• Title, Summary, Keyword: principal component analysis (PCA)

Search Result 1,081, Processing Time 0.053 seconds

A Study on Pollution Levels and Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) in the Ambient Air of Korea and Japan (한국과 일본의 환경대기 중 폴리염화비페닐(PCB)의 농도수준 및 발생원 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Soo;Song, Byung-Joo;Kim, Jong-Guk;Kim, Kyeo-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.170-176
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate the level of PCBs and distribution of PCB congeners in the ambient air of Korea and Japan. The source of PCBs were also studied by a statistical method. The TEQ concentration of PCB in the ambient air of Korea and Japan were between 0.003 and $1.01\;pgTEQ/m^3$(mean value : $0.22\;pgTEQ/m^3$) and between 0.002 and $0.014\;pgTEQ/m^3$ (mean value: $0.007\;pgTEQ/m^3$), respectively. The ambient air of industrial area of Korea showed a fluctuation in PCB concentration than other sampling area. The isomer distribution patterns in the ambient air was more or less similar in all sampling places. In addition, highly chlorinated homologues ($7{\sim}10CB$) were detected in the only Korea industrial area. This observation suggests that there is a possibility of specific source of PCBs in the industrial area. The source identification of PCB in ambient air was performed using multivariate statistical analysis(principal component analysis). As a result, it is estimated that the Korean ambient air was more influenced by combustion process than the ambient air of Japan and also the effect of PCB commercial products was relatively a small.

Fish Community Structure of the Former Channel Isolated by Channelization in the Mangyeong River, Korea: Implications for Connectivity Restoration (만경강에서 하천정비에 의하여 격리된 구하도의 어류 군집 구조: 연결성 복원을 위한 제안)

  • Kim, Seog Hyun;Cheon, Hyoung Tae;Cho, Kang-Hyun
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.22-32
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study investigated the difference in fish community structures in a main channel and an isolated former channel, considering the environmental factors in the Mangyeong River, Korea. Principal component analysis (PCA) with environmental factors showed that former channels were composed of a fine substrate covered by in-stream vegetation, whereas the main channel was covered by a wide range of substrates with a higher dissolved oxygen and conductivity. The result of the hierarchical cluster analysis with species abundance delineated to the four main groups; three abandoned channel groups and one main channel group. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed that fish community structures of each study site differed from environmental factors: former channel fish communities were positively related to in-stream vegetation cover, whereas main channel fish communities were positively associated with dissolved oxygen and conductivity. The results indicated that channelization, where there was a separation between the former channel and the main channel, had detrimental effects on fish community structures of both the main channel and the abandoned channel in the Mangyeong River. In conclusion, this study suggested that the connectivity between the main channel and abandoned channel were required to enhance both habitat structural diversity and species diversity of the Mangyeong River.

Shape Deformation Monitoring for VLBI Antenna Using Close-Range Photogrammetry and Total Least Squares (근접사진측량과 Total Least Squares를 활용한 VLBI 안테나 형상 변형 모니터링 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Hyuk Gil;Yun, Hong Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.99-107
    • /
    • 2016
  • In order to maintain the precise positioning accuracy of the VLBI system, the shape deformation found in antenna structure should be monitored. In fact, reduced the antenna gaining of an electromagnetic wave reception from the Quasar has been particularly expected due to the shape deformation of main reflector in VLBI antenna. Therefore, the importance of shape deformation monitoring for the main reflector has been significantly increased. The main reflector has come out as the high potential for deformation in the VLBI structure. The fact has led us to investigate the monitoring system for the main reflector based on the efficient algorithm in accordance with the close-range photogrammetry, which of expecting to be utilized as the continuous and automated monitoring system for the structure deformation in the near future. Ten fitting lines were estimated with the TLS for feature points of distributed in all directions from the main reflector. The resultant intersection point of estimated fitting lines was calculated by using the nearest point calculation algorithm, based on those non-intersection lines. Following to the intuitive basis for the time series analysis, the results was able to provide the calculation of numerical variation in the intersection point, which is represented in 3-axis,; that we are expecting to open the way for predicting a deformation rate as well as deformation direction

