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Income Differences in Smoking Prevalences in 245 Districts of South Korea: Patterns by Area Deprivation and Urbanity, 2008-2014

  • Kim, Ikhan;Bahk, Jinwook;Yoon, Tae-Ho;Yun, Sung-Cheol;Khang, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.100-126
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure income differences in smoking prevalence at the district level and to investigate correlations among area deprivation, smoking prevalence, and income differences in smoking prevalence, stratified by urbanity. Methods: Data were pooled from the Community Health Survey data of South Korea between 2008 and 2014. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and its interquintile income differences were calculated. We conducted correlation analyses to investigate the association of the deprivation index with smoking prevalence and interquintile differences in smoking prevalence. Results: Across 245 districts, the median prevalence of smoking in men was 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.4 to 48.5%), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 4.6% points. In women, the median prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.4 to 3.6%) and IQR was 1.6% points. The median interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was 7.4% points (95% CI, 1.6 to 13.2% points) in men and 2.7% points (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.9% points) in women. The correlation coefficients for the association between the deprivation index and smoking prevalence was 0.58, 0.15, -0.22 in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas, respectively, among men, and 0.54, -0.33, -0.43 among women. No meaningful correlation was found between area deprivation and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. The correlation between smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence was more evident in women than in men. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of geographical variations in smoking prevalence and interquintile difference in smoking prevalence. Neither smoking prevalence nor the deprivation index was closely correlated with interquintile income difference in smoking prevalence. Measuring inequalities in smoking prevalence is crucial to developing policies aimed at reducing inequalities in smoking.

A 9-year Trend in the Prevalence of Allergic Disease Based on National Health Insurance Data

  • Yoo, Byoungin;Park, Yoonhyung;Park, Kwanjun;Kim, Hoseob
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.301-309
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: To investigate trends in the prevalence of allergic disease over a 9-year period. Methods: Using National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, the annual number of patients with allergic disease was obtained for each regional subdivisions (small cities, counties, and districts) from 2003 to 2011. Annual populations for each sub-region were obtained and used to calculate the standardized prevalence. To compare prevalence within the study period, data was standardized spatially and temporally. For standardization, demographic data was used to obtain the registered population and demographic structure for 2010, which was used to perform direct standardization of previous years. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize prevalence for individual sub-regions, and allergic diseases were categorized into five groups according to prevalence. Results: The nationwide outpatient prevalence of allergic rhinitis increased approximately 2.3-fold, from 1.27% in 2003 to 2.97% in 2013, while inpatient prevalence also increased approximately 2.4-fold,. The outpatient prevalence of asthma increased 1.2-fold, and inpatient prevalence increased 1.3-fold. The outpatient prevalence of atopic dermatitis decreased approximately 12%, and inpatient prevalence decreased 5%. Conclusions: There was a large difference between prevalence estimated from actual treatment data and prevalence based on patients' self-reported data, particularly for allergic rhinitis. Prevalence must continually be calculated and trends should be analyzed for the efficient management of allergic diseases. To this end, prevalence studies using NHIS claims data may be useful.

Prevalence of Neck Pain among Athletes: A Systematic Review

  • Noormohammadpour, Pardis;Farahbakhsh, Farbod;Farahbakhsh, Farzin;Rostami, Mohsen;Kordi, Ramin
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1146-1153
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    • 2018
  • Many studies have investigated the prevalence of neck pain (NP) and its risk factors in the general population. However, the prevalence of NP among athletes has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to systematically review the prevalence of NP in athletes. A comprehensive search was conducted in September 2015 using PubMed, Ovid SP Medline, ISI, and Google Scholar. We included studies in English that reported the prevalence of NP in an athletic population during a defined period of time. We assessed the risk of bias in studies due to various definitions of NP, response rates, and reliability of the study instruments. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies' quality and performed data extraction. Of 1,675 titles identified, eight articles were assessed for risk of bias, and six with low or moderate risk were included. NP was shown to be prevalent in athletes, with a 1-week prevalence ranging from 8% to 45%, a 1-year prevalence ranging from 38% to 73%, and a lifetime prevalence of about 48%. The prevalence of NP in athletes is high. More studies regarding the prevalence and risk factors of NP may be useful for planning educational programs and developing appropriate rehabilitation protocols and preventive guidelines. Researchers are encouraged to perform epidemiologic studies in athletes with a low risk of bias.

