• Title, Summary, Keyword: pro-inflammatory cytokines

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The Anti-inflammatory Effect of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory response on RAW 264.7 cells (LPS로 유도한 염증반응에서 해죽순의 항염증 효과)

  • Bae, Gi-Sang;Park, Sung-Joo
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2016
  • Objective : Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit (NF) has been used as a conventional medicine to treat inflammatory peridontal diseases in Myanmar and Eastern Asia. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of NF aqueous extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses was not well-investigated. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of NF on LPS-induced inflammatory responses on RAW 264.7 cells.Methods : To induce inflammation on the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells were treated with 500 ng/mL of LPS. Water extracts of NF was treated 1 h prior to treatment of LPS. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Production of nitrite was measured with Griess assay and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of NF by western blot and immunocytochemistry.Result : Water Extract from NF itself did not have any cytotoxic effect at the concentration of 200 ㎍/ml in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of NF inhibited the production of nitrite, and pro-inflammatory cytokines inlcuding IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in a dose dependant. In addition, NF treatment inhibited the LPS-induced activation and translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB.Conclusion : In summary, our result suggest that treatment of NF could reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory responses via deactivation of NF-κB. This study could suggest that NF could be a beneficial drug or agent to prevent inflammation.

Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K8 Modulate the Mucosal Inflammatory System in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitic Rats

  • Ahn, Young-Sook;Park, Min Young;Shin, Jae-Ho;Kim, Ji Yeon;Kwon, Oran
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.829-835
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    • 2014
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by dysregulation of colon mucosal immunity and mucosal epithelial barrier function. Recent studies have reported that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 reduces excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 (low dose or high dose) or live Lb. plantarum K8 prior to the induction of colitis using 4% DSS. Disease progression was monitored by assessment of disease activity index (DAI). Histological changes of colonic tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The colon mRNA expressions of TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, and toll like receptor-2 (TLR-2) were examined by quantitative real-time-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 suppressed colon shortening, edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of DSS-induced crypts. The groups that received lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 exhibited significantly decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 in the colon. Interestingly, colonic expression of toll like receptor-2 mRNA in the high-dose lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 group increased significantly. Our study demonstrates the protective effects of oral lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 administration on DSS-induced colitis via the modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators of the mucosal immune system.

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ixeris dentata on Ultraviolet B-Induced HaCaT Keratinocytes

  • Kim, Sung-Bae;Kang, Ok-Hwa;Keum, Joon-Ho;Mun, Su-Hyun;An, Hyun-Jin;Jung, Hyun-Ju;Hong, Seung-Heon;Jeong, Dong-Myong;Kweon, Kee-Tae;Kwon, Dong-Yeul
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 2012
  • Human skin is the first line of defense for the protection of the internal organs of the body from different stimuli. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induces skin damage and inflammation through the secretion of various cytokines, which are immune regulators produced by cells. To prevent the initiation of skin inflammation, keratinocytes that have been irreversibly damaged by radiation must be removed through the apoptotic mechanism. Ixeris dentata (family: Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb indigenous to Korea. It has been used in Korea, China, and Japan to treat in digestion, pneumonia, diabetes, hepatitis, and tumors. To gain insight into the anti-inflammatory effects of I. dentata, we examined its influence on UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), by observing cells that were stimulated with UVB in the presence or absence of I. dentata. In the present study, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analysis to measure the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs). I. dentata inhibited UVBinduced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Further, I. dentata inhibited the UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Furthermore, I. dentata inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 MAPKs, suggesting that it inhibits the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and COX-2 expression, by blocking MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that I. dentate can potentially protect against UVB-induced skin inflammation.

The Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Cisplatin on the Death of Sensory Hair Cells. (시스플라틴에 의한 염증성 사이토카인의 청각유모세포 사멸 효과)

  • Lee, Jeong-Han;Park, Chan-Ny;Park, Rae-Kil
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.542-549
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    • 2008
  • Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II : CDDP) is the most widely used anticancer drug against a variety of human neoplasms. However, its clinical use is limited by the onset of severe side effects, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Even though a number of evidences in cytotoxic mechanism of cisplatin have been suggested, the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cisplatin cytotoxicity of auditory cells has not yet been demonstrated. Herein our data clearly demonstrated that cisplatin decreased the viability of HEI-OC1 auditory cells, which was inhibited by the addition of neutralizing $anti-TNF-{\alpha}$, $anti-IL-1{\beta}$ and anti-IL-6 antibodies. Consistently, Neutralization with antibodies against pro-inflammatory cytokines ameliorated the cell death and disarrangement of cochlea hair cell layers in the rat primary cochlear explants which were treated with cisplatin. Furthermore, exogeneous supplementation with free radical scavengers, including GSH and NAC, significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in the rat primary cochlea explants. We also observed that $TNF-{\alpha}$ was predominantly expressed in Deiters and Hensen's cells located in hair cell zone of cisplatin-treated cochlear explants. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines, including $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$ and IL-6, may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hair cell damages caused by ototoxic drug cisplatin.

