• Title, Summary, Keyword: principal component analysis (PCA)

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Comparison of Phylogenetic Characteristics of Bacterial Populations in a Quercus and Pine Humus Forest Soil (활엽수림과 침엽수림 부식토 내 세균군집의 계통학적 특성 비교)

  • Han, Song-Ih;Cho, Min-Hye;Whang, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2008
  • Chemical and microbial characteristics of bacterial populations were investigated in a quercus and pine humus forest soil. Soil pH was $5.3\pm0.4$ and $4.1\pm0.9$ from each sample of a quercus and pine humus forest soil; C/N ratio of humus forest soil was $17.84\pm4.6%$ and $21.76\pm8%$, respectively. Total organic acid was investigated as 69.57 mM/g dry soil and 53.72 mM/g dry soil in each humus forest soil. Glutamine, pyruvate, succinate, lactic acid and acetic acid of pine humus forest soil were $1.5\sim4.5$ times higher than those of quercus humus forest soil. As we evaluated phylogenetic characteristics of bacterial populations by 16S rRNA-ARDRA analysis with DNA extracted from each humus forest soil. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences, 44 clone from ARDRA groups of quercus humus forest soil were classified into 7 phyla: ${\alpha},{\beta},{\gamma},{\delta}$-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Thirty-two clone from ARDRA groups of pine humus forest soil were classified into 8 phyla: ${\alpha},{\beta},{\gamma}$-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroides, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and Gemmatomonadetes. According to PCA (Principal Component Analysis) based on 16S rRNA base sequence, there were three main groups of bacteria. All clone of Cluster I were originated from quercus humus forest soil, while 67% clone of Cluster II and 63% clone of Clusters III were separated from pine humus forest soil.

Influences of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Rice (Bt-T) on the Diversity of Non-Target Insects in an LMO Quarantine Field (LMO 격리 포장에서 해충저항성벼(Bt-T)가 비표적 곤충다양성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Sung-Dug;Park, Soo-Yun;Chang, Ancheol;Lim, Myung-ho;Park, Soon Ki;Suh, Sang Jae
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.406-414
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to develop environmental risk assessments and biosafety guides for insect-resistant genetically modified rice in an LMO (Living Modified Organism) isolation field. In the LMO quarantine area of Kyungpook National University, the species diversities and population densities of non-target insects found on insect-resistant genetically modified rice (Bt-T), rice resistant to Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, and non-GM rice (Dongjin-byeo and Ilmi-byeo) were investigated. The Bt-T plants were, therefore, evaluated under field conditions to detect possible impacts on above ground insects and spiders. In 2016 and 2017, the study compared transgenic rice and two non-GM reference rice, namely Dongjin-byeo and Ilmi-byeo, at Gunwi. A total of 9,552 individuals from 51 families and 11 orders were collected from the LMO isolation field. From the three types of rice fields, a total of 3,042; 3,212; and 3,297 individuals from the Bt-T, Dongjin-byeo, and Ilmi-byeo were collected, respectively. There was no difference between the population densities of the non-target insect pests, natural enemies, and other insects on the Bt-T compared to non-GM rice. The data on insect species population densities were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) without distinguishing between the three varieties, namely GM, non-GM, and reference cultivar, in all cultivation years. However, the PCA clearly separated the samples based on the cultivation years. These results suggest that insect species diversities and population densities during plant cultivation are determined by environmental factors (growing condition and seasons) rather than by genetic factors.

