 30 V. Cooking losses were lowest at the lowest ohmic thawing intensity of 10 V. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels with all thawing processes were slightly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). Increasing ohmic power intensity did not tend to change the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) value.

Ohmic Thawing System을 이용한 해동기법이 냉동 돈육 품질에 미치는 영향

  • Seok, Byeong-Chang;Park, Jin-Gu;Kim, Yang-Gu;Park, Seong-Hui;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.321-325
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    • 2004
  • 본 연구는 Ohmic heating system을 이용하여 돈육을 해동하여 해동에 의한 식육의 손상을 최소화하고 신선육과 유사한 해동육을 얻기 위해 최적 해동 속도에 대한 기초 자료를 마련하고자 실시하였다. 각각의 ohmic power intensity(AC, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 Volt)에 따른 돈육의 해동속도는 기하학적으로 중심부 변화에서 가장 빠른 해동속도는 40V에서 1,582 cm/h로 산출되었고 OV의 0.307cm/h에 비하여 약 5배 정도 빠르게 나타났으며 power intensity가 증가할수록 해동속도가 증가하였다. 이와 같이 ohmic intensity(X: volt)와 해동속도(Y: cm/h)변화를 수학적으로 나타내었는데 다음과 같다; lnY=-0.8971+$1.0345{\cdot}X$ $R^2=0.9968$. 각각의 ohmic power와 비교에서 대조구인 신선육의 보수력이 가장 높았고 해동시료인 처리구간 비교에서 power가 상대적으로 높은 30V, 40V에서 보수력이 가장 좋게 나타났다. Cooking loss에서는 power intensity에 따른 유의적인 변화는 발견되지 않았다. Colo에서는 b-값의 경우 ohmic power intensity가 증가함에 따라 다소 감소하는 경향을 보여 주었다. 해동시 power intensity가 증가할수록 pH는 다소 낮아지는 경향을 보여주었다. 또한 육의 TBA가는 이와 반대로 ohmic thawing은 육의 TBA가를 증가시키는 요인으로 작용하였는데, power intensity에 따른 변화는 유의적인 차이를 보여주지 않았다. 그러나 VBN가에서는 신선육에 비해 해동육의 VBN은 증가하였지만 해동방법에 따른 차아는 발견되지 않았다.

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A Study on Structural Intensity Measurement of 2-dimensional Structure (2차원 구조물의 진동 인텐시티 계측에 대한 연구)

  • 이덕영;박성태
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.477-488
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    • 1997
  • In order to control vibration in structures, it is desirable to be able to identify dominant paths of vibration transmission from sources through the structure to some points of interest. Structural intensity vector(power flow per width of cross section) using cross spectra is able to measure the vibration power flow at a point in a structure. This paper describes the structural intensity measurement of 2-dimensional structure. Structural intensity of 2-dimensional structure can be obtained from eight point cross spectral measurement per axis, or two point measurement per axis on the assumption of far field. Approximate formulation of the relation between bending waves in structures and structural intensity makes it possible to separate the wave components by which one can get a state of the vibration field. Experimental results are obtained on an infinite plate at the near and far field in flexural vibration. The measurement error of two point measurement is rather bigger than eight point measurement on account of the assumption that Poisson's ratio is 1. The structural intensity vectors on the plate are checked the ability to identify the path of vibration power flow in random excitation and 200Hz sine excitation, the result of two point measurememt is almost the same as the result of eight point measurement in 200Hz sine excitation.

