• Title, Summary, Keyword: pretreatment

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Impact of Alkali Pretreatment to Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cork Oak (Quercus Variabilis) (알칼리 전처리가 굴참나무의 효소 당화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Su Young;Shin, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2014
  • Dissolving part of xylan and lignin in lignocellulosic biomass by base can be used as pretreatment technique. Cork oak was pretreated with sodium hydroxide solution and the pretreatment effects were evaluated with two critical factors - NaOH concentration and pretreatment temperature. Some of xylan and lignin were removed by base pretreatment. At $90^{\circ}C$ and 13% NaOH pretreatment, 22.0% of lignin and 78.8% of xylan removed by base treatment. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cork oak which was pretreated at higher temperature or concentration was further improved. After pretreatment of cork oak with 13% NaOH at $90^{\circ}C$, the conversion rate of cellulose to fermentable sugars were reached up to 91.3%. At ethanol fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate from different pretreatment conditions, all enzymatic saccharification liquids were well fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Optimization of Bio-based Succinic Acid Production from Hardwood Using the Two Stage pretreatments

  • Jung, Ji Young;Jo, Jong Soo;Kim, Young Wun;Yoon, Byeng Tae;Kim, Choon Gil;Yang, Jae Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.111-122
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    • 2013
  • The steam explosion-chemical pretreatment is a more effective wood pretreatment technique than the conventional physical pretreatment by accelerating reactions during the pretreatment process. In this paper, two-stage pretreatment processes of hardwood were investigated for its enzymatic hydrolysis and the succinic acid yield from the pretreated solid. The first stage pretreatment was performed under conditions of low severity to optimize the amount of solid recovery. In the second stage pretreatment washed solid material from the first stage pretreatment step was impregnated again with chemical (alkaline or chlorine-based chemicals) to remove a portion of the lignin, and to make the cellulose more accessible to enzymatic attack. The effects of pretreatment were assessed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, after the two stage pretreatments. Maximum succinic acid yield (16.1 g $L^{-1}$ and 77.5%) was obtained when the two stage pretreatments were performed at steam explosion -3% KOH.

Influence of different NaOH pretreatment concentrations on saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production from rice straw and rice husk (natural and powder)

  • Yeasmin, Shabina;Kim, Chul-Hawn;Lee, J.Y.;Sheikh, M.I.;Park, H.J.;Kim, S.H.;Kim, G.C.;Kim, J.W
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2011
  • The experiment was conducted to evaluate the different NaOH pretreatment concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) on enzymatic saccharification (with cellulase, and ${\beta}$-glucosidase) and fermentation (by Saccharomyces cerevisiaeKCCM 11304) for bioethanol production from rice straw and rice husk. Pretreatment of rice straw and rice husk were conducted under both natural and powder state to observe the potentiality of the biomass condition (natural and powder state). In this study, glucose and ethanol production were increased with the increase of NaOH percentage for both rice straw and rice husk (natural and powder state). For rice straw, the highest amount of glucose was obtained in 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (0.81 g $g^{-1}$ in a natural, and 0.63 g $g^{-1}$ in a powder state pretreatment). Similarly, for rice husk, the highest amount of glucose was obtained in 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (0.47 g $g^{-1}$ in a natural, and 0.46 g $g^{-1}$ in a powder state pretreatment). However, 0.75% NaOH pretreatment resulted in glucose yield near about 1.00% NaOH pretreatment for both rice straw and rice husk (natural and powder state). On the other hand, for rice straw, the highest amount of ethanol was obtained in 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (0.36 g $g^{-1}$ in a natural, and 0.31 g $g^{-1}$ in a powder state pretreatment). In addition, for rice husk, the highest amount of ethanol was also obtained in 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (0.24 g $g^{-1}$ in a natural, and 0.23 g $g^{-1}$ in a powder state pretreatment). Moreover, 0.75% NaOH pretreatment resulted in ethanol yield near about 1.00% NaOH pretreatment for both rice straw and rice husk (natural and powder state). It was confirmed that higher amount of NaOH use is cost effective. Moreover, higher amount of glucose and ethanol was observed when powder was prepared after pretreatment. So 0.75% NaOH pretreatment in a natural state is supposed to be suitable for enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