Comparative analysis of sensory profiles of commercial cider vinegars from Korea, China, Japan, and US by SPME/GC-MS, E-nose, and E-tongue (한국, 중국, 일본, 미국산 시판 사과식초의 관능적 품질 비교를 위한 SPME-GC/MS, 전자코 및 전자혀 분석)

  • Jo, Yunhee;Gu, Song-Yi;Chung, Namhyeok;Gao, Yaping;Kim, Ho-Jin;Jeong, Min-Hee;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.48 no.5
    • /
    • pp.430-436
    • /
    • 2016
  • Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS), electronic nose, and electronic tongue were used to characterize the sensory profiles of cider vinegars from Korea (K1-2), China (C1-2), Japan (J1-2), and US (U1-2). SPME-GC/MS detected acetic acid as the common volatile compound in all vinegars, in addition to isovaleric acid, octanoic acid, and phenethyl acetate. Acids and acetic esters were the major components of Korean and US vinegar samples, respectively. Chinese vinegars had high ethyl acetate content, while Japanese samples were characterized by a low content of acetic acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) pattern provided a clear categorical discrimination of Chinese vinegars by E-nose and E-tongue analyses. The instrumental sensory scores and the taste attributes for flavor ($r^2=0.9431$), sourness ($r^2=0.9515$), and sweetness ($r^2=0.8325$) were highly correlated. Therefore, SPME/GC-MS, E-nose, and E-tongue analyses may be useful tools to discriminate the sensory profiles of cider vinegars of different origins.

Effects of Habitat Disturbance on Fish Community Structure in a Gravel-Bed Stream, Korea (자갈하천에서 서식처 교란이 어류 군집구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seog Hyun;Lee, Wan-Ok;Cho, Kang-Hyun
    • Ecology and Resilient Infrastructure
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.49-60
    • /
    • 2014
  • Fish assemblages play an integral role in stream ecosystem and are influenced by stream environmental conditions and habitat disturbances. Fish community structures and habitat parameters of U.S. EPA rapid bio-assessment protocol were surveyed to investigate the effect of stream environment and habitat disturbance on fish communities at 13 study sites in the Gapyeong Stream, a typical gravel-bed stream. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on data from habitat assessment at each study site indicated that the study sites were differentiated by habitat parameters such as embeddedness, velocity/depth regime and sediment deposition, which were related with bed slope. A total of 46 species belonging to 12 families were collected in the Gapyeong Stream. A dominant species was Zacco koreanus, subdominant species was Z. platypus. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on species abundance classified fish communities into the three main groups along the stream longitudinal change. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) portrayed that fish community structures were related to major habitat parameters, i.e., epifaunal substrate/available cover, embeddedness, velocity/depth regime, sediment deposition, channel alternation and frequency of riffles. These results suggested that fish community structures were primary affected by the longitudinal environmental changes, and those were modified by habitat disturbance in the Gapyeong Stream, a gravel-bed stream.

The Relationships among Gait Parameters and Senior Fitness Variables in Korean Elderly People (노인 체력 측정 결과와 보행 특성의 관계)

  • Joo, Ji-Yong;Hwang, Yeon-hee;Kim, Young-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.208-215
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study investigated the relationship among gait variables and physical fitness variables for Korean elderly people. Two hundred elderly people aged 65 to 85, (100 men and 100 women) participated in this study. They performed senior fitness test consisting of 6 tests, 3 additional physical tests (vertical jump, one leg stand, and grip force), body composition measures, and gait test. The gait test used shoes having an inertia measurement device in the outer-soles. The results indicated that the stride length, 6-min walking, lean body mass, and dumbbell curls were significantly affected by age (the above 75 group vs. the below 75 group). Among 33 measured parameters, the principal component analysis (PCA) revealed five PCs such as gait characteristics, physical features, gait variability, and fitness levels. In addition, the correlation analysis showed that the preferred walking speed was significantly, positively associated with stride length and single support time, whereas it was negatively associated with double support time and gait variability.(Ed note: please confirm my modification) In conclusion, sarcopenia should be avoided in elderly people, and resistance exercise is highly recommended to help elderly people maintain their gait ability.

