• Title, Summary, Keyword: principal component analysis (PCA)

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Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Doenjang Made by Traditional Methods (전통적인 방법으로 제조된 된장 제품의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Byun, Myung-Woo;Nam, Tan-Gong;Chun, Myoung-Sook;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.1543-1548
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    • 2014
  • To study traditional Doenjang characteristics, Doenjang was purchased from five different provinces: Chungcheong (CC), Gangwon (GW), Gyeonggi (GG), Gyeongsang (GS), and Jeolla (JL). To determine physicochemical characteristics, contents of reducing sugar, amino type nitrogen, salt, pH, and acidity were analyzed. The sensory characteristics were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis. Reducing sugar content was highest for Doenjang from GW province. Amino type nitrogen content was highest for Doenjang from JL province. The salt content was highest in Doenjang from CC and GS provinces. After principal component analysis (PCA) based on sensory descriptive analysis, salty taste and aftertaste were highly correlated with overall acceptance. In the correlation analysis among chemical compounds and overall acceptance, Doenjang contained low reducing sugar content, and high pH value was positively correlated with overall acceptance. In conclusion, Doenjang with high pH value and salty taste and aftertaste have high overall acceptance.

A Cross-Validation of the Korean Version of the Revised Memory and Behavioral Problems Checklist(K-RMBPC): Exploratory and Confirmatory Analyses ("한국형 기억 및 행동문제 개정점검표(Korean Version of the Revised Memory and Behavioral Problems Checklist: K-RMBPC)"의 타당화를 위한 탐색적 연구)

  • Lee, Min-Hong;Yoon, Eun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.65-88
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    • 2007
  • This study evaluates psychometric properties of the Revised Memory and Behavioral Problems Checklist(RMBPC) in Korean version. The sample includes 387 South Korean family caregivers who provide the majority of day to day tasks and emotional care for their older family members with physical and/or cognitive disabilities. The psychometric properties of the RMBPC are verified by item analysis, exploratory factor analysis(EFA) & confirmatory factor analysis(CFA). For cross-validity, the randomly divided two samples are used: one sample for EFA(n=193, 387/2) and the other sample for CFA(n=194, 387/2). The internal consistency of the K-RMBPC is excellent, and the convergent and criterion-related validity of the K-RMBPC with related variables is empirically confirmed. An EFA based on the Principal Component Analysis(PCA) method with varimax rotation explains 65.85% of variance accounted for by the three factors. A CFA also verifies that the model fit was acceptable. The shorter Korean version of the RMBPC is found reliable and valid. The translated checklist would be very useful for clinical and research settings by (a) focusing on observable, conceptually relevant, potentially modifiable behaviors and (b) using objective criteria within a self-administered framework, to enable clinicians and researchers to pinpoint areas of disturbance and target intervention goals for patients and caregivers in a cost-effective manner.

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Metabolic Discrimination of Rice Cultivars and Relative Quantification of Major Sugar Compounds Using 1H NMR Spectroscopy Combined by Multivariate Statistical Analysis (1H NMR 스펙트럼 데이터의 다변량 통계분석에 의한 벼 품종의 구분 및 주요 당 화합물의 정량분석)

  • Kim, Suk-Weon;Koo, Bon-Cho;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Liu, Jang-Ryol
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2006
  • Discrimination of 5 rice cultivars (Sangjubyeo , Dongjinbyeo Simbaekbyeo , Hwamanbyeo , and Simbaek-hetero ) using metabolic profiling was carried out. Whole cell extracts from each cultivar were subjected to $^1H$ NMR spectroscopy. When spectral data were analyzed by principal component analysis, 5 cultivars were clustered into 3 groups: SJ, DJ + SB, and HM + SH. Thecultivars showed great difference in carbohydrate region of $^1H$ NMR spectra, suggesting that qualitative and quantitative differences in carbohydrate compounds play a major role in discrimination of the cultivars. In addition, it was readily possible to determine relative quantification of major carbohydrates including sucrose, glucose, maltose from spectral data of the cultivars. SJ showed 2 to 4 times higher content of maltose than the other rice cultivars. Overall results indicate that metabolic discrimination of rice cultivars using $^1H$ NMR spectroscopy combined by multivariate statistical analysis can be used for rapid discrimination of numerous rice cultivars and simple quantitative analysis system of major carbohydrate compounds in rice grains.