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Ultrasonic Pretreatment for Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion in Industrial Waste Activated Sludge Treatment

  • Kim, Young-Kee;Kwak, Myung-Shin;Lee, Won-Hong;Park, Jeong-Woo
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.469-474
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    • 2000
  • In order to enhance the degradation efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) by thermophilic aerobic digestion, an ultrasonic pretreatment was examined. It was observed that ultrasonic pretreatment increased the solubilization of organic matter in the WAS and that the solubilization ratio of the organics increased during the first 30 min but did not extensively increase thereafter. Therefore, a pretreatment time of 30 min was determined to be the economical pretreatment time from the experimental results. From the digestion experiments, which was conducted using the WAS collected from an oil refinery plant in Inchon, Korea, investigating the effects of an ultrasonic pretreatment on thermophilic aerobic digestion, it was confirmed that the proposed ultrasonic pretreatment was effective at enhancing the release of the cellular components in WAS and the degradation of released components in the thermophilic aerobic digestion.

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Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

  • Xu, Jian;Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard;Thomsen, Anne Belinda
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.845-850
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    • 2009
  • Bioethanol derived from lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to replace gasoline. Cellulose is naturally recalcitrant to enzymatic attack, and it also surrounded by the matrix of xylan and lignin, which enhances the recalcitrance. Therefore, lignocellulosic materials must be pretreated to make the cellulose easily degraded into sugars and further fermented to ethanol. In this work, hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover at $195^{\circ}C$ for 15 min with and without lower concentration of formic acid was compared in terms of sugar recoveries and ethanol fermentation. For pretreatment with formic acid, the overall glucan recovery was 89% and pretreatment without formic acid yielded the recovery of 94%. Compared with glucan, xylan was more sensitive to the pretreatment condition. The lowest xylan recovery of 55% was obtained after pretreatment with formic acid and the highest of 75% found following pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical was observed from corn stover pretreated at $195^{\circ}C$ for 15 min with formic acid.

Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics Using Zizania latifolia Turcz. Extracts (줄풀을 활용한 면직물의 염색)

  • Lee, Hyesun
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.96-104
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the pretreatment effect, appropriate dyeing conditions, color fastness and functionality of cotton fabrics dyed with Zizania latifolia Turcz. Dye uptake was substantially increased by pretreatment and chitosan pretreatment was much more effective than tannic acid pretreatment. Optimal dyeing conditions were colorant concentration of 100%, dyeing temperature of $100^{\circ}C$, dyeing time of 80 minutes and dyebath pH of 5.5. Color fastness of chitosan pretreatment and dyed cotton to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light was 4, 5, 3-4(acidic), 3(alkaline) and 3 respectively. Color fastness of tannic acid pretreatment and dyed cotton to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light was 4, 5, 3-4(acidic), 4-5(alkaline) and 4 respectively. Deodorization rates of ammonia(NH3) were 99.9% in both cases. UV protection rate were 98.3% of UV-A and 98.5% of UV-B in case of chitosan pretreatment. UV protection rate were 98.2% of UV-A and 98.5% of UV-B in case of tannic acid pretreatment. UV protection factor(UPF) was 50+ in both cases. Reduction rate of Staphyloccus aureus were 99.9% in both cases. Therefore Zizania latifolia Turcz. could be used a new functional colorant.

Ultrafiltration as a pretreatment for seawater desalination: A review

  • Lau, W.J.;Goh, P.S.;Ismail, A.F.;Lai, S.O.
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.15-29
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    • 2014
  • Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination has gained wide and increasing acceptance around the world as a straightforward undertaking to alleviate the alarming water crisis. An enhanced monitoring of the quality of the water feeding in seawater RO (SWRO) plant through the application of an effective pretreatment option is one of the keys to the success of RO technology in desalination plants. Over the past 10 years, advances in ultrafiltration (UF) membrane technologies in application for water and wastewater treatment have prompted an impetus for using membrane pretreatment in seawater desalination plants. By integrating SWRO plant with UF pretreatment, the rate of membrane fouling can be significantly reduced and thus extend the life of RO membrane. With the growing importance and significant advances attained in UF pretreatment, this review presents an overview of UF pretreatment in SWRO plants. The advantages offered by UF as an alternative of pretreatment option are compared to the existing conventionally used technologies. The current progress made in the integration of SWRO with UF pretreatment is also highlighted. Finally, the recent advances pursued in UF technology is reviewed in order to provide an insight and hence path the way for the future development of this technology.