Morphological Variation of Cultivated Types of Perilla Crop and Their Weedy Types in East and Southeast Asia (동아시아 및 동남아시아에서 수집한 들깨, 차조기 작물과 잡초형 계통들의 형태적 변이)

  • Kim, Jin-Ah;Sa, Kyu Jin;Choi, Seung Hun;Lee, Ju Kyong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.58 no.4
    • /
    • pp.408-415
    • /
    • 2013
  • To better understand the morphological variation of the Perilla crop and their weedy types in East and Southeast Asia, we studied the morphological variation of 90 accessions by examining 10 morphological characteristics, such as flowering time, seed size, seed hardness, seed color, color of surface leaf, color of reverse side leaf etc. As a result, morphological variation determined that between cultivated var. frutescens and var. crispa, and between cultivated var. frutescens and its weedy type showed significant morphological differences in terms of seed size and seed hardness, whenever cultivated var. crispa and its weedy type could not showed significant differences in most morphological characters. In PCAs (principal component analysis), among 10 morphological characteristics, flower color (QL6), color of surface leaf (QL3), seed size (QN2), seed hardness (QL1), seed color (QL2), stem color (QL7), and color of reverse side leaf (QL4) contributed in negative direction on the first axis, while flowering time (QN1), leaf shape (QL5), and degree of pubescence (QL8) contributed in positive direction on the first axis. Among these morphological characters, particularly flower color (QL6), color of surface leaf (QL3), seed size (QN2), seed hardness (QL1), and degree of pubescence (QL8) were useful characters for discrimination between cultivated var. frutescens and weedy var. crispa, and between cultivated var. frutescens and its weedy type. However, most accession of cultivated and weedy types of var. crispa was not clearly discriminated by PCA analyses. Although the wild ancestral species of var. frutescens and of var. crispa are still unknown in East and Southeast Asia, the weedy types of Perilla crop may be the key taxon for our understanding of the origin of cultivated types of var. frutescens and var. crispa.

Application of Science for Interpreting Archaeological Materials(III) Characterization of Some Western Asia Glass Vessels from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong (고고자료의 자연과학 응용(III) 황남대총(남분)의 일부 서역계 유리제품에 대한 과학적 특성 분류)

  • Kang, Hyung Tae;Cho, Nam Chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.5-19
    • /
    • 2008
  • Thirty six samples of Western asia glass vessel shards which were excavated from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong were each measured for thickness, pore size and specific gravity and analyzed for ten major compositions and thirteen trace elements. The glass samples with colorless, greenish blue and dark purple blue were well classified by principal component analysis(PCA). All glass shards of Hwangnamdaechong belonged to Soda glass system ($Na_2O-CaO-SiO_2$) which have the range of 14~17% $Na_2O$ and 5~6% CaO. The corelation coefficients of (MgO, $K_2O$) and (MnO, CuO) showed above 0.90. The concentrations of thirteen trace elements apparently differentiated from colorless, greenish blue and dark blue glasses. We found that thirteen trace elements were very important indices for studying raw material of glass and the origin of glass making. Colorless glass : The specific gravity is $1.50{\pm}0.04$. Circle or oval circle pores are observed with regular direction in internal zone and the longest one is about 0.35 mm. The raw material of sodium must be the plant ash because sodium glasses contain HCLA(High CaO, Low $Al_2O_3$) and HMK(high MgO, high $K_2O$) and suggested to Sasanian glass. The total amount of coloring agent of colorless glass is below 1 % which is too small to attribute to the color. Greenish blue glass : The specific gravity is $1.58{\pm}0.04$. The fine pores which are 0.1~0.2mm are dispersed in internal zone. Sodium glasses are distributed to HCLA and HMK. Therefore the greenish blue glass also have used plant ash for raw material of sodium with the same as colorless glass. It was also suggested to the glass of Sasanian. The total amount of coloring agent of greenish blue glass is about 4% under the influence of working MnO, $Fe_2O_3$ and CuO. Dark purple blue glass : The specific gravity is $1.48{\pm}0.19$. There are rarely pores in internal zone. They are distributed to HCLA and LMK(Low MgO, Low $K_2O$) and suggested to Roman glass. The raw material of sodium is estimated to natron. The total amount of coloring agents of greenish blue is about 3% by $Fe_2O_3$ and CuO. These studies for western asia glass shards from South Mound of Hwangnamdaechong could be used in the future as the standard data which could be compared with those of other several graves in Korea and dispersed in foreign areas.