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Placing Constrained Layer Damping Patches Using Reactive Shearing Structural Intensity in Order to Reduce the Radiated Sound Power of a Air-Conditioner Outdoor Unit (반동 전단 구조 인텐서티 측정에 의한 제진재 적용과 그에 따른 에어컨 실외기 구조 방사 소음 저감)

  • 김규식;강연준;진심원;정인화;이정우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.333-337
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    • 2003
  • The use of reactive shearing structural intensity to place small patches of constrained layer damping material in order to achieve the largest reduction in the radiated sound power of Air-conditioner outdoor unit is described. The normal surface velocity of each panel was measured using a laser doppler vibrometer. Experimental results indicated that patches of constrained layer damping material placed over areas of high reactive structural intensity reduced the radiated sound power significantly more than patches of the same area placed over areas of low reactive structural intensity

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Measurements of the Vibrational Power Flow in Structure Beam by Using the Structural Intensity Method (Structural Intensity 법을 이용한 구조체의 진동전달량 측정)

  • ;Tichy, Jiri
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 1994
  • This paper presents an experimental method to find the vibrational transmission characteristics of structures by using the structural intensity method which is used as the important techniques of active vibration control method. Experimental results are obtained from measurements performed on a structure beam by 2, 3 and 4 position linear accelerometr array (2, 3 and 4 structural intensity : 2, 3 and 4 S.I.) methods at near and farfield conditions. These results are compared with the measurement values of conventional power flow measurement method called input power measurement in order to verify the accuracy of structural intensity methods. To minimize the errors associated with 2, 3 and 4 S.I. methods, the measurement locations were selected by the result of modal analysis and the averaged data by the inter-change of accelerometer array was utilized. In 3 and 4 S.I. methods measured wavenumber instead of theoretical wavenumber was used. This paper shows that measurements of bending wave power flow by using 2, 3 and 4 S.I. methods can give accurate values under general field conditions in structural beam and the accuracy of 2, 3 S.I. methods is higher than 4 S.I. methods. Finally, 2 position linear accelerometer array method is suggested as the practical structural intensity technique.

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Structural Intensity Analysis of Stiffened Plate Using Assumed Mode Method (Assumed Mode Method를 이용한 보강판의 진동인텐시티 해석)

  • Dae-Seung Cho;Sa-Soo Kim;Sang-Min Jung
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.76-86
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    • 1998
  • Structural intensity of plates experiencing bending vibration is analytically evaluated using the modal analysis based on assumed mode method. To evaluate the convergence of structural intensity according to the number of superposition modes, the power obtained by structural intensity integration over the closed curve containing the excitation source is compared with the power injected into plates. The erect of power reduction due to the material internal loss is evaluated using the intensity around a localized damping point, In addition, the dominant component among internal forces in the power transfer by the bending vibration of plates and the change of power flow due to stiffener are also investigated.

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A Study on the Effect of Wind Turbulence Intensity on the Power Performance of Wind Turbine System (풍력발전시스템 출력에 대한 난류강도의 영향 연구)

  • Hyun, Seung-Gun;Ju, Young-Chu;Kim, Keon-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2012
  • The installed capacity of wind turbines in Korea are growing and enlarging by the central government's supporting program. But the majority area having the abundant wind energy resources is composed of mountainous and complex district, thus the turbulence intensity of there is so high and belongs to the turbulence characteristic A category of IEC design requirement. This paper presents the effect of the turbulence intensity on the power performance of a wind turbine system. Particularly, the effect of the power curve of the wind turbine system due to the turbulence intensity has analyzed. As a result, the power curve has a high turbulence characteristic shows the lower value than normal one in high wind speed regime and the AEP will be reduced at the relatively high turbulence area.

HIGH POWER, HIGH BRIGHTNESS PROTON ACCELERATORS

  • Lee, Yong-Yung
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.433-446
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    • 2005
  • The development of accelerator science and technology has been accommodating ever increasing demand from scientific community of the beam energy and intensity of proton beams. The use of high-powered proton beams has extended from the traditional application of nuclear and high-energy physics to other applications, including spallation neutron source replacing nuclear reactor, nuclear actinide transmutation, energy amplification reactors. This article attempts to review development of proton accelerator, both linear and circular, and issues related to the proton beam energy, intensity as well as its output power. For related accelerator physics and technical review, one should refer to the recent article in the Reviews of Modem Physics [1]