Forecasting obesity prevalence in Korean adults for the years 2020 and 2030 by the analysis of contributing factors

  • Baik, Inkyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are few studies that forecast the future prevalence of obesity based on the predicted prevalence model including contributing factors. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with obesity and construct forecasting models including significant contributing factors to estimate the 2020 and 2030 prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Panel data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and national statistics from the Korean Statistical Information Service were used for the analysis. The study subjects were 17,685 male and 24,899 female adults aged 19 years or older. The outcome variables were the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ${\geq}25kg/m^2$) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ${\geq}90cm$ for men and ${\geq}85cm$ for women). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to select significant variables from potential exposures. RESULTS: The survey year, age, marital status, job status, income status, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, psychological factors, dietary intake, and fertility rate were found to contribute to the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. Based on the forecasting models including these variables, the 2020 and 2030 estimates for obesity prevalence were 47% and 62% for men and 32% and 37% for women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested an increased prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in 2020 and 2030. Lifestyle factors were found to be significantly associated with the increasing trend in obesity prevalence and, therefore, they may require modification to prevent the rising trend.

Current Status and Transition of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Korea (한국(韓國)에 있어서의 장내기생충감염(腸內寄生虫感染)의 현황(現況)과 추이(推移))

  • Kim, Dong-Chan
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.83-108
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    • 1984
  • Out of a total of 58 species of helminthic and protozoan parasitic infections in Korea, so far 38 species were reported as intestinal parasites of man. Quite a few species of the intestinal parasitic infections have long been prevalent throughout the country and this has been a significant public health problem. In this paper, current status and transition of the intestinal parasitic infections in the past years were presented. Chronological reviewing of data show background and prospects of change in the prevalence of infections. In the national prevalence survey on parasitic infections conducted once every five years since 1971, stool examinations were done by both cellophane thick smear and brine flotation techniques. Every egg positive case of Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis was further examined by Stoll's dilution egg counting technique. In 1981, perianal swab using adhesive cellulose tape was added for Enterobius infection. For protozoan cyst examination conducted by province and city in '81, fecal specimens were fixed in SAF solution and examined by the formalin-ether concentration technique. High prevalence of parasitic infection in ana before the 1960s can be easily understood from the data given by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs in 1967. From a parasite control point of view, the 1960s was the preparatory period particularly for control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Several organizations which have contributed to parasite control were founded in this period and the prevention law of parasitic infections was passed in '66. In the '70s, overall prevalence rates of the common intestinal parasitic infections, which were highly prevalent in the past were turned into reduction phase for the first time. The '80s can be said to be an active control period of parasitic infections. Intestinal helminths According to the reports of the national prevalence survey on parasitic infections, the prevalence of helminthic infections was 84.3%(number of person examined:24,887) in '71, 63.2%(27,178) in '76, and 41.1%(35,018) in '81. By area, the prevalence rate in '81 was 35.1%(20,569) in urban areas and 49.6%(14,447) in rural areas. Intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides The prevalence of Ascaris infection has decreased significantly in recent years. Among students, the prevalence was 55.4%, in '69 and decreased to 4.7% in '83. In the national prevalence surveys, the prevalence decreased to 13.0% in '81 from 54.9% in '71. By area, the prevalence decreased to 8.5% in '81 from 46.4% in '71 in urban area and 19.4% in '81 from 59.6% in '71 in rural area. By age, the prevalence has become in recent years relatively even in all age groups, although higher prevalence used to be seen in young age groups of around 10 years old, particulary in the highly prevalent rural areas. By sex, the prevalence was higher in the female than in the male. Unfertilized egg positive rates among the ascariasis cases increased gradually up to 55.4% on the average in '81. The intensity of the infection was also significantly decreased. Trichuris trichiura Trichuris infection had also decreased to 23.4% in '81 from 65.4% in '71. By area, the decreasing tendency of the prevalence became faster in urban areas than in the rural areas. The prevalence in urban and rural areas in '71 was 69.7%, and 63.1% respectively and decreased to 19.5% and 29.0% respectively in '81. By age, the prevalence reached a peak at the 10-14 age group and showed relatively even distribution throughout all age groups. By sex, the prevalence was close in young age groups, but in the 30s or over age group, especially in rural area, the prevalence was significantly higher in the female than in the male. The prevalence has much fluctuated depending in the area. The prevalence in rural areas