• Title, Summary, Keyword: pro-inflammatory cytokines

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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Water Extract from Tuna Heart on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 RAW 264.7 세포에 대한 참치심장 물 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Bae, Nan-Young;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Park, Ji-Hye;Park, Sun-Hee;Cho, Young-Je;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.326-331
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    • 2015
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of tuna heart water extract (THWE) was investigated using lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in this study. Anti-inflammatory effect was detected by the cell proliferation and the production levels of nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-$1{\beta}$, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. As a result, there were no cytotoxic effects on proliferation of macrophages treated with THWE compared to the control. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was remarkably suppressed compared with that of the LPS only group. These results suggest that THWE exerts the anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting production of inflammatory factors and may be a potential material for anti-inflammatory therapy.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Gelidium amansii in RAW 264.7 Macrophages (RAW 264.7 대식세포에서 Gelidium amansii의 항염증 효과)

  • Choi, Won-Sik;Kim, Young-Sun;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Chai, Kyu-Yun;Lee, Young-Haeng
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.673-677
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    • 2009
  • In order to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of Gelidium amansii, RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with the extract of 70% ethanol solution (Ex), and activated with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ex inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of iNOS-mediated NO and COX-2-mediated prostglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production in a dose-dependent manner. Ex also reduced the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin-1${\beta}$ (IL-1${\beta}$) and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages, The observed anti-inflammatory effects of Ex was associated with inactivation of the nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) that mediates the induction of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-1${\beta}$, and IL-6. Further studies showed that Ex inactivated NF-${\kappa}B$ through inhibition of phosphorylation of the inhibitory ${\kappa}B$ ($l{\kappa}B$), Taken together, these results suggest that Gelidium amansii exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines via inactivation of NF-${\kappa}B$ and/or $l{\kappa}B$.

Inhibition of COX-2 Activity and Proinflammatory Cytokines($TNF-{\alpha}{\;}and{\;}IL-1{\beta}$) Production by Water-Soluble Sub-Fractionated Parts from Bee (Apis mellifera) Venom

  • Nam, Kung-Woo;Je, Kang-Hoon;Lee, Jang-Hurn;Han, Ho-Je;Lee, Hye-Jung;Kang, Sung-Kil;Mar, Woongchon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2003
  • Bee venom is used as a traditional medicine for treatment of arthritis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous partitions from bee venom (Apis mellifera) was studied using cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-$\alpha and IL-1\beta$) production, in vitro. COX-2 is involved in the production of prostaglandins that mediate pain and support the inflammatory process. The aqueous partition of bee venom showed strong dose-dependent inhibitory effects on COX-2 activity ($IC_{50} = 13.1 \mu$ g/mL), but did not inhibit COX-1 activity. The aqueous partition was subfractionated into three parts by molecular weight differences, namely, B-F1 (above 20 KDa), B-F2 (between 10 KDa and 20 KDa) and BF-3 (below 10 KDa). B-F2 and B-F3 strongly inhibited COX-2 activity and COX-2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, without revealing cytotoxic effects. TNF-$\alpha and IL-1\beta$ are potent pro-inflammatory cytokines and are early indicators of the inflammatory process. We also investigated the effects of three subfractions on TNF-$\alpha and IL-1\beta$ production using ELISA method. All three subfractions, B-F1, B-F2 and B-F3, inhibited TNF-$\alpha and IL-1\beta$production. These results suggest the pharmacological activities of bee venom on anti-inflammatory process include the inhibition of COX-2 expression and the blocking of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-$\alpha and IL-1\beta$) production.

