• Title, Summary, Keyword: principal component analysis (PCA)

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Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on the Leaf Morphological Responses of Quercus serrata and Quercus aliena, Potential Natural Vegetation of Riverine (CO2농도 및 온도 상승이 하천변 잠재자연식생인 졸참나무와 갈참나무 잎의 형태학적 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kyu-Tae;Kim, Hae-Ran;Jeong, Heon-Mo;You, Young-Han
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to find the leaf morphological responses of Quercus serrata and Q. aliena which are potential natural vegetation of riverine in Korea under elevated $CO_2$ and increased temperature. Rising $CO_2$ concentration was treated with 1.6 times than control(ambient) and increased temperature with $2.2^{\circ}C$ above the control(ambient) in the glass greenhouse. As a result, leaf width length, leaf lamina weight and leaf area of Q. serrata and Q. aliena was respectively increased, and number of leaves and specific leaf area(SLA) was decreased by elevated $CO_2$ and temperature. Leaf width length, leaf lamina length, leaf lamina weight, number of leaves, leaf area, and specific leaf area of Q. serrata were not statistically significant difference between control and treatment. Leaf width length and leaf weight of Q. aliena was increased, but specific leaf area was decreased. These results indicated that Q. aliena was to be sensitive than Q. serrata in response to global warming situation. According to the principal component analysis(PCA), two oak species were arranged based on factor 1 and 2 in the control and warming treatment. And change on the warming treatment was clearly distinguishable from the Q. aliena than Q. serrata.

Variations in Plankton Assemblage in a Semi-Closed Chunsu Bay, Korea (반폐쇄적인 천수만 해역의 플랑크톤 군집 변화)

  • Lee, Jae-Kwang;Park, Chul;Lee, Doo-Byoul;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • The Sea
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.95-111
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    • 2012
  • Relationship between plankton assemblage and environmental factors in a semi-closed Chunsu Bay was examined. Temporal changes in phytoplankton assemblage was rather drastic than those found in most Korean coastal area in the Yellow Sea primarily due to the seawater temperature (T) and nutrient input from the dikes nearby. Freshwater discharge seemed to cause winter time increase of Diatoms (February) and summer time increase of Dinoflagellates at surface (July to August). Structural change in cell size with time was also found in Diatom. Zooplankton community structure was also changed with season probably due to the food concentration, seawater temperature and salinity (S). From principal component analysis (PCA) of zooplankton distribution, it was postulated that seasonal environmental changes such as T and S could explain about 32% of variability in zooplankton distribution along with phytoplankton cell numbers, while freshwater discharge could explain about 17%. Comparing with past data of 1985-1986, 1991-1992, the distributional patterns and percent composition of major species, Acartia hongi, Paracalanus parvus sensu lato and Centropages abdominalis, were similar. However, the abundances have been increased more than three times. The composition of other taxa than copepods showed significant changes.

Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of phytoplankton community and the characteristics of biological oceanographic environments in the Geum river estuary, West Sea of Korea in 2018 (2018년 금강 하구해역 식물플랑크톤 군집의 시·공간적 분포 및 생물해양학적 환경특성)

  • Kim, Hye Seon;Kim, Haryun;Yang, Dongwoo;Yoon, Yang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.254-270
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    • 2020
  • We conducted a seasonal field survey to analyze the distribution patterns of a phytoplankton community and biological oceanographic characteristics in the Geum river estuary in 2018. The results showed that the phytoplankton community consisted of 58 genera and 116 species, showing a relatively simple distribution. It was controlled by diatoms at 70.2%, a low number of species in winter and spring, and a high number in summer and autumn. The phytoplankton cell density ranged from 10.0 to 2,904.0 cells mL-1, with an average layer of 577.2 cells mL-1, which was low in autumn and high in winter. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton dominant species was mainly centric diatoms from winter to summer, including Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, Cerataulina bergonii, and Skeletonema costatum-ls in winter, S. costatum-ls and C. bergonii in spring, and Eucampia zodiacus and Th. nordenskioeldii in summer. However, the autumn species depended upon the regions, with the inner bay dominated by the centric diatom, Aulacoseira cf. granulata, the mixed areas by S. costatum-ls, and the open sea by the dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium polyedra. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the phytoplankton community was greatly affected by the inflow and expansion of freshwater, including high nutrients, which are introduced annually through the rivermouth weir in Geum river estuary. However, the estuary, which is strongly affected by annual freshwater, was limited to areas near Geumran Island, which is adjacent to the river-mouth weir.