Seasonal Fluctuations of Marine Environment and Phytoplankton Community in the Southern Part of Yeosu, Southern Sea of Korea (여수 남부 협수로 해역의 해양환경과 식물플랑크톤 군집의 계절변동 특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Park, Jong-Sick;Kang, In-Seok;An, Yeong-Kyu;Kim, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.151-164
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    • 2010
  • Field observations on the seasonal variations of environmental factors and phytoplankton community were carried out four times at 30 stations in the narrow strait between Yeosu and Dolsan Island of the Korean South Sea from September 2005 to May 2006. The ranges of water temperature, salinity and extinction coefficient in the surface waters were 5.6~26.3, 25.36~33.92 psu and 0.13~2.13, respectively. The water temperature measured higher at Gamak Bay in summer and spring. It measured higher at Yeosuhae Bay in autumn and winter. Salinity showed uniformity of distributions in almost all areas, except for an area near a sewage disposal outlet. Extinction coefficient indicated that the turbidity of Gamak Bay and the area near the sewage disposal outlet were higher than that of the Yeosuhae Bay. In the phytoplankton community were identified a total of 99 species belonging to 51 genera. The species composition showed itself to be various in summer and autumn, but poor in winter and spring with a high ratio of centric diatoms all the year round. Seasonal succession of dominant species were Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros curvisetus in summer, Eucampia zodiacus in autumn and winter, and Chaetoceros affinis and Thalassionema nitzschioides inspring. Standing crops of phytoplankton and Chlorophyll $\alpha$ concentration were greatly higher at Gamak Bay in summer with ranges of $0.2{\times}10^4\;cells\;L^{-1}$ to $296{\times}10^4\;L^{-1}$, and $1.94\;L^{-1}$ to $22.12\;L^{-1}$, respectively. From the results of principal component analysis (PCA), the northern part of Dolsan Island was divided into two or three regions from the characteristics of marine environment and phytoplankton community.

Monitoring of Chemical Properties from Paddy Soil in Gyeongnam Province (경남지역 논 토양 화학성분 변동조사)

  • Lee, Young-Han;Lee, Seong-Tae;Heo, Jae-Young;Kim, Min-Geun;Hong, Kang-Pyo;Song, Won-Doo;Rho, Chi-Woong;Lee, Jin-Ho;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Ko, Byong-Gu;Roh, Kee-An;Ha, Sang-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2010
  • Monitoring of the dynamic changes at paddy rice agriculture is very important for agricultural sustainability. Field monitoring was performed to evaluate the soil chemical properties of 260 paddy soil samples every four years from 1999 to 2007 in Gyeongnam Province. Soil chemical properties such as pH, organic matter, available phosphate, silicate, exchangeable potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents were analyzed. The contents of exchangeable cations, and available silicate were significantly increased in 2007 compared to 1999. The chemical contents of organic matter, exchangeable potassium, and magnesium were significantly increased in acid sulfate soil, and silty clay loam compared to those of other soil types, and textures. Especially, content of organic matter was significantly increased in hill area compared to other soil topographies, while exchangeable potassium was significantly decreased. Principle component analysis (PCA) of chemical properties in paddy soils was obtained with eigenvalues > 1 summing 39.1%of variance for PC1, 20.4%of variance for PC2, and 59.5%of the total variance in the all of soil chemical properties. Therefore, principal component analysis is more effective for monitoring from chemical properties of paddy soil.

Analysis on the Spatial Characteristics Caused by the Cropland Increase Using Multitemporal Landsat Images in Lower Reach of Duman River, Northeast Korea (다시기 위성영상을 이용한 두만강 하류지역의 농경지 개간의 공간적 특성분석)

  • Lee, Min-Boo;Han, Uk;Kim, Nam-Shin;Han, Ju-Youn;Shin, Keun-Ha;Kang, Chul-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.630-639
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    • 2003
  • This study aims to analysis the distribution and change of cropland and forest, the Onseong, Saebyeol, and Eundeok counties on the lower reach of Duman(Tumen) river, northeast Korea, using 1992 year Landsat TM data, 2000 year Landsat ETM data, and digital terrain elevation data(DTED). Land cover and land use of the study areas are classified into cropland, forest, village, and water body, using the supervised classification method including 1:50,000 DTED analysis, image band composition, and principal component analysis(PCA). Results of quantitative analysis present that each growth rate of cropland of Onseong and Eundeok are 22.8% and 14.7% corresponding to decreasing rates of forest, 8% and 13.6% during 8 years from 1992 to 2000. In Onseong, Saebyeol, and Eundeok, each values of mean elevations and slope gradients increased to 192m, 95m, and 91m from 157m, 85m, and 78m, and to 6.6$^{\circ}$, 3.0$^{\circ}$, and 4.4$^{\circ}$ from 5.2$^{\circ}$, 2.5$^{\circ}$, and 3.0$^{\circ}$. Especially, in case of newly developed cropland, the values of mean elevation and mean gradient have 225m, 122m, and 127m, and 9.4$^{\circ}$, 5.1$^{\circ}$, and 8.0$^{\circ}$, in above three regions. These new croplands were developing along to deeper valleys and toward lower hill and mountain slope up to knickpoint zone of gradient change. Deforested lands for cropland have formed irregular pattern of patch-type, and become sources for the sheet erosion, rilling and gulleying in mountain slope and sedimentation in local river channel. Though there were no field checking, analysis using landsat images and GIS mapping can help understand actual environmental problems relating to cropland development of mountain slope in North Korea.