Changes in Quality of Pork and Beef during Storage and Electronic Nose Analysis (저장기간에 따른 돈육과 우육의 부위별 품질 변화 및 전자코 분석)

  • Kim Sunkyoung;Lee Myungsuk;Lee Ki-Teak;Park Sangkyu;Song Kyung Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.441-447
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    • 2004
  • To elucidate changes in qualifies of pork and beef during storage and identify decay point, beef (loin, tenderloin, plate) and pork (belly, loin, thigh) were stored at $4^{\circ}C$, and their pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid reacted substance (TBARS), electronic nose analysis, and sensory evaluation were performed. Belly of pork had higher values in pH, VBN and TBARS, compared to loin and thigh of pork. Electronic nose analysis clearly indicated a difference in principal component score between day 0 and day 12 of storage. Sensory evaluation showed that pork began to away at day 4 of storage and not edible after 6 days. Loin and tenderloin of beef had higher values in pH and VBN, compared to plate of beef. Regarding TBARS, all beef samples had the similar values at the beginning of storage, but loin of beef had a drastic increase after 8 days of storage, differently from tenderloin and plate of beef. Plate of beef had lower values in overall. Electronic nose analysis of beef showed the similar results with those of pork.

Morphological Variation of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) Germplasm Collected in Korea, China and Pakistan (우리나라와 중국, 파키스탄에서 수집한 조 계통들에 대한 형태적 변이)

  • Kim, Eun Ji;Sa, Kyu Jin;Yu, Chang Yeon;Lee, Ju Kyong
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2010
  • To understand the morphological differentiation of the 26 accessions of Foxtail Millet collected in Korea (15 accessions), China (7 accessions) and Pakistan (4 accessions), we analyzed 9 morphological characteristics such as plant height, panicle length, leaf number, tiller number, heading time, seed weight and panicle color etc. Most accessions of foxtail millet collected in Korea showed late heading time, tall plant height and long conical panicles. While foxtail millet accessions of Pakistan showed early heading time, short plant height and short conical panicles. In case of Chinese accessions, some accessions of them showed similar characteristics with Korean accessions, and the other showed similar characteristics to Pakistan accessions. In ANOVA analysis, most of quantitative characteristics such as plant height, leaf number, internode number and heading time showed significant differences among foxtail millet accessions collected from Korea, China and Pakistan. Principal component analyses clearly discriminate foxtail millet accessions of Korea from those of China and Pakistan. In PCA analysis, most of quantitative characters such as panicle length, leaf number and internode number greatly contributed in positive direction, whereas several quantitative characters such as tiller number, seed weight and panicle color contributed in negative direction on the first axis. Thus, these morphological characteristics could be used to classify the foxtail millet accessions collected in Korea, China and Pakistan. The present results could expand our understanding of the morphological variation in foxtail millet accessions from Korea, China and Pakistan, and also could be useful for foxtail millet germplasm preservation.