Study on the Seasonal Occurrence pattern and Weather variables of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) in Jeonnam, Korea (전남지역 고구마 재배지에서 담배거세미나방(Spodoptera litura) 발생 소장 및 발생에 영향을 주는 기상 요인)

  • Yang, Jung-Wook;An, Jeong-Seop;Lee, Hyeong-Un;Chung, Mi-Nam;Lee, Joon-Seol;Han, Seon-Kyeong;Ahn, Seung-Hyun
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2017
  • Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775) is considered as a serious agricultural pest, which damaged to the many crops including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We investigated weekly occurrence of the Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) using pheromone trap at six study fields of three regions, Jeonnam, Korea. A total of 41,895 individuals were collected from 18th July to 23th September in 2013; Yeongamgun was collected the highest individuals (17,519), and following the Muan-gun (12,709) and Haenamgun (11,667). The seasonal occurrence of S. Litura was increased from July to September, and peak occurrence timing was in late-September. There were a positive correlation between field area and number of individuals (P=0.02, r=0.89), and a negative correlation between field area and density (p=0.02, r=-0.89). As a PCA (principal component analysis) result, adults occurrence pattern were closely related to the temperature and relative humidity during larva stage.

Genetic Variation of some Patches of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim) Maxim. in Korea (국내(國內) 가시오갈피 군락(群落)의 유전변이(遺傳變異) 분석(分析))

  • Hong, Kyung-Nak;Cho, Kyung-Jin;Park, Yew-Heon;Hur, Sung-Du;Hong, Yong-Pyo;Kang, Bum-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.89 no.5
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    • pp.645-654
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    • 2000
  • The aim of this study was to described the genetic structure of Eleutherococcus senticosus in Korea. We investigated 10 patches, which are eight Korean patches and two foreign patches come from Russia and China growing at Korean habitat, using ISSR(inter-simple sequence repeats) markers. In ISSR PCR, the overall percentage of polymorphic ISSR amplicons was 76% and the mean number of amplicons per ISSR primer was 11.5, which were higher than the RAPD results for the some cultivars collected in Korea(Kim et al., 1998) ; 57% and 5.7, respectively. So ISSR markers provide more powerful tool than RAPD markers for the investigation of genetic variation in E. senticosus. There are relatively high genetic variation among patches as 62.8%, but low variation within eight Korean patches. Such pattern of genetic variation, which is not ordinary in other tree species, may be result from the narrow and limited habitats and the asexual reproduction of this species at the natural stands in Korea. Although the small sample size in this study seemed to be resulted in the high genetic variation among patches, the overall genetic interpretation of this study might not be much affected on the basis of the characteristics of the distribution and the reproduction system of E. senticosus. Analysis of genetic distance between all pairs of the patches did not reveal any trends with regard to geographic distance, which was confirmed by the results obtained from AMOVA(analysis of molecular variance) and PCA(principal component analysis). These results suggest that, in addition to the preservation of the natural stands, the conservation of larger number of patches with small number of individuals per patch is more effective for the ex situ conservation and for maintaining the genetic diversity of E. senticosus in Korea than smaller patches with large number of individuals.

