• Title, Summary, Keyword: prediction of parturition

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Prediction of Parturition Day by Determination of Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Companion Bitches 2. To Confirm the Accuracy of the Prediction of Parturition Day (반려견에서 혈중 Progesterone 농도 측정에 의한 분만일 예측 2. 분만예정일의 정확성 확인)

  • Lee, Ju Hwan;Son, Chang Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.305-310
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    • 2020
  • To confirm the accuracy of the prediction of parturition day, the actual parturition days were compared with each day of the prediction of parturition day (n = 80). The accuracy of the prediction of parturition day was 80.0% (64/80) with a precision of ± 2 days from the first day of estrus after the first vaginal discharge, 97.5% (78/80) from the day when plasma progesterone concentrations increase above 4.0 ng/ml, and 72.5% (58/80) from the first day of diestrus, respectively. The accuracy of the prediction of parturition day by plasma progesterone concentration was higher than that by the first day of estrus and diestrus after the first vaginal discharge. These results indicated that the determination of plasma progesterone concentrations at estrus were a useful method for estimating of parturition day and for the reproductive management in pregnant bitches.

Establishment of a prediction table of parturition day in Shih-tzu bitches with ultrasound scanning (Shih-tzu견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 분만일 예시표 확립)

  • Kim, Bang-sil;Ko, Jin-sung;Lee, Sun-ae;Cho, Yang-tak;Kim, Jae-pung;Oh, Ki-seok;Kim, Jong-taek;Park, In-chul;Kim, Young-hong;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2004
  • To establish a prediction table of parturition day real-time B-mode ultrasonographic examinations were performed in 12 pregnant Shih-tzu bitches. Measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was performed from 15 days of gestation to parturition. These were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (Day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day -44 to Day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day -25 to Day -1 were used to compile a prediction table of parturition day. The 22 pregnant Shih-tzu with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the table established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition day and compared to actual parturition day. Parturition day prediction based on the inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter was 100% accurate within ${\pm}2$ days. In addition, the accuracy for parturition day within 0, ${\pm}1$, and ${\pm}2$ days interval using the prediction table of parturition day were 68, 82, and 100%, respectively. Therefore, the prediction table of parturition day seems to be a useful tool for the prediction of parturition day in practice.

Establishment of prediction table of parturition day by ultrasonography in Korean Jindo bitches (진도개에서 초음파검사에 의한 분만일 예정표 확립)

  • Kim, Se-ra;Kang, Hyun-gu;Oh, Ki-seok;Park, In-chul;Park, Sang-guk;Kim, Sung-ho;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.373-381
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    • 2000
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter were made from pregnancy day 15 to parturition. These measurements were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition (day 0). The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from day -42 to day -25 and fetal head diameter obtained from day -24 to day -1 were used to prediction of parturition day. Formulas for the prediction of parturition day using the method of least squares were derived. These formulas were then used to predict parturition dates based on single measurements of inner chorionic cavity diameter or fetal head diameter in 17 additional pregnant Korean Jindo bitches. Predicted date of parturition was then compared to actual whelping date. In the prediction of parturition based on inner chorionic cavity diameter, 7 of 10 bitches were coincided prediction date and actual whelping date, and the prediction was accurate to within 1 day in 3 of 10 bitches. The prediction of parturition based on fetal head diameter was accurate to within 1 day in 6 of 7 bitches and within 2 days in 1 of 7 bitches. In conclusion, the ultrasound measurement of inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter are practical and accurate tool in the prediction of parturition.

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Predicting Parturition Time through Ultrasonic Measurement of Posture Changing Rate in Crated Landrace Sows

  • Wang, J.S.;Wu, M.C.;Chang, H.L.;Young, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.682-692
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    • 2007
  • This study presents an automatic system to predict parturition time in the crated sows. The system relies on ultrasonic transducers mounted from above along the length of the crate. Using a 40 kHz time of flight (TOF) single envelope wave, the momentary distances between the sensors are measured. Therefore, the local momentary height of the sow and the momentary posture, i.e. standing posture (SDP), kneeling posture (KP), sitting posture (STP) and lateral lying posture (LLP) are determined. Crated sows change their postures from standing to lying and vice versa which follows a characteristic pattern. As parturition approaches, sows exhibit uneasiness, restlessness and the stand up sequence (SUS, the posture transition from LLP to SDP) rate increases because of labor pains. In time series, the SUS rate demonstrates a peak and it happens approximately 0-12 h before parturition. In this paper, the basic parturition threshold value method (BPTVM) and the same hour method (SHM) are proposed for predicting parturition, both of which are based on the SUS rate. The BPTVM mainly detects the peak of the SUS rate. As the SUS rate exceeds the threshold value, the parturition becomes predictable. Moreover, the SHM calculates the difference in the SUS rates between a particular time of day and the corresponding time of the preceding day. Compared to the BPTVM, the SHM can eliminate the circadian rhythm of the SUS rate influenced by feeding behavior. Using the SHM the parturition can be approximately predicted within hours. In an attempt to define the threshold parameters of predicting parturition, a data set with 32 sows of the SUS rate are used to estimate assumable predicting probability. The results show the assumable probability of the parturition prediction within 9 h is 96.9% for the SHM and 84.4% for the BPTVM. Moreover, the SHM can even reach a 75% probability of prediction within three hours of parturition. We conclude that the SHM is more accurate and is more useful for parturition time prediction. When parturition is detected, the proposed algorithm generates a warning signal which can inform human personnel to protect the mother and newborn piglets.

