• Title, Summary, Keyword: pre-diabetes

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Prevalences and Management of Diabetes and Pre-diabetes among Korean Teenagers and Young Adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014

  • Cho, Eun-Hee;Shin, Dayeon;Cho, Keun-Hyok;Hur, Junguk
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1984-1990
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    • 2017
  • The rapid increases in childhood obesity and physical inactivity are linked to the incidence of diabetes among young individuals. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of diabetes among this population. Therefore, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data to evaluate the prevalence and management of diabetes and pre-diabetes among young Koreans. We evaluated KNHANES data (2005-2014) from 10-29-year-old individuals. Individuals were considered eligible if they had completed the health examination and the health interview survey, and we excluded individuals with missing data regarding fasting glucose or glycated haemoglobin levels. Among the 100,101 potentially eligible individuals who participated in KNHANES (2005-2014), we included 83,577 (37,677 male and 45,900 female) individuals. The overall prevalences of diabetes and pre-diabetes among 10-19-year-old individuals were 0.2% and 11.9%, respectively. Among 20-29-year-old individuals, the prevalences of diabetes and pre-diabetes were 0.9% and 9.6%, respectively. The overall rates of diabetes awareness during the study period were 36.6% for 10-19-year-old individuals and 50.8% for 20-29-year-old individuals. However, the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes had noticeably increased at the 2013-2014 KNHANES: 0.6% and 25.9% among 10-19-year-old individuals, and 0.8% and 19.2% among 20-29-year-old individuals. The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes is rapidly increasing among Korean teenagers and young adults. Pre-emptive interventions to diagnose and treat diabetes and pre-diabetes are needed to improve glycaemic control among this population.

Hospital Nurses' Pre-diabetes Knowledge, Performance and Expectation of Patient Education (병원간호사의 당뇨병고위험군 지식, 교육수행과 기대)

  • Kim, Min Jung;Song, Misoon
    • Perspectives in Nursing Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study attempted to describe hospital nurses' pre-diabetes knowledge, performance and expectation of patient. Methods: The total of 204 hospital nurses were administered the questionnaires. The questionnaire comprises general background information (including sex, age, religion, education and career), ten researcher-generated questions regarding knowledge about pre-diabetes, performance of patient education (including how many people encounter in workplace, how often teaching, how many minutes required to teach and course contents) and expectation (including need improvement of teaching, barrier to education and desirable course contents and teaching methods) Results: The average score of hospital nurses' pre-diabetes knowledge was as low as 0.82 (82% correctness). On comparison of the knowledge levels among ten pre-diabetes knowledge dimensions, the highest score was 0.95 for necessary of medical check-up. The lowest score was 0.57 for complication can rarely happen. Significant correlations were observed for education, career and knowledge regarding pre-diabetes. Moreover, 49.5% of the nurses did not instruct patients about pre-diabetes, 24.5% taught prevention skills to a third of the pre-diabetes patients they encountered, and 61.2% nurses disseminated information under 5 minutes. Improvement was necessary for 78 nurses (75.8%). Conclusion: Pre-diabetes awareness among nurses is necessary.

Association between Dietary Sodium Intake and Abdominal Obesity in Pre-diabetes Korean Adults (전당뇨병 성인에서 나트륨 섭취와 복부비만과의 상관관계)

  • Lim, So Young;Yang, Soo Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.763-771
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary sodium intake and prevalence of abdominal obesity in Korean adults. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 and analyzed data on 4,475 Koreans (${\geq}30$ years old). Subjects were divided into three groups according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 1) normal (FPG <100 mg/dL), 2) pre-diabetes ($100mg/dL{\leq}FPG{\leq}125mg/dL$), and 3) diabetes (FPG ${\geq}126mg/dL$ or subjects diagnosed with diabetes). The subjects in each category were stratified by dietary sodium intake as well as index of abdominal obesity. We found that dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with waist circumference (WC) (P=0.002) and was particularly high in the pre-diabetes group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the normal and diabetes groups showed no association between dietary sodium intake and WC, whereas the pre-diabetes group with a high sodium intake exhibited a significant association (odds ratio (OR)=1.479, P=0.029) between dietary sodium intake and WC. Further, the OR for abdominal obesity in the high sodium intake group with pre-diabetes was 1.590 after adjusting for age and sex (P=0.012). In addition, the ORs for the prevalence of abdominal obesity with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher in the pre-diabetes group with high sodium intake compared with low sodium intake. Moreover, these associations were significant even after adjusting for confounding variables (model 2: age and sex; model 3: age, sex, and total energy intake). Our results suggest a strong association between sodium intake and abdominal obesity in pre-diabetes Korean adults.