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A Study on the Marine Biological and Chemical Environments in Yeosu Expo Site, Korea (여수 엑스포 해역의 생물.화학적 해양환경 특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Oh, Seok-Jin;Park, Jong-Sick;An, Yeong-Kyu;Yoon, Yang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2010
  • In order to understand the biological environmental characteristics with temporal variations of the physico-chemical factors in 2012 Yeosu Expo site of Korea, we investigated at one station, once per week, from April 2006 to December 2007. The surface water temperature ranged from 6.8 to $27.8^{\circ}C$ and the bottom water temperature ranged from 6.3 to 25.9 $25.9^{\circ}C$. The salinity varied from 12.8 to 33.0 psu in the surface water and from 25.2 to 33.6 psu in the bottom water. A strong halocline was observed between the surface and bottom layers in the summer when a rapid decrease of salinity coincided with heavy rainfall. The DIN concentration ranged from 1.36 to $82.7{\mu}M$ in the surface water and from 0.82 to $25.2{\mu}M$ in the bottom water. Phosphate concentration varied from 0.06 to $2.13{\mu}M$ in the surface water and from 0.07 to $1.38{\mu}M$ in the bottom water. Silicate was $1.68-52.0{\mu}M$ in the surface water and $1.37-30.7{\mu}M$ in the bottom water. The nutrient concentrations were generally high during heavy rainfalls and low water temperature periods, and considerably decreased in spring and autumn. The N/P ratio ranged from 4.43 to 325 in the surface water and from 3.8 to 321 in the bottom water. It increased rapidly during the heavy rainfall season and remained at a value of approximately 16 in other periods. The chlorophyll a concentration ranged from 0.46 to $65.0{\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ in the surface water and from 0.71 to $15.0{\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ in the bottom water. $Chl-{\alpha}$ concentration remained low in periods of low water temperature, however rapidly increased in periods of high water temperature. From the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA), we conclude that temporal variations of physico-chemical and biological factors were greatly affected by the influx of fresh water, and that nutrients were well controlled by their uptake and assimilation by phytoplankton. Also, during the low water temperature periods, environmental structure in this study site was affected by recycled nutrients through nutrient cycling and mineralization.

Comparison of Phylogenetic Characteristics of Bacterial Populations in a Quercus and Pine Humus Forest Soil (활엽수림과 침엽수림 부식토 내 세균군집의 계통학적 특성 비교)

  • Han, Song-Ih;Cho, Min-Hye;Whang, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2008
  • Chemical and microbial characteristics of bacterial populations were investigated in a quercus and pine humus forest soil. Soil pH was $5.3\pm0.4$ and $4.1\pm0.9$ from each sample of a quercus and pine humus forest soil; C/N ratio of humus forest soil was $17.84\pm4.6%$ and $21.76\pm8%$, respectively. Total organic acid was investigated as 69.57 mM/g dry soil and 53.72 mM/g dry soil in each humus forest soil. Glutamine, pyruvate, succinate, lactic acid and acetic acid of pine humus forest soil were $1.5\sim4.5$ times higher than those of quercus humus forest soil. As we evaluated phylogenetic characteristics of bacterial populations by 16S rRNA-ARDRA analysis with DNA extracted from each humus forest soil. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences, 44 clone from ARDRA groups of quercus humus forest soil were classified into 7 phyla: ${\alpha},{\beta},{\gamma},{\delta}$-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Thirty-two clone from ARDRA groups of pine humus forest soil were classified into 8 phyla: ${\alpha},{\beta},{\gamma}$-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroides, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and Gemmatomonadetes. According to PCA (Principal Component Analysis) based on 16S rRNA base sequence, there were three main groups of bacteria. All clone of Cluster I were originated from quercus humus forest soil, while 67% clone of Cluster II and 63% clone of Clusters III were separated from pine humus forest soil.

Seasonal Fluctuations of Marine Environment and Phytoplankton Community in the Southern Part of Yeosu, Southern Sea of Korea (여수 남부 협수로 해역의 해양환경과 식물플랑크톤 군집의 계절변동 특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Park, Jong-Sick;Kang, In-Seok;An, Yeong-Kyu;Kim, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.151-164
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    • 2010
  • Field observations on the seasonal variations of environmental factors and phytoplankton community were carried out four times at 30 stations in the narrow strait between Yeosu and Dolsan Island of the Korean South Sea from September 2005 to May 2006. The ranges of water temperature, salinity and extinction coefficient in the surface waters were 5.6~26.3, 25.36~33.92 psu and 0.13~2.13, respectively. The water temperature measured higher at Gamak Bay in summer and spring. It measured higher at Yeosuhae Bay in autumn and winter. Salinity showed uniformity of distributions in almost all areas, except for an area near a sewage disposal outlet. Extinction coefficient indicated that the turbidity of Gamak Bay and the area near the sewage disposal outlet were higher than that of the Yeosuhae Bay. In the phytoplankton community were identified a total of 99 species belonging to 51 genera. The species composition showed itself to be various in summer and autumn, but poor in winter and spring with a high ratio of centric diatoms all the year round. Seasonal succession of dominant species were Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros curvisetus in summer, Eucampia zodiacus in autumn and winter, and Chaetoceros affinis and Thalassionema nitzschioides inspring. Standing crops of phytoplankton and Chlorophyll $\alpha$ concentration were greatly higher at Gamak Bay in summer with ranges of $0.2{\times}10^4\;cells\;L^{-1}$ to $296{\times}10^4\;L^{-1}$, and $1.94\;L^{-1}$ to $22.12\;L^{-1}$, respectively. From the results of principal component analysis (PCA), the northern part of Dolsan Island was divided into two or three regions from the characteristics of marine environment and phytoplankton community.