Effect of residual metal salt on reverse osmosis membrane by coagulation-UF pretreatment process (응집-UF 전처리 공정에 의한 잔류 금속염이 역삼투막에 미치는 영향)

  • Go, Gilhyun;Kim, Suhyun;Kang, Limseok
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.413-420
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    • 2019
  • Pretreatment system of desalination process using seawater reverse osmosis(SWRO) membrane is the most critical step in order to prevent membrane fouling. One of the methods is coagulation-UF membrane process. Coagulation-UF membrane systems have been shown to be very efficient in removing turbidity and non-soluble and colloidal organics contained in the source water for SWRO pretreatment. Ferric salt coagulants are commonly applied in coagulation-UF process for pretreatment of SWRO process. But aluminum salts have not been applied in coagulation-UF pretreatment of SWRO process due to the SWRO membrane fouling by residual aluminum. This study was carried out to see the effect of residual matal salt on SWRO membrane followed by coagulation-UF pretreatment process. Experimental results showed that increased residual aluminum salts by coagulation-UF pretreatment process by using alum lead to the decreased SWRO membrane salt rejection and flux. As the salt rejection and flux of SWRO membrane decreased, the concentration of silica and residual aluminum decreased. However, when adjusting coagulation pH for coagulation-UF pretreatment process, the residual aluminum salt concentration was decreased and SWRO membrane flux was increased.

Effect of dentin pretreatment and curing mode on the microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

  • Youm, Seung-Hyun;Jung, Kyoung-Hwa;Son, Sung-Ae;Kwon, Yong-Hoon;Park, Jeong-Kil
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSE. The aim was to evaluate the effect of curing mode and different dentin surface pretreatment on microtensile bond strength (${\mu}TBS$) of self-adhesive resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Thirty-six extracted human permanent molars were sectioned horizontally exposing flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into 12 groups (3 teeth/group) according to the dentin surface pretreatment methods (control, 18% EDTA, 10% Polyacrylic acid) and curing mode (self-curing vs. light-curing) of cement. After pretreatment, composite resin blocks were cemented with the following: (a) G-CEM LinkAce; (b) RelyX U200, followed by either self-curing or light-curing. After storage, the teeth were sectioned and ${\mu}TBS$ test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student T-test and Scheffe's post-hoc test at P<.05 level. RESULTS. For G-CEM LinkAce cement groups, polyacrylic acid pretreatment showed the highest ${\mu}TBS$ in the self-cured group. In the light-cured group, no significant improvements were observed according to the dentin surface pretreatment. There were no significant differences between curing modes. Both dentin surface pretreatment methods helped to increase the ${\mu}TBS$ of RelyX U200 resin cement significantly and degree of pretreatment effect was similar. No significant differences were found regarding curing modes except control groups. In the comparisons of two self-adhesive resin cements, all groups within the same pretreatment and curing mode were significantly different excluding self-cured control groups. CONCLUSION. Selecting RelyX U200 used in this study and application of dentin surface pretreatment with EDTA and polyacrylic acid might be recommended to enhance the bond strength of cement to dentin.

Effects of Solubilization Pretreatment of Wastewater Sludge on Anaerobic Digestion (하수슬러지의 혐기성 소화에 미치는 가용화 전처리의 효과)

  • Park, Ki Young;Kim, Dae Young;Chung, Tai Hak
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2000
  • Solubilization pretreatments were conducted to enhance the anaerobic digestion of the waste activated sludge. Four pretreatment techniques including heating, sonication freezing and thawing, and enzyme addition were employed to solubilize the waste activated sludge under various conditions. Thermal pretreatment by heating showed the highest efficiency compared with other methods, and freezing and thawing was confirmed as a feasible alternative of solubilization as well as the pretreatment of dewatering. There is a clear correlation between the solubilization efficiency of the waste activated sludge and the gas production. Batch digestion results showed the cumulative gas production as much as four times after thermal pretreatment as compared with that by the control sludge without pretreatment. As a result, hydrolysis or solubilization pretreatment might play a significant role in the high rate digestion of the waste activated sludge.

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