A Study on Clinical Variables Contributing to Differentiation of Delirium and Non-Delirium Patients in the ICU (중환자실 섬망 환자와 비섬망 환자 구분에 기여하는 임상 지표에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Chanyoung;Kim, Jae-Jin;Cho, Dongrae;Oh, Jooyoung;Park, Jin Young
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : It is not clear which clinical variables are most closely associated with delirium in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). By comparing clinical data of ICU delirium and non-delirium patients, we sought to identify variables that most effectively differentiate delirium from non-delirium. Methods : Medical records of 6,386 ICU patients were reviewed. Random Subset Feature Selection and Principal Component Analysis were utilized to select a set of clinical variables with the highest discriminatory capacity. Statistical analyses were employed to determine the separation capacity of two models-one using just the selected few clinical variables and the other using all clinical variables associated with delirium. Results : There was a significant difference between delirium and non-delirium individuals across 32 clinical variables. Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), urinary catheterization, vascular catheterization, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Blood urea nitrogen, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination II most effectively differentiated delirium from non-delirium. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that, with the exception of vascular catheterization, these clinical variables were independent risk factors associated with delirium. Separation capacity of the logistic regression model using just 6 clinical variables was measured with Receiver Operating Characteristic curve, with Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.818. Same analyses were performed using all 32 clinical variables;the AUC was 0.881, denoting a very high separation capacity. Conclusions : The six aforementioned variables most effectively separate delirium from non-delirium. This highlights the importance of close monitoring of patients who received invasive medical procedures and were rated with very low RASS and HAM-A scores.

Morphological comparison between aquaculture and natural populations for development of the new varieties of Ecklonia cava (감태(Ecklonia cava Kjellman) 신품종 개발을 위한 양식 개체군과 자연 개체군의 형태 비교)

  • Kim, Seung-Oh;Heo, Jin Seok;Hwang, Eun Kyoung;Hwang, Mi Sook;Lee, Sang-Rae;Oak, Jung Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.707-718
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    • 2019
  • Ecklonia cava Kjellman, which has recently gained popularity due to the spread of farming techniques, is expected to be developed in various varieties in the future. There exist increased needs for research on the basis of natural populations and inter-regional morphological variations. We compared the morphology of the aquaculture and natural populations from 16 coastal areas in Korea. The 18 traits found suitable for distinguishing varieties were selected from 14 measurement traits and 4 ratios related to the main morphology and characteristics of primary blade, secondary blade, and stipe. In the cluster analysis, Janggil (E4) and Sorok (S7) showed significant differences from those of the same coastal region. Two groups, including Suyou (Q6, Q8, and Q10) which was the second year of farming, of the rest of the populations from East sea and southern coast were distinguished. Three populations of Jeju were divided into a regional group. In the principal component analysis (PCA), a large number of populations from East sea and Southern coast appeared in the center with aquaculture populations. PC1 and PC2 associated with traits of secondary blade index, stipe length and diameter, stipe length/primary blade length, primary blade length and width, secondary blade number, secondary blade length and width, divided E4, S7 and populations of Jeju region. As a result, the 18 characters of this study were found to be useful as criteria for discrimination of populations with significant differences in each coastal region, and these populations were expected to be candidates for new varieties.

Seasonal Variation in Species Composition of Fishes in the Eelgrass Beds in Angel Bay of the Southern Coast of Korea (남해 안골만 잘피밭 어류 종조성의 계절변동)

  • LEE Tae Won;MOON Hyung Tae;HWANG Hak Bin;HUH Sung-Hoi;KIM Dae Ji
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.439-477
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    • 2000
  • Seasonal variation in species composition of fishes in the eelgrass bed in Angel Bay of the southern coast of Korea was determined using monthly samples by a beam trawl from April 1998 to March 1999, A total of 39 species, 2,065 individuals and 8,930 g of fishes were collected during the study period. The fish were composed of the small-sized resident species and the juveniles of Leiognathus nuchalis, Pholis nebulosa, Spgnathus schlegeli and Sebastes ineinis predominated in abundance, accounting for $60{\%}$ of total number of individuals. The number of species and biomass were low from December to March when the water temperature was low, The biomass increased by the catch of a large number of L. nuchalis and S. inemis in April and May when the eelgrass grew fast. The fish numbers decreased in June and July when the adults of the resident species declined after the spawning. A large number of juveniles which had released in spring occurred in August. The biomass of fish decreased from September, and a few number of fish were collected in winter. Species were grouped into four by cluster analysis: the warm season group including P. nebulosa, S. schlegeli and L. nuchalis, the cold season group including Chaenogobius heptaoanthus and Platycephalus indieus, the group of fish species occurred during the growing season of eelgrass such as P. couoides, S. inermis and P. perooides, and the group of fish species occurred during decaying season of eelgrass such as S. cirrhifer and H. coronatus. Principal component analysis indicated that seasonal variation in species composition was determined by the water temperature and standing crops of eelgrass.

