• Title, Summary, Keyword: pro-inflammatory cytokines

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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Gyulpidaehwangbakcho-tang (Jupidahuangpoxiao-tang) in the Collagen-induced Arthritis Mouse Model

  • Song, Young-Il;Oh, Min-Seok
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.18-29
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: To investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of Gyulpidaehwangbakcho-tang (GDBT) extract in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: The mice received $100{\mu}g$ of bovine type II collagen in Freund's complete adjuvant by intradermal injection at the base of the tail on day 0 and a booster injection on day 21. The mice were orally administered with GDBT (200 or 50mg/kg dissolved in distilled water) daily from day 1 to day 21 after arthritis incidence, and monitored for disease incidence and the severity of arthritis up to day 21. In order to evaluate the effect of GDBT on disease progression, we examined pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, COX-2 and NOS-II. Results: GDBT produced a significant and dose dependent inhibition of arthritis and inflammation during the entire duration of the study. This action was characterized by the decreased production of IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, COX-2, and NOS-II in vivo. Conclusion: We believe that the anti-arthritic activity of GDBT is due to its modulatory effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine in the synovium. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of GDBT in the treatment of RA and other inflammatory joint disorders.

In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of the Artemisia fukudo Extracts in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells (큰비쑥(Artemisia fukudo) 추출물의 murine macrophage RAW 264.7 세포에서 in vitro 항염효과)

  • Yoon, Weon-Jong;Lee, Jung-A;Kim, Kil-Nam;Kim, Ji-Young;Park, Soo-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.464-469
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    • 2007
  • The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia fukudo extracts. The 80% ethanol extract of A. fukudo was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and butanol. In order to effectively screen for anti-inflammatory agents, we first examined the extracts’ inhibitory effects on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines activated with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory effects of the A. fukudo extracts on pro-inflammatory factors (NO, iNOS, COX-2, and $PGE_{2}$) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. Of the sequential solvent fractions, the n-hexane and dichloromethane fractions inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6), production of NO and $PGE_{2}$, and the protein levels of iNOS and COX-2. These results suggest that A. fukudo may have signifIcant effects on inflammatory factors, and may be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic plant.

Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) ethanol extract elicits anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and rescues mice from septic shock

  • Saba, Evelyn;Oh, Mi-Ju;Kwak, Dongmi;Roh, Seong-Soo;Kwon, Hyuk-Woo;Kim, Sung-Dae;Rhee, Man Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2017
  • Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as tomato, is widely used in raw, cooked, or liquid forms because it contains nutritional compounds that are beneficial for human health, including carotenoids, lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamins, and minerals. The tomato is perhaps the most widely studied fruit, especially with respect to its cardioprotective effects. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms by which the tomato elicits its anti-inflammatory properties. We treated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with a tomato ethanol extract and performed various biochemical assays including nitric oxide inhibition, cell viability, RNA extraction, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and immunoblotting, as well we assessed cell survival rates. Our results have shown for the first time that a tomato ethanol extract treatment can suppress nitric oxide production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Moreover, it inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines and elicits its anti-inflammatory effects via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ($NF-{\kappa}B$) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, administration of tomato syrup potently rescued mice from septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide injection. Collectively, our results elucidate details regarding the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of tomato.

Protopanaxadiol modulates LPS-induced inflammatory activity in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells

  • Lee, Whi-Min;Kim, Sung-Dae;Kim, Kil-Soo;Song, Yong-Bum;Kwak, Yi-Seong;Cho, Jae-Youl;Park, Hwa-Jin;Oh, Jae-Wook;Rhee, Man-Hee
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2006
  • Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a mixture of protopanaxadiol type saponins with a dammarane skeleton, from Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer; Araliaceae). Korean ginseng is well-known herb to treat almost all kinds of diseases in Oriental medicine. This herb was particularly prescribed for treatment various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus, for centuries. To understand the efficacy of ginseng against inflammatory diseases, we aimed to show anti-inflammatory activities of the PPD in murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells using nitric oxide (NO) production assay and the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$), interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), and IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). We found that PPD saponin significantly blocked LPS ($1{\mu}g/ml$)-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PPD abrogated the expressions of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-$1{\beta}$ and MCP-1. Moreover, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a critical enzyme to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), was significantly inhibited by PPD in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that anti-inflammatory efficacy of Korean red ginseng on inflammatory diseases is, at least, due to the NO inhibitory activity and the inhibition of the expressional level of inflammatory cytokines and/or mediators.

The protective effect of berberine on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes (여드름균에 의해 염증 반응이 유도된 인간 단핵구 세포에서 알칼로이드 화합물 berberine의 항염증 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun Pyo;Yoon, Young Geol
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of berberine using human monocytes. Infection of Propionibacterium acnes induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-8 and $IL-1{\beta}$ in THP-1 monocytic cells. However, when berberine was supplemented in these P. acnes-induced THP-1 cells, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO was significantly reduced. We also analyzed signaling pathways of the antiinflammatory function of berberine and found that berberine suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 and the expression and nuclear translocation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ p65 in the P. acnes-induced cells. From these results, we concluded that berberine can effectively exert the anti-inflammatory activity via suppressing the $NF-{\kappa}B$ and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways in human monocytes. Moreover, these results suggest the feasibility of developing natural therapeutics using berberine for the treatment of P. acnes-induced inflammatory diseases.