surveyed in the '80s shows a range between 20.9% and 73.7% by locality. It is anticipated that the prevalence of Trichuris infection will drop more rapidly, when mass treatment is conducted. Hookworms Hookworm infection by mostly Ancylostoma duodenale and a few by Necator americanus has decreased to a negligible levels in recent years. In the national prevalence surveys, the prevalence was 10.7% in '71, 2.2% in '76, and 0.5% in '81. The prevalence was higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Wide application of multi-specific anthelminthics in the ascariasis control programmes conducted in the past decade appear to have been effective against hookworm infection. Trichostrongylus orientalis As in the case with hookworm infection, the prevalence of Trichostrongylus infection has reached a negligible levels. In the national prevalence surveys, the prevalence was 7.7% in '71, 1.0% in '76 and 0.2% in '81. Enterobius vermicularis In the national prevalence survey in '81, the egg positive rate was 12.0%. Higher prevalence is expected when examined repeatedly. The prevalence rate was 10.3% in urban area and 14.6% in rural area. In recent surveys conducted in rural areas among schoolchildren, the prevalence was 32.4% in Gimhae Gun in '82 and 64.1% in Yeongyang Gun in '83. By age, the egg positive rate was higher in young age groups of around 10 and sharply decreased in age groups of around 20 and then somewhat increased again in middle age groups. By sex, the prevalence was higher in the female than in the male. Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloides stercoralis infection has rarely been found in Korea. Three cases were reported in 1914. And 0.1-0.5% were found infected out of 2,642 persons examined at the prisoner-of-war camp on Geojedo in 1956. One case was reported in '54 and '82, respectively. Anisakis spp. No systematic survey has been conducted for anisakiasis In Korea. So far, only several cases have been found 1 case in Seoul in '71, 5 cases in Busan in '81 and 1 case in Busan in '84. Intestinal trematodes Metagonimus yokogawai In the national prevalence survey conducted in 1981, the egg positive rate was 1.24% on the average. High endemic areas are located in the southwestern part of Korea. The prevalence in Hadong Gun was 29.1% on the average in '79. In a survey conducted in 76, the prevalence was 44.0% in Gwangyang, 55.0% in Gogseung and 29.0% in Gurye. The infection is closely correlated with raw sweetfish consumption in these areas. Other intestinal trematodes A human case of Heterophyes heterophyes was reported in 1914. Several species were reported in the '80s : 17 cases of Fibricola seoulensis, 9 cases of Pygidiopsis summa, 8 cases of Heterophyes heterophyes nocens, 1case of Heterophyopsis continua, 2 cases of Stellantchasmus falcatus, 1 case of Stictodora sp., 1 case of Echinostoma hortense, and 4 cases of Echinochasmus japonicus. As the intermediate hosts, snakes and frogs play a role for F.seoulensis and fish for the rest of the species. Intestinal cestodes Taenia saginata and T. solium Egg positive rates in the national prevalence survey were 0.7% in '76 and 1.1% in '81. The prevalence in '81 was 0.6% in urban area and 1.8% in rural area. The proglottid positive rate in Jeju Do was 19.2% on the average. On Udo, Jeju Do in 1983, the egg positive rate among the inhabitants was 2.9%. Hymenolepis nana In the national prevalence survey, egg positive rates were 0.6% in '76 and 0.4% in '81. No difference was seen in the prevalence by area and sex. Hymenolepis diminuta Infected cases were reported : 3 in '64 and I in '66. Egg positive rate in '81 was 0.01% in the national prevalence survey. Diphylobothrium latum So far, about 30 cases have been reported. The cases have been reported more frequently in recent surveys. Mesocestoides sp. A case was reported from a hospitalized patient in Seoul in '67. Spirometra erinacei Two cases were reported in '84 following reidentification of the adult worms collected in '74. Intestinal protozoa Out of a total of 23 species of human protozoan infections in Korea, 13 species were reported as intestinal protozoa : Entamoeba histolytica, E coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba b$\ddot{u}$tschlii, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix mesnilii, Embadomonas sp., Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas hominis, Isospora belli, I. Hominis(Sarcocystis hominis), and Balantidium coli. Since the first report on intestinal protozoan infections in 1925, there have been quite a few survey data on the prevalence of the infection. It was found reviewing the data chronologically that up to the early '70s the infection was prevalent around a 30-50%. After that, the protozoan cyst positive rate has shown the tendency of gradual decrease throughout the country. Protozoan cyst survey conducted in Seoul and several provinces in 1981 revealed infection rates of 8.9%(1,310) in Gangweondo, 10.7%(1,703) in Gyenggi Do, 11.7%(1,032) in Jeonra Buk Do, 9.1%(4,116) in Jeonra Nam Do, and 1.4%(5,275) in Seoul. Entamoeba histolytica In the survey conducted by province in '81, the cyst positive rate was 0.8% in Gangweon-do, 0.3% in Gyeonggi Do, 1.4% in both Jeonra Buk Do and Jeonra Nam Do, and 0.2% in Seoul. Giardia lamblia In the survey by province in '81, cyst positive rates were 2.2% in both Gyeonggi Do and Jeonra Buk Do, 1.9% in Jeonra Nam Do, 0.5% in Gangweon Do, and 0.9% in Seoul. Balantidium coli Two cases were reported. One in 1930 and the other in '74. Isospora belli and I. Hominis(Sarcocystis hominis) Isospora belli was reported : 1 case in '56 and 3 cases in '66. I. Hominis, recently identified to be synonymous with Sarcocystis hominis, was reported : 3 cases in '66. Other intestinal protozoa The protozoan parasites other than the above mentioned are generally treated as commensal, although some of them are considered to be pathogenic. The data of '81 show that about 10% of the inhabitants are still infected with protozoa.