Establishment of a Prediction Table of Parturition Day with Ultrasonography in Small Pet Dogs (소형 애완견에서 초음파 검사에 의한 분만일 예시표의 확립)

  • Oh, Ki-Seok;Kim, Bang-Sil;Park, Sang-Guk;Park, Chul-Ho;Kim, Jae-Hong;Mun, Byeong-Gwon;Kim, Hee-Su;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2008
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed to establish a prediction table of parturition date in pregnant Maltese, Yorkshire Terrier, Shih-tzu and Miniature Schnauzer bitches. The inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter in 45 pregnant bitches were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition. The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day-44 to Day-25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day-25 to Day-1 were used to compile a equations of prediction of parturition date. The 70 pregnant bitches with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the equations established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition date and compared to actual parturition date. The accuracy for parturition date within 0, $\pm$1, and $\pm$2 days interval using the equations of prediction of parturition date were 64.3%, 22.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The overall accuracy of prediction table of parturition day based on the ICCD and HD was 100% accurate within $\pm$2 days. Therefore, the prediction table seems to be a useful tool of the prediction of parturition day in practice.

Prediction of Parturition Day by Determination of Plasma Progesterone Concentrations in Companion Bitches 1. To Estimate of Prediction of Parturition Day (반려견에서 혈중 Progesterone 농도 측정에 의한 분만일 예측 1. 분만예정일의 산정)

  • Lee, Ju Hwan;Son, Chang Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2020
  • The gestation period and parturition days were accurately predicted by measuring progesterone concentration in the plasma from 40 pregnant companion bitches. The mean length of the estrous cycle based on plasma progesterone concentrations were 8.14 ± 1.39 (Mean ± SD) days for proestrus, 9.19 ± 2.01 days for estrus, and 55.38 ± 1.96 days for diestrus phase, respectively. The gestation length from each based on the days was 65.61 ± 2.47 days from the first day of estrus after the first vaginal discharge, 63.21 ± 0.99 days from the day when plasma progesterone concentrations increase above 4.0 ng/ml, and 54.51 ± 3.51 days from the first day of diestrus, respectively. Therefore, the parturition day was estimated 65 days from the first day of estrus after the first vaginal discharge, 63 days from the day when plasma progesterone concentrations increase above 4.0 ng/ml, and 54 days from the first day of diestrus, respectively.

Ultrasonographic Appearance of the Gestational Structures throughout Pregnancy in Pet Dogs II. Estimation of Gestational Age and Prediction of Parturition Day by Measurement of the Gestational Structu (애완견에서 임신일령에 따른 임신구조물의 초음파상 II. 임신구조물의 측정에 의한 임신일령의 판정과 분만일의 예시)

  • 손창호;강병규;최한선;서동호;신창록;박인철
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 1997
  • Serial ultrasonographic examinations were daily performed on 8 bitches (5 Maltese and 3 Yorkshire terrier) from day 15 until parturition to determine the size of gestational structures. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. When the size of fetal and extra-fetal structures according to gestational age was measured, there was a difference between Maltese and Yorkshire terrier in extra-fetal structures (P<0.001), and no difference in fetal structrures (P<0.001). The correlations between the gestational age and the growth in fetal and extra-fetal structures were examined by regression analysis. The extra-fetal structure which showed high correlation from day 20 to 35 was inner chorionic cavity diameter in two breeds. The fetal structures which showed high correlation from day 36 until parturition was fetal head diameter in two breeds. In conclusions inner chorionic cavity diameter was the most accurate for estimation of gestational age and prediction of whelping day from day 20 to 35, and fetal head diameter from day 36 to parturitions respectively. Ultrasonography is very useful tool to evaluate the gestational age and to predict the whelping day in pet dogs.