Effects of Vitamin C or E on the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, Heat Shock Protein 70 and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Chicks under Summer Conditions

  • Jang, In-Surk;Ko, Young-Hyun;Moon, Yang-Soo;Sohn, Sea-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.749-756
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    • 2014
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants on pro-inflammatory cytokines, heat shock protein (HSP) and antioxidant status in broiler chicks under summer conditions. A total of 162, 3-d-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a basal diet (CON) and the basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (200 mg/kg diet, VCD) or vitamin E (100 mg/kg, VED) until 35 day of age. All birds were exposed to summer diurnal heat stress at average daily fluctuations of temperature between $32^{\circ}C$ to $34^{\circ}C$ at day to $27^{\circ}C$ to $29^{\circ}C$ at night for the entire feeding periods. There was no significant difference in body weight, feed to gain ratio and the relative organ weight except the thymus in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. However, the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-${\gamma}$, Toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and HSP70 in the liver of birds fed diet containing vitamin C significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with those in birds fed basal diet. Dietary vitamin E also showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the mRNA expression of IL-6 and HSP70 compared with a basal diet. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum of birds fed vitamin C supplemented diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher with than that in birds a basal diet. Lipid peroxidation in serum and liver resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in response to dietary vitamin C or E supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with antioxidant vitamins, especially vitamin C resulted in a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and HSP70, and higher antioxidant parameters than that of birds on the basal diet under summer conditions.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Complex Extract including Eucommia ulmoides in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Ryu, Hwa Yeon;Lee, Hyun;Kong, Hae Jin;Kang, Jae Hui
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.256-263
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    • 2019
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated macrophages (RAW 264.7 murine cell line) to JCE003 which is an extract including Eucommia ulmoides, Juglans regia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Zingiber officinale. Methods: An MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed to analyze the survival rate of RAW 264.7 cells. The production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-${\gamma}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results: Exposure of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells to JCE003 was not cytotoxic up to $400{\mu}g/mL$, but cell survival was statistically significantly decreased at $800{\mu}g/mL$ (p < 0.001). Nitric oxide production was not markedly lowered in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells by exposure to JCE003 (10, 50, 100, 200, 400, $800{\mu}l/mL$) compared with the Control group. In addition, JCE003 reduced the production of TNF-${\alpha}$ in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at $400{\mu}g/mL$ (p < 0.05), but IFN-${\gamma}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells was decreased at 100, 200, and $400{\mu}g/mL$ JCE003 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results suggest that JCE003 inhibited the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The findings of this study provide basic data for the development of new Korean medicine anti-inflammatory drugs.

Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production Inhibitory Effects of Frankincence in Murine Macrophage (마우스의 대식세포에서 프랑킨센스의 염증성 사이토카인 분비 억제작용)

  • Park, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of proinflammatory cytokines by using Frankinsense. The present data was designed to determine the production of the frankincence on pro-inflammatory factors such as $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$ in lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages cell. The cell toxicity was identified by CellTiter 96 AQueous One solution cell proliferation assay. To evaluate of anti-inflammatory effect of frankincence, pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA kit. As a result, the frankincence reduced NO and $TNF-{\alpha}$ production without cytotoxicity. As a result, Francincense was not cytotoxic at 10 ug / ml-1000 ug / ml and significantly inhibited the proinflammatory cytokines $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $IL-1{\beta}$. The secretion inhibition effect of proinflammatory cytokine is believed to be applicable to various physiological activity data and functional materials to demonstrate the anti - inflammatory properties of frankincense.

Suppressed Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by LPS-Activated Macrophages after Treatment with Toxoplasma gondii Lysate

  • Lee, Eun-Jung;Heo, Yoo-Mi;Choi, Jong-Hak;Song, Hyun-Ouk;Ryu, Jae-Sook;Ahn, Myoung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2008
  • During Toxoplasma gondii infection, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils are important sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines from the host. To counteract the pro-inflammatory activities, T. gondii is known to have several mechanisms inducing down-regulation of the host immunity. In the present study, we analyzed the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from a human myelomonocytic cell line, THP-1 cells, in response to treatment with T. gondii lysate or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment of THP-1 cells with LPS induced production of IL-12, TNF-$\alpha$, IL-8, and IL-10. Co-treatment of THP-1 cells with T. gondii lysate inhibited the LPS-induced IL-12, IL-8 and TNF-$\alpha$ expression, but increased the level of IL-10 synergistically. IL-12 and IL-10 production was down-regulated by anti-human toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4 antibodies. T. gondii lysate triggered nuclear factor (NF)-${\kappa}B$-dependent IL-8 expression in HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2. It is suggested that immunosuppression induced by T. gondii lysate treatment might occur via TLR2-mediated NF-${\kappa}B$ activation.

Platycodon grandiflorum Extracts Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Properties by Down-regulating MAPK Signaling Pathways Lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 Cells

  • Kim, Hyeon Jin;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2012
  • Platycodon grandiflorum is a medicinal herb that is used to treat pulmonary and respiratory allergic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (PGEA) against inflammation and to discern the molecular mechanism of PGEA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signal pathways in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PGEA suppressed the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells, and inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. Western blot analysis showed that PGEA suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase and $I{\kappa}-B{\alpha}$ degradation. Inactivation of JNK and p38 was effectively alleviated by PGEA, which subsequently affected the activation of c-Jun and c-Fos, which are the essential components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription complex. Taken together, the results indicate PGEA suppress the activation of p38, JNK, and AP-1, thereby inhibiting the generation of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which affect the regulation of inflammation. PGEA may be useful for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.