• Title, Summary, Keyword: probiotics

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Effect of Green Tea Probiotics on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Immune Response in Finishing Pigs

  • Ko, S.Y.;Yang, C.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1339-1347
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of green tea probiotics on growth performance, meat quality and immune response in finishing pigs, and to assess the possibility of substituting green tea probiotics for antibiotics in diets of finishing pigs. This green tea probiotics is made by mixing green tea powder and excipients (defatted rice bran and wheat bran) and fermenting the mixture with beneficial bacteria. A total of 90 crossbreed "Landrace$\times$Yorkshire" finishing pigs with an average body weight of $72.5{\pm}2.5kg$ were assigned to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had 3 replications with 6 pigs per replication. The five dietary treatments were control, antibiotic (0.003% chlortetracycline added) and 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% of green tea probiotics. There were no significant differences in final body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the green tea probiotics and antibiotic treatments (p>0.05). Crude protein content was significantly increased in the 0.1 and 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment groups (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in crude fat content of the meat among the treatments. The TBA value of meat was significantly lowered with 0.5 and 1.0% green tea probiotics treatments compared to that of controls and statistically similar to the antibiotic treatment after 3 weeks of storage (p<0.05). The growth of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (0.1 and $1.0{\mu}g/ml$) was significantly increased with 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment compared to that of the control treatment (p<0.05). The growth of spleen cells stimulated with LPS (1.0, 3.0 and $10{\mu}g/ml$) was significantly increased in the 0.5% green tea probiotics group compared to the antibiotic group (p<0.05). In Con A ($1.0{\mu}g/ml$) medium, IL-6 production of spleen cells was significantly increased with 1.0% green tea probiotics treatment compared to that of the control (p<0.05). In LPS ($10.0{\mu}g/ml$) medium, TNF-${\alpha}$ production of spleen cells increased significantly in all green tea probiotics treatment groups compared to that of the control (p<0.05). Finally it can be summarized that addition of green tea probiotic has a positive effect similar to antibiotic and 0.5% is the suitable dietary supplementation dose for finishing pig production.

Surface-Displayed IL-10 by Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Reduces Th1 Responses of RAW264.7 Cells Stimulated with Poly(I:C) or LPS

  • Cai, Ruopeng;Jiang, Yanlong;Yang, Wei;Yang, Wentao;Shi, Shaohua;Shi, Chunwei;Hu, Jingtao;Gu, Wei;Ye, Liping;Zhou, Fangyu;Gong, Qinglong;Han, Wenyu;Yang, Guilian;Wang, Chunfeng
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.421-431
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    • 2016
  • Recently, poly-γ-glutamic acid synthetase A (pgsA) has been applied to display exogenous proteins on the surface of Lactobacillus casei or Lactococcus lactis, which results in a surface-displayed component of bacteria. However, the ability of carrying genes encoded by plasmids and the expression efficiency of recombinant bacteria can be somewhat affected by the longer gene length of pgsA (1,143 bp); therefore, a truncated gene, pgsA, was generated based on the characteristics of pgsA by computational analysis. Using murine IL-10 as an exogenous gene, recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum was constructed and the capacity of the surface-displayed protein and functional differences between exogenous proteins expressed by these strains were evaluated. Surface expression of IL-10 on both recombinant bacteria with anchorins and the higher expression levels in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10 were confirmed by western blot assay. Most importantly, up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 in RAW264.7 cells after stimulation with Poly(I:C) or LPS was exacerbated after co-culture with L. plantarum-pgsA. By contrast, IL-10 expressed by these recombinant strains could reduce these factors, and the expression of these factors was associated with recombinant strains that expressed anchorin (especially in L. plantarum-pgsA'-IL-10) and was significantly lower compared with the anchorin-free strains. These findings indicated that exogenous proteins could be successfully displayed on the surface of L. plantarum by pgsA or pgsA', and the expression of recombinant bacteria with pgsA' was superior compared with bacteria with pgsA.