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Prediction of Parturition Date Based on Vaginal Cytology in Small Dogs (소형견에서 발정주기 동안 질 세포 검사에 의한 분만일의 예측)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Yang, Jun-Yeol;Park, Jun-Tae;Lee, Sang-Ho;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to estimate of ovulation time and parturition day at the same time as breeding in small dog by vaginal cytology and to confirm the accuracy by comparing the expected parturition day and the real one. Characteristic features of vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle were the high proportion of large intermediate cell, superficial cell, anuclear cell and erythrocyte in proestrus, superficial cell and anuclear cell in estrus, parabasal cell, small intermediate cell, large intermediate cell and leukocyte in diestrus, parabasal cell and small intermediate in anestrus, respectively. When day 0 was the parturition day, the period of pregnancy is 67.45(64~75) days when the cornification index (CI) is over 90%. Also, on the basis of ovulation day, 63.65(59~66) days was confirmed, and 57.0(52~60) days was confirmed based on the first day of diestrus. There are the gap of 4 days between the day being over 90% in CI and ovulation day. On the basis of this, when expecting parturition day based on the day being over 90% in CI by vaginal cytology, 18.1% was produced in the same of the expected parturition day and the real one, 30.3% and 33.3% were produced in the gap of one day and two days, respectively so, the accuracy within two days was 81.7%. In addition, based on the first day of diestrus, it also was identified to 81.7% as the difference between the expected parturition day and the real one within 2 days. It demonstrated there are any difference between any expected parturition day by vaginal cytology. Thus on the basis of the day of being over 90% CI, it is fully thought to using clinically due to the possibility of prediction the parturition day at the same time as the determination of the proper time of the optimal mating time.

Application of Vaginal Cytology to the Prediction of Whelping Day in Small Pet Bitches (소형 애완견에서 분만일 예측에 대한 질세포 검사의 활용)

  • Park, Chul-Ho;Yang, Jun-Yeol;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.38-41
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to estimate of prediction of whelping day and to confirm the accuracy of prediction of whelping day in small pet bitches. The gestation length from the each based on days was $66.64{\pm}2.32days$ ($Mean{\pm}S.D$) when the Cornification index (CI) was over 90% after the first vaginal discharge, $64.65{\pm}2.87days$ from the day of CI peak, $63.46{\pm}1.63days$ from the day of ovulation by progesterone concentrations, and $57.67{\pm}2.43days$ from the first day of cytologic diestrus, respectively. The whelping day was estimated 66 days when the CI was over 90% after the first vaginal discharge, 64 days from the day of CI peak, 63 days from the day of ovulation by progesterone concentrations, and 57 days from the first day of cytologic diestrus, respectively. The accuracy of the prediction of whelping day was 90.0% with a precision of ${\pm}2days$ when the CI was over 90% after the first vaginal discharge, 77.5% from the day of CI peak, 86.2% from the day of ovulation by progesterone concentrations, and 81.2% from the first day of cytologic diestrus, respectively. These results indicated that the prediction of parturition day by vaginal cytology was useful method for management of reproduction and parturition in small pet bitches.

Quantification of Pre-parturition Restlessness in Crated Sows Using Ultrasonic Measurement

  • Wang, J.S.;Huang, Y.S.;Wu, M.C.;Lai, Y.Y.;Chang, H.L.;Young, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.780-786
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    • 2005
  • This study presents a non-video, non-invasive, automatic, on-site monitoring system the system employs ultrasonic transducers to detect behavior in sows before, during and after parturition. An ultrasonic transmitting/receiving (T/R) circuit of 40 kHz was mounted above a conventional parturition bed. The T/R units use ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) ranging technology to measure the height of the confined sows at eight predetermined locations. From this data, three momentary postures of the sow are determined, characterized as standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting posture (STP). By examining the frequencies of position switch Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS) between standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting-posture (STP) rate can be determined for the duration of the sow' confinement. Three experimental pureblooded Landrace sows undergoing normal gestation were monitored for the duration of confinement. In agreement with common observation, the sows exhibited increased restlessness as parturition approached. Analysis of the data collected in our study showed a distinct peak in Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS, i.e. the transition from lying laterally to standing up ) and sitting-posture (STP) rate approximately 12 h prior to parturition, the observed peak being 5 to 10 times higher than observed on any other measurement day. It is concluded that the presented methodology is a robust, low-cost, lowlabor method for the continuous remote monitoring of sows and similar large animals for parturition and other behavior. It is suggested that the system could be applied to automatic prediction of sow parturition, with automatic notification of remote management personnel so human attendance at birth could reduce rates of sow and piglet mortality. The results of this study provide a good basis for enhancing automation and reducing costs in large-scale sow husbandry and have applications in the testing of various large mammals for the effects of medications, diets, genetic modifications and environmental factors.