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Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose of Adults (30-69세 성인의 공복혈당장애와 당뇨병의 유병률과 위험인자 분석)

  • 김희승;노유자;김남초;유양숙;용진선;오정아
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1479-1487
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to draw out prevalence and the risk factors of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose for adults,(age 30-69). The subjects were 2096 adults, who had regular health examinations between January and December of 1999 at K Hospital in Seoul. The data was analyzed using chi-square test, unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Diabetes Mellitus and impaired fasting glucose were diagnosed by ADA (American Diabetes Association, 1997) criteria. The results were as follows: 1. Mens' prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus was 7.9% and womens' prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus was 3.8%. Mens' prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 10.4% and womens' prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 6.5%. Prevalences of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired fasting glucose increased with age. 2. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired fasting glucose of obese subjects (relative body weight>=162) was higher than that of overweight subjects (110<=relative body weight<=119) in men and women. 3. The diagnoses of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired fasting glucose increased with systolic blood pressure and triglyceride. 4. Significant factors associated with diabetes in the logistic regression best gut model were age, relative body weight, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride in men, and systolic blood pressure in women. In conclusion, as age, weight, systolic blood pressure and triglyceride get higher, Diabetes Mellitus and impaired fasting glucose prevalence also increases, porportionally.