Influences of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Rice (Bt-T) on the Diversity of Non-Target Insects in an LMO Quarantine Field (LMO 격리 포장에서 해충저항성벼(Bt-T)가 비표적 곤충다양성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Sung-Dug;Park, Soo-Yun;Chang, Ancheol;Lim, Myung-ho;Park, Soon Ki;Suh, Sang Jae
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.406-414
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to develop environmental risk assessments and biosafety guides for insect-resistant genetically modified rice in an LMO (Living Modified Organism) isolation field. In the LMO quarantine area of Kyungpook National University, the species diversities and population densities of non-target insects found on insect-resistant genetically modified rice (Bt-T), rice resistant to Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and non-GM rice (Dongjin-byeo and Ilmi-byeo) were investigated. The Bt-T plants were, therefore, evaluated under field conditions to detect possible impacts on above ground insects and spiders. In 2016 and 2017, the study compared transgenic rice and two non-GM reference rice, namely Dongjin-byeo and Ilmi-byeo, at Gunwi. A total of 9,552 individuals from 51 families and 11 orders were collected from the LMO isolation field. From the three types of rice fields, a total of 3,042; 3,212; and 3,297 individuals from the Bt-T, Dongjin-byeo, and Ilmi-byeo were collected, respectively. There was no difference between the population densities of the non-target insect pests, natural enemies, and other insects on the Bt-T compared to non-GM rice. The data on insect species population densities were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) without distinguishing between the three varieties, namely GM, non-GM, and reference cultivar, in all cultivation years. However, the PCA clearly separated the samples based on the cultivation years. These results suggest that insect species diversities and population densities during plant cultivation are determined by environmental factors (growing condition and seasons) rather than by genetic factors.

Monitoring of Chemical Properties from Paddy Soil in Gyeongnam Province (경남지역 논 토양 화학성분 변동조사)

  • Lee, Young-Han;Lee, Seong-Tae;Heo, Jae-Young;Kim, Min-Geun;Hong, Kang-Pyo;Song, Won-Doo;Rho, Chi-Woong;Lee, Jin-Ho;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Ko, Byong-Gu;Roh, Kee-An;Ha, Sang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2010
  • Monitoring of the dynamic changes at paddy rice agriculture is very important for agricultural sustainability. Field monitoring was performed to evaluate the soil chemical properties of 260 paddy soil samples every four years from 1999 to 2007 in Gyeongnam Province. Soil chemical properties such as pH, organic matter, available phosphate, silicate, exchangeable potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents were analyzed. The contents of exchangeable cations, and available silicate were significantly increased in 2007 compared to 1999. The chemical contents of organic matter, exchangeable potassium, and magnesium were significantly increased in acid sulfate soil, and silty clay loam compared to those of other soil types, and textures. Especially, content of organic matter was significantly increased in hill area compared to other soil topographies, while exchangeable potassium was significantly decreased. Principle component analysis (PCA) of chemical properties in paddy soils was obtained with eigenvalues > 1 summing 39.1%of variance for PC1, 20.4%of variance for PC2, and 59.5%of the total variance in the all of soil chemical properties. Therefore, principal component analysis is more effective for monitoring from chemical properties of paddy soil.