Consumption of Dairy Foods and Risk of Pre-Diabetes in Subjects that Visited Health Examination Center in Gwangju (광주 지역 건강검진센터를 내원한 수진자의 유제품 섭취와 전당뇨병 위험 인자와의 연관성)

  • Kim, Kyoung Yun;Yun, Jung Mi;Yang, Soo Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1049-1056
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    • 2016
  • The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, particularly in Asian regions such as Korea. It is estimated that the number of diabetic patients will exceed 5 million by 2030 and that about 30% of people with diabetes are unaware of their condition. A comparative analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between dairy food intake and pre-diabetes risk factors in subjects that visited the health examination center of Sunhan Hospital, Republic of Korea. Subjects were classified into two groups according to fasting blood glucose concentrations: 1) normal (fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL, n=57) and 2) pre-diabetes (100 mg/dL${\leq}$ fasting blood glucose ${\leq}125mg/dL$, n=56). Total dairy food intake tended to be lower in females and subjects with pre-diabetes compared with males and normal subjects, respectively; however, differences between groups were not significant due to a wide range of variations. HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with the prevalence of pre-diabetes. Odds ratios for pre-diabetes were significantly reduced per incremental increases in dairy food intakes after adjusting for confounding factors. Findings in the current study suggest that appropriate intake of dairy foods may need to be considered for the prevention of pre-diabetes.

The Effect of Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes or Pre-eclampsia on Urinary Protein and Mineral Excretion during Pregnancy

  • Joo, Eun-Jung;Janet C. King
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 1997
  • Thirteen healthy control, 13 pre-eclamptic, 7 diabetic(DM) and 12 gestational diabetic(GDM) pregnant women participated in a study ofthe interrelationships between the levels of protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and copper in urine. Urinary protein, magnesium and copper levels were significantly higher (p<0.0005, p<0.0003, p<0.005 respectively) in pre-eclamptic women than those of control, DM and GDM women. Urinary zinc excretion in pre-eclamptic women (1.61 mg/g creatinine) was higher than that of DM women (0.81mg/g creatinine); urinary zinc losses of control and GDM women were wre between the other two rups. The GDM women excreted significantly ore phosphorus in their urine in comparison to control and preeclamptic women (p<0.02), but this was not seen in DM women. Among the DM women, urinary protein excretion was positively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin(r=0.940) and fasting blood glucose concentration (r=0.889). Urinary zinc excretion also was correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.853) and fasting blood glucose (r=0.956). In the GDM and pre-eclamptic women there were also significant correlations between urinar calcium and magnesium (r=0.857, r=0.749 respectively) and between urinary protein and copper(r=0.638, r=0.778 respectively).

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Neither polyphenol-rich red wine nor fenofibrate affects the onset of type-1 diabetes mellitus in the BB rat

  • Avall, Karin;Berggren, Per-Olof;Juntti-Berggren, Lisa
    • Laboraroty Animal Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.126-131
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    • 2018
  • Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) are increased in type-1 diabetic (T1D) patients and when ${\beta}$-cells are exposed to apoCIII they undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by an antibody against apoCIII. We have previously investigated the BB rat, an animal model that develops a human-like T1D at the age of around 60 days, and found that apoCIII was also increased in sera from pre-diabetic rats and this promoted ${\beta}$-cell death. Lowering apoCIII with an oligonucleotide antisense during a phase of the pre-diabetic period prolonged the time to onset of T1D. In order to find other ways to lower apoCIII we in this study tested non-alcoholic red wine with medium and high concentrations of polyphenols and the lipid-lowering drug, fenofibrate, both reported to decrease the expression of apoCIII by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Pre-diabetic BB-rats were treated orally for one month prior to the expected onset of diabetes with the two different wines or fenofibrate. None of the treatments prevented or prolonged the time to onset of diabetes and the expression of apoCIII was unaffected in this animal model for T1D. However, it must be emphasized that this does not exclude that other species can show a response to these substances.