Baicalein Treatment Promotes Osteoblast Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation through Activation of Immediate Early Response 3

  • Lee, Sang-Im
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.254-260
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    • 2019
  • Background: The primary aims of periodontal disease treatment is to remove dental plaque and calculus, the main causes of tooth loss, and restore periodontal tissue destroyed by inflammation. Periodontal disease treatment should also help maintain the alveolar bone, alleviate inflammation, and promote periodontal ligament cell proliferation, which is essential for tissue regeneration. Conventional antibiotics and anti-inflammatories have adverse side effects, especially during long-term use, so there is a need for adjunct treatment agents derived from natural products. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the herbal flavone baicalein has the osteogenic activity under inflammatory conditions, and assess the involvement of osteoblast immediate early response 3 (IER3) expression. Methods: Human osteoblastic MG-63 cells were cultured with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β in the presence and absence of baicalein. Proliferation was assessed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and expression of IER3 mRNA was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of IER3 protein levels and activation of associated signal transduction pathways were assessed using western blotting. Results: Baicalein increased IER3 mRNA and protein expression synergistically. In addition, baicalein reversed the suppression of cell proliferation, and the downregulation of osteogenic transcription factor runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Baicalein also upregulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2). The upregulation of IER3 by pro-inflammatory cytokines was blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of AKT, p38, JNK, and ERK 1/2. Conclusion: Baicalein mitigates the deleterious responses of osteoblasts to pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, IER3 enhanced the effect of baicalein via activation of AKT, p38, JNK, and ERK pathways.

Cytokines and Depression (사이토카인과 우울증)

  • Kim, Yong-Ku
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 2008
  • Accumulating evidence has suggested the existence of reciprocal communication between immune, endocrine, and neurotransmitter system. Cytokine hypothesis of depression implies that increased pro-inflammatory cytokine such as -1, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IFN-${\gamma}$ in major depression, acting neuromodulators, play a key role in the mediation of behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neurochemical disturbances in depression. Concerning the relation between cytokines and serotonin metabolism, pro-inflammatory cytokines have profound effects on the metabolism of brain serotonin through the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO) that metabolizes tryptophan, the precursor of 5-HT to neurodegenerative quinolinate and neuroprotective kynurenate. The neurodegeneration process is reinforced by the neurotoxic effect of the hypercortisolemia during depression. From this perspective, it is possible that efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression may, at least in part, rely on downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis. So, the use of cytokine synthesis inhibitors or cytokine antagonists may be a new treatment approach in depression. However, at present the question whether cytokines play a causal role in the onset of depression or are mere epiphenomena sustaining depressive symptoms remains to be elucidated. Nevertheless, cytokine hypothesis has created new perspectives in the study of psychological and pathophysiological mechanism that are associated with major depression, as well as the prospect for developing a new generation antidepressants.

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Licochalcone B Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects via Modulation of NF-κB and AP-1

  • Kim, Jin-Kyung;Jun, Jong-Gab
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.218-226
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    • 2015
  • The present study investigated the mechanisms of licochalcone B (LicB)-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response in murine macrophages. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were cultured in the absence or presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS) with LicB. LicB suppressed the generation of nitric oxide and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$. LicB also inhibited the expression of mRNA for inducible nitric oxide synthase and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. Moreover, LicB inhibited nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$) and activator protein-1 translocation into the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, LicB mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the LPS-induced NF-${\kappa}B$ and activator protein-1 signaling pathways in macrophages, which subsequently diminishes the expression and release of various inflammatory mediators. LicB shows promise as a therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

Effects of Mind-Body Training on Cytokines and Their Interactions with Catecholamines

  • Jang, Joon Hwan;Park, Hye Yoon;Lee, UI Soon;Lee, Kyung-Jun;Kang, Do-Hyung
    • Psychiatry investigation
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2017
  • Objective Mind-body training (MBT) may control reactions to stress and regulate the nervous and immune systems. The present study was designed to assess the effects of MBT on plasma cytokines and their interactions with catecholamines. Methods The study group consisted of 80 subjects who practice MBT and a control group of 62 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine, NE; epinephrine, E; and dopamine, DA) and cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10) levels were measured, and the differences between the MBT and control groups and the interactions of cytokines with catecholamines were investigated. Results A significant increase in IL-10+IFN-gamma was found in females of the MBT group compared with controls. Also, a significant increase of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) in the MBT group was shown in a specific condition in which TNF-alpha and IL-6 (pro-inflammatory cytokines) are almost absent (${\leq}1ng/L$) compared with controls. In the MBT group, significant positive correlations were found between IL-10 and the NE/E ratio and between IL-10 and the DA/E ratio, whereas the control group did not show any such correlations. Conclusion MBT may increase IL-10, under specific conditions such as a decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines or E, which may regulate the stress response and possibly contribute to effective and beneficial interactions between the nervous and immune systems.