Simultaneous estimation of fatty acids contents from soybean seeds using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography by multivariate analysis (적외선 분광스펙트럼 및 기체크로마토그라피 분석 데이터의 다변량 통계분석을 이용한 대두 종자 지방산 함량예측)

  • Ahn, Myung Suk;Ji, Eun Yee;Song, Seung Yeob;Ahn, Joon Woo;Jeong, Won Joong;Min, Sung Ran;Kim, Suk Weon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can be applied to simultaneous determination of fatty acids contents in different soybean cultivars. Total 153 lines of soybean (Glycine max Merrill) were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantification of fatty acids from the soybean lines was confirmed by quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The quantitative spectral variation among different soybean lines was observed in the amide bond region ($1,700{\sim}1,500cm^{-1}$), phosphodiester groups ($1,500{\sim}1,300cm^{-1}$) and sugar region ($1,200{\sim}1,000cm^{-1}$) of FT-IR spectra. The quantitative prediction modeling of 5 individual fatty acids contents (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid) from soybean lines were established using partial least square regression algorithm from FT-IR spectra. In cross validation, there were high correlations ($R^2{\geq}0.97$) between predicted content of 5 individual fatty acids by PLS regression modeling from FT-IR spectra and measured content by GC. In external validation, palmitic acid ($R^2=0.8002$), oleic acid ($R^2=0.8909$) and linoleic acid ($R^2=0.815$) were predicted with good accuracy, while prediction for stearic acid ($R^2=0.4598$), linolenic acid ($R^2=0.6868$) had relatively lower accuracy. These results clearly show that FT-IR spectra combined with multivariate analysis can be used to accurately predict fatty acids contents in soybean lines. Therefore, we suggest that the PLS prediction system for fatty acid contents using FT-IR analysis could be applied as a rapid and high throughput screening tool for the breeding for modified Fatty acid composition in soybean and contribute to accelerating the conventional breeding.

Development of Customer Sentiment Pattern Map for Webtoon Content Recommendation (웹툰 콘텐츠 추천을 위한 소비자 감성 패턴 맵 개발)

  • Lee, Junsik;Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 2019
  • Webtoon is a Korean-style digital comics platform that distributes comics content produced using the characteristic elements of the Internet in a form that can be consumed online. With the recent rapid growth of the webtoon industry and the exponential increase in the supply of webtoon content, the need for effective webtoon content recommendation measures is growing. Webtoons are digital content products that combine pictorial, literary and digital elements. Therefore, webtoons stimulate consumer sentiment by making readers have fun and engaging and empathizing with the situations in which webtoons are produced. In this context, it can be expected that the sentiment that webtoons evoke to consumers will serve as an important criterion for consumers' choice of webtoons. However, there is a lack of research to improve webtoons' recommendation performance by utilizing consumer sentiment. This study is aimed at developing consumer sentiment pattern maps that can support effective recommendations of webtoon content, focusing on consumer sentiments that have not been fully discussed previously. Metadata and consumer sentiments data were collected for 200 works serviced on the Korean webtoon platform 'Naver Webtoon' to conduct this study. 488 sentiment terms were collected for 127 works, excluding those that did not meet the purpose of the analysis. Next, similar or duplicate terms were combined or abstracted in accordance with the bottom-up approach. As a result, we have built webtoons specialized sentiment-index, which are reduced to a total of 63 emotive adjectives. By performing exploratory factor analysis on the constructed sentiment-index, we have derived three important dimensions for classifying webtoon types. The exploratory factor analysis was performed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using varimax factor rotation. The three dimensions were named 'Immersion', 'Touch' and 'Irritant' respectively. Based on this, K-Means clustering was performed and the entire webtoons were classified into four types. Each type was named 'Snack', 'Drama', 'Irritant', and 'Romance'. For each type of webtoon, we wrote webtoon-sentiment 2-Mode network graphs and looked at the characteristics of the sentiment pattern appearing for each type. In addition, through profiling analysis, we were able to derive meaningful strategic implications for each type of webtoon. First, The 'Snack' cluster is a collection of webtoons that are fast-paced and highly entertaining. Many consumers are interested in these webtoons, but they don't rate them well. Also, consumers mostly use simple expressions of sentiment when talking about these webtoons. Webtoons belonging to 'Snack' are expected to appeal to modern people who want to consume content easily and quickly during short travel time, such as commuting time. Secondly, webtoons belonging to 'Drama' are expected to evoke realistic and everyday sentiments rather than exaggerated and light comic ones. When consumers talk about webtoons belonging to a 'Drama' cluster in online, they are found to express a variety of sentiments. It is appropriate to establish an OSMU(One source multi-use) strategy to extend these webtoons to other content such as movies and TV series. Third, the sentiment pattern map of 'Irritant' shows the sentiments that discourage customer interest by stimulating discomfort. Webtoons that evoke these sentiments are hard to get public attention. Artists should pay attention to these sentiments that cause inconvenience to consumers in creating webtoons. Finally, Webtoons belonging to 'Romance' do not evoke a variety of consumer sentiments, but they are interpreted as touching consumers. They are expected to be consumed as 'healing content' targeted at consumers with high levels of stress or mental fatigue in their lives. The results of this study are meaningful in that it identifies the applicability of consumer sentiment in the areas of recommendation and classification of webtoons, and provides guidelines to help members of webtoons' ecosystem better understand consumers and formulate strategies.