Study on the Effect of Gwanjulbang-5 in Rheumatoid Arthritis (관절 5호방의 류마토이드 관절염 치료효과에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Choi, Jae-Young;Heo, Dong-Seok;Yoon, Il-Ji;Oh, Min-Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.728-735
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to know the effect of Gwanjulbang-5(hereinafter refer to GJB-5) to on Rheumatoid Arthritis by using human fibroblast-like synoviocytes(hFLS). We performed several experimetal items : that is cytotoxicity of GJB-5, mRNA expression of pro-imflammatory cytokines in hFLS and production of NO, ROS. The results were obtained as follows : GJB-5 reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-1${\beta}$, IL-6, IL-8 in hFLS, increased the production of TIMP-1. As well as GJB-5 reduced the production of ICAM-1, MMP-3, NOS-II, the production of NO and ROS, and the proliferation of hFLS in proportion to the concentration of GJB-5. In conclusion, these results shows that GJB-5 had immunomodulatory effects in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

Solanum nigrum L. Extract Inhibits Inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 and BV2 Cells

  • Lee, Jin Wook;Jung, Hyuk-Sang;Sohn, Youngjoo;Kang, Yoon Joong
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.92-92
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    • 2018
  • Solanum nigrum L. (SNL), generally known as black nightshade, is traditionally used as medicine to reduce inflammation caused by several diseases like asthma, chronic bronchitis and liver cirrhosis. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of SNL extract were examined and possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects were investigated. The inhibitory effects of SNL extract on nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines ($TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-6) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) productions were dissected using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 cells and human microglial cell line BV2 cells. We further investigated whether SNL extract could suppress the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor $NF-{\kappa}B$ p65 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells and BV2 cells. As a result, we showed that the SNL extract significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and MMP-9. In addition, the SNL strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and nuclear translocation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ p65 in activated cells. We confirmed that the extracts of SNL effectively inhibits the anti-inflammatory and may be used as a therapeutic to various inflammatory diseases.

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Anti-inflammatory effect of Arctium minus on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells

  • Yang, Hye-Ji;Jang, Min-Hye;Kang, Yoon Joong
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.115-115
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    • 2019
  • Arctium minus (AM), commonly known as lesser burdock, is a dried fruit (seed) of Aructium lappa L. that belong to Asteraceae. It has been used traditionally as herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been applied to treat various diseases like allergies, skin aging, hyperlipidemia and urinary stone. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of AM on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Pre-treatment of the RAW 264.7 cells with AM considerably inhibited and reduced production of Nitric Oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), and also shows suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) translocation. In addition, AM treatment considerably reduced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Our results indicate that the AM has potential to inhibit inflammation through suppressing production of inflammatory mediators via both the NF-${\kappa}B$ and MAPK signaling pathway. We therefore suggest that AM might be effective therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

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Bacterial PAMPs and Allergens Trigger Increase in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$-induced Cytokine Expression in Human PDL Fibroblasts

  • Son, Ga-Yeon;Shin, Dong Min;Hong, Jeong Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2015
  • An oral environment is constantly exposed to environmental factors and microorganisms. The periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts within this environment are subject to bacterial infection and allergic reaction. However, how these condition affect PDL fibroblasts has yet to be elucidated. PDL fibroblasts were isolated from healthy donors. We examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and measuring the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$). This study investigated the receptors activated by exogenous bacterial pathogens (Lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan) and allergens (German cockroach extract and house dust mite) as well as these pathogenic mediators-induced effects on the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ signaling in human PDL fibroblasts. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, and IL-8) and bone remodeling mediators (receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand and osteoprotegerin) and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$-involved effect. Bacterial pathogens and allergic mediators induced increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and these results are dependent on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$. However, bacterial pathogens and allergic mediators did not lead to increased expression of bone remodeling mediators, except lipopolysaccharide-induced effect on receptor activator of NF-${\kappa}B$ ligand expression. These experiments provide evidence that a pathogens and allergens-induced increase in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ affects the inflammatory response in human PDL fibroblasts.

Hexane Fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus Extract Inhibits the Production of Nitric Oxide and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells (뇌신경소교세포(腦神經小膠細胞)에서 생강 헥산 분획물의 염증매개물질 생성(生成) 억제효과(抑制效果))

  • Jung, Hwan-Yong;Joo, Ye-Jin;Jung, Hye-Mi;Shin, Woo-Jin;Seo, Un-Kyo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: The present study is focused on the inhibitory effect of the rhizome hexane fraction extract of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus (ginger hexan extract; GHE) on the production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, $PGE_2$, and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. Methods: We separated the hexane fraction from Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus's methanol extract. The inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect of GHE was examined on microglial activation. Results: GHE significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, $PGE_2$, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-1${\beta}$ in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In addition, GHE attenuated the mRNA expressions and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory properties of GHE may make it useful as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases.

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Anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rats

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Eun;Ko, Young-Tag
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the therapeutic effect of a Korean herbal medicine Pulsatilla koreana as an anti-septic agent, anti-inflammatory effects of the herbal medicine were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. Treatment with a methanol extract from Pulsatilla koreana significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Results from ELISA analysis showed that Pulsatilla koreana decreased the plasma and hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ while increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-exposed rats. Pulsatilla koreana also decreased the plasma levels of other inflammatory mediators such as $NO_3{^-}/NO_2{^-}$, ICAM-1, $PGE_2$, and CINC-1 in LPS-exposed rats. Although no significant effects were observed in the phagocytic activities, the distribution of lymphocyte population was significantly shifted by the treatment with Pulsatilla koreana. All together, Pulsatilla koreana exerts anti-inflammatory activities in the immune-challenged animals implicating that this Korean herbal medicine is therapeutically useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases like sepsis.