Management of Diabetes from HbA1c Test

  • Park, Cheolin;Kim, Cheol-Hoe;Lee, Jae-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.125-128
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    • 2010
  • HbA1c test measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin in blood. HbA1c shows the average of blood glucose levels for the past three months, this is a better indicator of how overall diabetes is doing. HbA1c gives a much better idea of how the body is breaking down the glucose. Therefore, this HbA1c is very important tool for maintaining normal glucose levels for pre-and diabetic patients. Total 408 participants were tested HbA1c voluntarily from Chosunilbo Health Expo (8th~11th, July 2010). Through this small-scaled direct HbA1c, about 54.7% (207 out of 408) was shown glucose tolerance and diabetes. However, 61 from 157 participants who were shown under 6.9% HbA1c (normal and pre-diabetic stage) are taking only antidiabetic drugs to maintain a normal blood glucose. Regular HbA1c test can bring an important management and awareness about controlling blood sugar level and prevention of diabetic complications.

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An Update on Prader-Willi Syndrome with Diabetes Mellitus

  • Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Journal of mucopolysaccharidosis and rare diseases
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.35-37
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    • 2016
  • Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) often develops type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) related to severe obesity. The prevalence of T2DM in adults with PWS (7-20%) exceeds greatly the prevalence in the general population (5-7%). It is uncommon for pre-pubertal children with PWS to develop overt diabetes or glucose intolerance. GH therapy and genotype did not influence the development of altered glucose metabolism. It has been assumed that T2DM in PWS develops as a consequence of morbid obesity and concomitant insulin resistance. However recent studies suggest the relationship between morbid obesity and T2DM development is more complex and appears to differ in PWS subjects compared to non-PWS subjects. PWS patients had relatively lower fasting insulin levels and increased adiponectin levels compared with BMI-matched obese control despite of similar levels of leptin. So PWS children may be protected to some extent form of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Although there's no data, it seems logical to approach diabetes management including weight loss and increased exercise, using similar pharmacological agents as with non-PWS obesity-related diabetes such as metformin or thiazolidinedione, with the introduction of insulin as required. On the other hand, several recent T2DM in PWS case reports suggest favorable outcomes using Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analog with regard to ghrelin reduction, control of glucose and appetite, weight loss and pre-prandial insulin secretion. The role of GLP-1 agonist therapy is promising, but has not yet been fully elucidated.

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 2 diabetes

  • Jang, Hye-Jung;Kim, Hee-Sook;Kim, Sung-Hoon
    • The Korean journal of internal medicine
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.1143-1149
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    • 2018
  • Background/Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in Korean women with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic controls. Methods: We performed a retrospective survey of 200 pregnancies in women with type 2 diabetes (n = 100) and nondiabetic controls (n = 100) who delivered from 2003 to 2010 at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center, Korea. We compared maternal characteristics as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes between groups matched by age, pre-pregnancy weight, body mass index, parity, and gestational age at delivery. Results: The number of infants that were small for gestational age and the rate of major congenital malformations were not significantly different. However, women with type 2 diabetes showed a slightly higher risk for primary caesarean section (35.0% vs. 18.0%, p = 0.006) as well as pre-eclampsia (10.0% vs. 2.0%, p = 0.017), infections during pregnancy (26.0% vs. 2.0%, p < 0.001), neonatal weight ($3,370{\pm}552.0$ vs. $3,196{\pm}543.3$, p = 0.025), large for gestational age (22.0% vs. 9.0%, p = 0.011), and macrosomia (15.0% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.018) compared to nondiabetic controls. Conclusions: Maternal and neonatal outcomes for women with type 2 diabetes were worse than those for nondiabetic controls. Diabetic women have a higher risk for primary caesarean section, pre-eclampsia, infections during pregnancy, large neonatal birth weight, large for gestational age, and macrosomia.

The effect of high concentration of glucose on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria (고농도의 글루코스가 치주질환 병인균주의 세균내독소에 의한 염증성 cytokine 및 nitric oxide의 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Jo
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders manifested by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. Mounting evidence demonstrates that diabetes is a risk factor for gingivitis and periodontitis. The circulating mononuclear phagocytes in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia are chronically exposed to high level of serum glucose. Thus, this study attempted to determine the effect of pre-exposure of monocytes and macrophages to high concentration of glucose on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Material and Methods: For this purpose, cells were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) for 4-5 weeks before treatment for 24 h with LPS. LPS was highly purified from Porphyromonas gingivalis or Prevotella intermedia by phenol extraction. Result: Results showed that prolonged pre-exposure of cells to high glucose markedly increased LPS-stimulated NO secretion when compared to normal glucose. In addition to NO, high glucose also augmented LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-$\alpha$ secretion after cells were exposed to high glucose for 4 weeks. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that pre-exposure of mononuclear phagocytes with high glucose augments LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators. These findings may explain why periodontal tissue destruction in diabetic patients is more severe than that in non-diabetic individuals.