SKU recommender system for retail stores that carry identical brands using collaborative filtering and hybrid filtering (협업 필터링 및 하이브리드 필터링을 이용한 동종 브랜드 판매 매장간(間) 취급 SKU 추천 시스템)

  • Joe, Denis Yongmin;Nam, Kihwan
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.77-110
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the diversification and individualization of consumption patterns through the web and mobile devices based on the Internet have been rapid. As this happens, the efficient operation of the offline store, which is a traditional distribution channel, has become more important. In order to raise both the sales and profits of stores, stores need to supply and sell the most attractive products to consumers in a timely manner. However, there is a lack of research on which SKUs, out of many products, can increase sales probability and reduce inventory costs. In particular, if a company sells products through multiple in-store stores across multiple locations, it would be helpful to increase sales and profitability of stores if SKUs appealing to customers are recommended. In this study, the recommender system (recommender system such as collaborative filtering and hybrid filtering), which has been used for personalization recommendation, is suggested by SKU recommendation method of a store unit of a distribution company that handles a homogeneous brand through a plurality of sales stores by country and region. We calculated the similarity of each store by using the purchase data of each store's handling items, filtering the collaboration according to the sales history of each store by each SKU, and finally recommending the individual SKU to the store. In addition, the store is classified into four clusters through PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and cluster analysis (Clustering) using the store profile data. The recommendation system is implemented by the hybrid filtering method that applies the collaborative filtering in each cluster and measured the performance of both methods based on actual sales data. Most of the existing recommendation systems have been studied by recommending items such as movies and music to the users. In practice, industrial applications have also become popular. In the meantime, there has been little research on recommending SKUs for each store by applying these recommendation systems, which have been mainly dealt with in the field of personalization services, to the store units of distributors handling similar brands. If the recommendation method of the existing recommendation methodology was 'the individual field', this study expanded the scope of the store beyond the individual domain through a plurality of sales stores by country and region and dealt with the store unit of the distribution company handling the same brand SKU while suggesting a recommendation method. In addition, if the existing recommendation system is limited to online, it is recommended to apply the data mining technique to develop an algorithm suitable for expanding to the store area rather than expanding the utilization range offline and analyzing based on the existing individual. The significance of the results of this study is that the personalization recommendation algorithm is applied to a plurality of sales outlets handling the same brand. A meaningful result is derived and a concrete methodology that can be constructed and used as a system for actual companies is proposed. It is also meaningful that this is the first attempt to expand the research area of the academic field related to the existing recommendation system, which was focused on the personalization domain, to a sales store of a company handling the same brand. From 05 to 03 in 2014, the number of stores' sales volume of the top 100 SKUs are limited to 52 SKUs by collaborative filtering and the hybrid filtering method SKU recommended. We compared the performance of the two recommendation methods by totaling the sales results. The reason for comparing the two recommendation methods is that the recommendation method of this study is defined as the reference model in which offline collaborative filtering is applied to demonstrate higher performance than the existing recommendation method. The results of this model are compared with the Hybrid filtering method, which is a model that reflects the characteristics of the offline store view. The proposed method showed a higher performance than the existing recommendation method. The proposed method was proved by using actual sales data of large Korean apparel companies. In this study, we propose a method to extend the recommendation system of the individual level to the group level and to efficiently approach it. In addition to the theoretical framework, which is of great value.