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Variability of Selected Phenotypic Characteristics & Bitter Sesquiterpene Lactones contnet in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Germplasm (상추 유전자원의 원산지, 형태 및 엽색별 Bitter Sesquiterpene Lactones의 변이)

  • Choi, Susanna;Assefa, Awraris Derbie;Lee, Jae-Eun;Sung, Jung-Sook;Hur, On-Sook;Ro, Na-Young;Lee, Ho-Sun;Lee, Sok-Young;Rhee, Ju-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 2018
  • Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetables in the world due to its health related benefits. Bitter sesquiterpene lactones (BSLs) are crucial secondary metabolites of lettuce which are useful in many physiological activities, and also has been used to relieve pain. This study was conducted to appraise the variability of phenotypic characteristics and the total content of BSLs in fifty lettuce germplasm. The germplasm collections exhibited wide variation in both qualitative and quantitative characters. The average plant weight was 333.3 g with a range from 60.0 to 700.0 g and the lactucin content was varied from 3.4 (IT265031) to $448.6(IT300287)\;{\mu}g/g\;DW$ with an average concentration of $94.0{\mu}g/g\;DW$. Whereas lactucopicrin ranged from 6.8 (IT217859) to $2,714.9(Superseonpung)\;{\mu}g/g\;DW$ with an average concentration of $805.8{\mu}g/g\;DW$. Total BSLs content was ranged from 19.6 (IT217859) to $2,821.9(Superseonpung)\;{\mu}g/g\;DW$ with the average concentration of $899.8{\mu}g/g\;DW$. Significant ($p{\leq}0.05$) differences in lactucin, lactucopicrin and total BSLs content were found among the germplasm collections. Leafy type lettuce germplasm collections originated from South Korea revealed the highest average total BSLs content ($2,821.9{\mu}g/g\;DW$). Principal component analyses of lactucin and lactucopicrin generated based on leaf color and plant growth type yielded two principal components, PC1 and PC2, which accounted for 60.8 and 39.2 % of the total variance, respectively. Our study provides fundamental insights on phenotypic characteristics and the total content of lactucin and lactucopicrin of lettuce germplasm which may further help researchers and breeders to produce improved lettuce varieties.

Changes in Riparian Vegetation After Restoration in a Urban Stream, Yangjae Stream (도시 하천 양재천에서 복원후 하안식생의 변화)

  • Cho, Hyung-Jin;Woo, Hyoseop;Lee, Jinwon;Cho, Kang-Hyun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2008
  • The changes in flora and distribution and structure of vegetation were monitored for seven years at a restored reach of an urban stream, the Yangjae Stream, southeast of Seoul, Korea. In the restored reach, diverse kinds of the close-to-nature stream restoration techniques were adapted and implemented in the winter of 1998-1999. The species numbers and diversity indices of riparian plants at the restored reach were higher than those at the unrestored reach seven years after the restoration implementation. But plant diversity was decreased from the early restoration stage of 1999 - 2001 to seven years after the implementation. The dominant species changed from a ruderal annual, Humulus japonicus, to a perennial, Phragmites australis. The floral structure was distinctly different between in the early stage and seven years later on the results of principal component analysis (PCA) because of decreasing in numbers of exotic or ruderal species and planted or introduced plants in newly disturbed habitats. The distribution areas of communities of Humulus japonicus and Erigeron annuus were decreased and those of communities Phragmites australis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus were increased after the restoration implementation. The results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of plant communities revealed that the community structure were changed from the disturbed vegetations to the stable and natural vegetation after the restoration implementation. Total seven species of willows were found at the restored reach, of which two species were planted and the others were naturally introduced. The monitoring results showed that the stream ecosystem of the study reach were successfully recovered in flora and vegetation and could be used as a model site for the stream restoration in urban streams.

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