Spatio-temporal Distributions of Organic Matter in Surface Sediment in the Central Part of the South Sea, Korea (남해 중부해역 표층퇴적물 유기물의 시.공간 분포특성)

  • Noh, Il-Hyeon;Yoon, Yang-Ho;Park, Jong-Sick;Soh, Ho-Young;Kim, Dae-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.203-215
    • /
    • 2006
  • Field observations on the spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter of the surface sediment were carried out at 15 stations in the central parts of the South Sea of Korea from April 2002 to January 2003. The range of water temperature and salinity in bottom waters, mud content and water content of surface sediment were $8.06{\sim}23.35^{\circ}C,\;29.20{\sim}34.51\;psu,\;71.2{\sim}99.9%$ and $38.7{\sim}68.9%$, respectively. Measured parameters on the surface sediments of ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (CODs), phaeopigment, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) also ranged in $3.9{\sim}l2.5%,\;9.60{\sim}44.05\;mgO_2/g-dry,\;1.58{\sim}29.51\;{\mu}g/g-dry,\;3.12{\sim}13.01\;mgC/g-dry$ and $0.49{\sim}2.00\;mgN/g-dry$, respectively. The spatio-temporal distribution of organic matter demonstrated higher concentrations offshore than at lesions near the coastal line. Higher concentrations occurred in the summer and spring. The results indicated that the origin of organic matter in surface sediments in the central part of the South Sea was autochthonous rather than allocthonous because the organic matter had an average C/N ratio of 6.44 (${\pm}0.51$). However, the composition of autochthonous organic matter was mainly derived from detritus rather than living phytoplankton, which was Indicated by the results of the POC/phaeopigment ratio. A principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that 73.2% of the variability in the data was described by two factors: 1) an 'environmental factor concerning the accumulation of materials (57.3%)' and 2) 'origin of organic matter and the composition by primary production (15.9%)'. The sedimentary environment in the central part of the South Sea was divided into four regions from the factor score of the PCA by the concentrations of organic matter and the composition ratio of organic matters from phytoplankton in surface sediments.

  • PDF

Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Principal Component Analysis for Sensory Attributes of Commercial Milk Preserved at Different Temperature (보존온도를 달리한 상업적 우유제품의 묘사적 관능분석 및 PCA 분석)

  • Chung, Seo-Jin;Noh, Bong-Soo;Ju, Jong-Cheol;Lee, Min-Hyang;Park, Seung-Yong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.25-35
    • /
    • 2011
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensory characteristic quality of commercial milk brands selling in the market under the preservation at the temperature of $7^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$ stored during the period of shelf-life. Quantitative descriptive analysis after developing of descriptive terms and cluster characterization by PCA analysis over a total of 128 LTLT, HTST, UHT and UHT-ESL milks, were conducted by 8 trained panelists. A total of fourteen attributes; three aroma attributes (grassy, milky, cultured milk aroma) and seven flavor/taste attributes (sweet, salty, sour, milk, cooked, cheesy, paper board) and one aftertaste attributes (rancid flavor) and one texture attributes (viscous), were developed as descriptive terms. Significant differences (P<0.01) in the sensory attributes; sweet, milky, cheesy etc. in UHT milk and sour, cheesy, paper board, rancid etc. in UHT-ESL milk were also found between the two different temperatures within the shelf life, but both type of pasteurized milk samples (LTLT and HTST) showed significant differences (P<0.01) in the attributes, such as cultured milk aroma, salty, sour, cheesy, rancid in LTLT milk and grassy, milky, salty in HTST milk and difference (P<0.05) in cultured milk aroma for HTST milk. Therefore, from the viewpoint of not only hygienic quality but also sensory characteristics, it is required for the better acceptance of milk consumers to amendment on the regulation in relation to the preservation standard of pasteurized milk as well as UHT milk to lower than $7^{\circ}C$.

  • PDF