Agency Costs of Clothing Companies with Famous Brand (유명 의류 상호 기업의 대리인 비용에 관한 연구)

  • Gong, Kyung-Tae
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2017
  • Motivated by the recent cases of negligent social responsibility as manifested by foreign luxury fashion brands in Korea, this study investigates whether agency costs depend on the sustainability of different types of corporate governance. Agency costs refer either to vertical costs arising from the relationship between stockholders and managers, or to horizontal costs associated with the potential conflicts between majority and minority stockholders. The firms with luxury fashion brand could spend large sums of money on maintenance of magnificent brand image, thereby increasing the agency cost. On the contrary, the firms may hold down wasteful spending to report a gaudily financial achievement. This results in mitigation of the agency cost. Agency costs are measured by the value of the principal component. First, three ratios are constructed: asset turnover, operating expense to sales, and earnings before interest, tax, and depreciation. Then, the scores of each of these ratios for individual firms in the sample are differenced from the ratios for the benchmark firm of S-OIL. S-OIL was designated as the best superior governance model firm for 2013 by CGS. We perform regression analysis of each agency cost index, luxury fashion brand dummy and a set of control variables. The regression results indicate that the agency costs of the firms with luxury fashion brand exceed those of control group in the fashion industry in the part of operating expenses, but the agency cost falls short of those of control group in the part of EBITD, thus the aggregate agency costs are not differential of those of the control group. In sensitivity test, the results are same that the agency cost of the firms are higher than those of the matching control group with PSM(propensity matching method). These results are corroborated by an additional analysis comparing the group of the companies with the best brands with the control group. The results raise doubts about the effectiveness of management of the firms with luxury fashion brand. This study has a limitation that the research has performed only for 2013 and this paper suggests that there is room for improvement in the current research methodology.

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Effects of Pb and CO2 on Soil Microbial Community Associated with Pinus densiflora-Lab (소나무(Pinus densiflora) 생육토양의 미생물 군집에 미치는 납과 CO2의 영향)

  • Hong, Sun-Hwa;Kim, Sung-Hyun;Kang, Ho-Jeong;Ryu, Hee-Wook;Lee, Sang-Don;Lee, In-Sook;Cho, Kyung-Suk
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.551-558
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    • 2006
  • Effects of Pb and $CO_2$ on soil microbial community associated with Pinus densiflora were investigated using community level physiological profiles (CLPP) and 16S rDNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. Two-years pine trees were planted in Pb-contaminated soils and uncontaminated soils, and cultivated for 3 months in the growth chamber where $CO_2$ concentration was controlled at 380 or 760 ppmv. The structure of microbial community was analyzed in 6 kinds of soil samples (CA-0M : $CO_2$ 380 ppmv + Pb 0 mg/kg + initial, CB-0M : $CO_2$ 380 ppmv + Pb 500 mg/kg + initial, CA-3M : $CO_2$ 380 ppmv + Pb 0 mg/kg + after 3 months, CB-3M : $CO_2$ 380 ppmv + Pb 500 mglkg + after 3 months, EA-3M : $CO_2$ 760 ppmv + Pb 0 mg/kg + after 3 months, EB-3M : $CO_2$ 760 ppmv + Pb 500 mg/kg + after 3 months). After 3 months, the substrate utilization in the uncontaminated soil samples (CA-3M vs EA-3M) was not significantly influenced by $CO_2$ concentrations. However, the substrate utilization in the Pb-contaminated soil samples (CB-3M vs EB-3M) was enhanced by the elevated $CO_2$ concentrations. The results of principal component analysis based on substrate utilization activities showed that the structure of microbial community structure in each soil sample was grouped by Pb-contamination. The similarities of DGGE fingerprints were 56.3 % between the uncontaminated soil samples (CA-3M vs EA-3M), and 71.4% between the Pb-contaminated soil samples (CB-3M vs. EB-3M). The similarities between the soil samples under $CO_2$ 380 ppmv (CA-3M vs CB-3M) and $CO_2$, 760 ppmv (EA-3M vs EB-3M) were 53.3% and 35.8%, respectively. These results suggested that the structure of microbial community associated with Pinus densiflora were sensitively specialized by Pb-contamination rather than $CO_2$ concentration.