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Prevalence of Theileria sergenti infection in Korean native cattle by polymerase chain reaction

  • Song, Kun-Ho;Sang, Byung-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.141-145
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of theileriosis and to compare the prevalence of this disease in Korean native cattle reared under different environmental conditions, namely, in a grazing area and a non-grazing area by polymerase chain reaction. Three hundred and one Korean native cattle (276 cows and 25 bulls) that had not received prior treatment or been vaccinated to prevent theileriosis were examined by PCR for Theileria sergenti infection from 2001 to 2002. In our study, the parasitemia range in T. sergenti-positive cattle by microscopy were from 0.1 to 3% (mean 0.8%). In terms of mean prevalence, 204 of the 301 Korean native cattle (67.8%) were positive reaction by PCR. Our results also revealed that the infection rate among cows (70.3%) was significantly higher than that among bulls (40.0%) (p < 0.01). T. sergenti infection among the over 3 year-old-group (75%) had a significant higher prevalence than that among the less than 3 year-old-group (61.8%) (p < 0.05). Our data also showed that grazing areas (76.1%) had the significant higher prevalence than non-grazing areas (51%) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the prevalence of T. sergenti infection is high and that its prevalence in grazing cattle is higher than that in non-grazing cattle, Therefore, life-long treatment and the development of an optimal vaccine are needed to reduce the numbers of bovine theileriosis in both grazing and non-grazing areas.

The Prevalence of Obesity in Children and Adolescents (서울지역의 학동기 소아 및 청소년의 비만증 이환율 조사)

  • 문형남
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 1992
  • The prevalence of childhood and adolescents obesity at ages 6 to 17 in Seoul were investigated on 1992. The number of children and adolescents comprised of 3310 boys and 3270 girls. Obesity was defined as weight that exceeded the standard weighter for heigher and sex by more than 20%(relative weight>120%) The results were as follows : 1) The overall prevalence rate of childhood and adolescent obesity was 14.45% The prevalence rate of boys was 15.83% and that of girls was 13.06% on 1992. The overall difference of prevalence rate between boys and girls in significant(p<0.001) 2) The highest peak age is 11 years old. There were two peaks in the prevalence rate of obesity one is from 9 to 11 years old. the other is from 15 to 17 years old. 3) The prevalence rate of overweight that exceeded the standard weight by more than 20% to 29% was 8.62% by more than 30% to 49% was 5.58% and by more than 50% was 0.25% Our study suggests than the prevalence rate of obesity among the children and adolescent in Seoul, Korea is gradually increasing which will affect the future adult population. We feel it is needed further investigation to determine the causes of increasing rate of obesity and early establishment of preventive programs.

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The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

  • Jang, Shin Yi;Seo, Su Ra;Park, Seung Woo;Kim, Duk-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.576-580
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15-19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10-14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15-19 years-old males and 10-14 years-old females.

Recent Trends in the Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Korea

  • Hwang, Yong Il;Park, Yong Bum;Yoo, Kwang Ha
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.80 no.3
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    • pp.226-229
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    • 2017
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) had been considered the only major disease that is continuing to increase in prevalence. There were a few studies about the change of the prevalence of COPD, which showed the prevalence of COPD did not increase. In this review, we report on the trends in the prevalence of COPD in Korea using the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The prevalence of COPD in 2015 was 13.4% (male, 21.6%; female, 5.8%). The prevalence of COPD did not change much, which ranged from 13.1% to 14.6% during the period from 2010 to 2015. Among the subjects found to have COPD by spirometry, only 2.8% had been diagnosed as COPD by physicians during the period from 2011 and 2015. In conclusion, the prevalence of COPD did not change significantly during the period from 2010 to 2015. And most COPD patients still had not been diagnosed by physicians and consequently had not been treated appropriately.