Cordycepin Suppresses Expression of Diabetes Regulating Genes by Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation in Macrophages

  • Shin, Seul-Mee;Lee, Sung-Won;Kwon, Jeong-Hak;Moon, Sun-Hee;Lee, Seung-Jeong;Lee, Chong-Kil;Cho, Kyung-Hae;Ha, Nam-Joo;Kim, Kyung-Jae
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2009
  • Background: It has been recently noticed that type 2 diabetes (T2D), one of the most common metabolic diseases, causes a chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system that are closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces a component compound, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). Cordycepin has been known to have many pharmacological activities including immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, and anti-infection activities. The molecular mechanisms of cordycepin in T2D are not clear. In the present study, we tested the role of cordycepin on the anti-diabetic effect and anti-inflammatory cascades in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Methods: We confirmed the levels of diabetes regulating genes mRNA and protein of cytokines through RT-PCR and western blot analysis and followed by FACS analysis for the surface molecules. Results: Cordycepin inhibited the production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and TNF-${\alpha}$ in LPS-activated macrophages via suppressing protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. T2D regulating genes such as $11{\beta}$-HSD1 and PPAR${\gamma}$ were decreased as well as expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7-1/-2 were also decreased with the increment of its concentration. In accordance with suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production lead to inhibition of diabetic regulating genes in activated macrophages. Cordycepin suppressed NF-${\kappa}B$ activation in LPS-activated macrophages. Conclusion: Based on these observations, cordycepin suppressed T2D regulating genes through the inactivation of NF-${\kappa}B$ dependent inflammatory responses and suggesting that cordycepin will provide potential use as an immunomodulatory agent for treating immunological diseases.

Effects of 1,7-Substituted Methylxanthine Derivatives on LPS-Stimulated Expression of Cytokines and Chemokines in Raw 264.7 and HK-2 Cells

  • Kang, Joo-Yeon;Shin, Hea-Soon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.296-301
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    • 2015
  • Chronic kidney diseases are based on uncontrolled immunological and inflammatory responses to pathophysiological renal circumstances such as glomerulonephritis, which is caused by immunological mechanisms of glomerular inflammation with increased production of renal pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pentoxifylline (PTX) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting cytokine and chemokine production through aggregation of erythrocytes and thrombocytes. We synthesized a series of 1,7-substituted methylxanthine derivatives by the Traube purine reaction, and the formation of purine ring was completed through nitrosation, a reduction of the nitroso to the amine by catalytic hydrogenation as derivatives of PTX. Then we studied biological activities such as renal anti-inflammatory effects of the synthesized compounds in the production of cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and of chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-8 in Raw 264.7 and HK-2 cells. Renal antiinflammatory activities of this novel series of N-1 and N-7-substituted methylxanthine showed that the N-7 methyl-group-substituted analogs (S7b) showed selective 61% and 77% inhibition of the production of NO and IL-8. The other replacement of the N-1-(CH2)4COCH3 roup, as in the case of compound S6c, also showed an effective 50% and 77% inhibition of TNF-α and IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 and HK-2 cells.

Inhibitory Effect of Sargauum fulvellum Ethanolic Extract on LPS-Induced Inflammatory Reaction in RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Jeong, Da-Hyun;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2013
  • Recently, algae has been considered as a potential anti-inflammatory source due to its distinctive habitat environment exposing to light and high oxygen concentration. In present study, anti-inflammatory effect of brown alga, Sargassum fullvellum ethanol extract (SFEE), was examined. SFEE inhibited not only the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-${\alpha}$) but also the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells without affecting cell viability. SFEE also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$), suggesting that SFEE could affect the expression of inflammation related cytokines and proteins through the regulation of NF-${\kappa}B$. Furthermore, formation of edema of the ear was 40% lower in mice treated with the highest dose (250 mg/kg) of SFEE than in the control mice. Thus, our study showed that SFEE may be a potential therapeutic anti-inflammatory drug.