Effects of probiotics on the prevention of atopic dermatitis

  • Kim, Nam Yeun;Ji, Geun Eog
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2012
  • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune disorder that is becoming increasingly prevalent throughout the world. The exact etiology of AD remains unknown, and a cure for AD is not currently available. The hypothesis that appropriate early microbial stimulation contributes to the establishment of a balanced immune system in terms of T helper type Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cell (Treg) responses has led to the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of AD in light of various human clinical studies and animal experiments. Meta-analysis data suggests that probiotics can alleviate the symptoms of AD in infants. The effects of balancing Th1/Th2 immunity and enhancing Treg activity via the interaction of probiotics with dendritic cells have been described in vitro and in animal models, although such an effect has not been demonstrated in human studies. In this review, we present some highlights of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in humans and animal studies with regard to their effects on the prevention of AD.

Probiotics and Prolongation of Life (유산균 Probiotics와 생명의 연장에 대한 고찰)

  • Oh, Se-Jong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2008
  • One hundred one years have passed since Metchnikoff made his first scientific contribution to probiotics study. Intestinal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for humans are closely associated with the host's health because LAB is an important biodefense factor in preventing colonization and subsequent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine. A probiotic is recently defined as "live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host". Some species of LAB have been claimed as probiotics, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and Lactococcus lactis. For understanding the general mechanism of probiotics, this paper would explore the early studies relating to probiotics and intestinal microbiota, and briefly introduce the Prolongation of Life written by Elie Metctmikoff.

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Clostridium difficile-associated Intestinal Disease and Probiotics

  • Yun, Bohyun;Lee, Sang Dae;Oh, Sejong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Probiotics are traditionally defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of pathologic conditions when they are ingested. Although there is a relatively large volume of literature that supports the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders, the scientific basis behind probiotic use has only recently been established, and clinical studies on this topic are just beginning to get published. Currently, the best studied probiotics are lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Other organisms used as probiotics in humans include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Bacteroides sp., Bacillus sp., Propionibacterium sp., and various fungi, and some probiotic preparations contain more than one bacterial strain. Probiotic use for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile induced intestinal disease as well as for other gastrointestinal disorders has been discussed in this review.

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Immune Disorders and Its Correlation with Gut Microbiome

  • Hwang, Ji-Sun;Im, Chang-Rok;Im, Sin-Hyeog
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2012
  • Allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are common hyper-immune disorders in industrialized countries. Along with genetic association, environmental factors and gut microbiota have been suggested as major triggering factors for the development of atopic dermatitis. Numerous studies support the association of hygiene hypothesis in allergic immune disorders that a lack of early childhood exposure to diverse microorganism increases susceptibility to allergic diseases. Among the symbiotic microorganisms (e.g. gut flora or probiotics), probiotics confer health benefits through multiple action mechanisms including modification of immune response in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Although many human clinical trials and mouse studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of probiotics in diverse immune disorders, this effect is strain specific and needs to apply specific probiotics for specific allergic diseases. Herein, we briefly review the diverse functions and regulation mechanisms of probiotics in diverse disorders.

Control of Allergy with Probiotics and Its Safety (프로바이오틱스에 의한 알레르기 질환 제어 및 안전성)

  • Lee, Yewon;Yoon, Yohan
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2020
  • Allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies, could be caused by dysbiosis that results in an immune system imbalance. The incidence of allergic diseases has been increasing and they are now one of the most common diseases throughout the world. Recently, probiotics have been suggested as an alternative intervention for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Probiotics are endogenous microflora with functional effects within hosts. They have various clinical and immunological capacities and have recently been considered as a supplement for the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases. Probiotic bacteria modulate immune cells such as Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells that are correlated with protection against atopic dermatitis, however, safety concerns for the use of probiotics have been raised. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of probiotics in the treatment of allergic diseases.

Oral Delivery of Probiotics Using pH-Sensitive Phthalyl Inulin Tablets

  • Kim, Whee-Soo;Cho, Chong-Su;Hong, Liang;Han, Geon Goo;Kil, Bum Ju;Kang, Sang-Kee;Kim, Dae-Duk;Choi, Yun-Jaie;Huh, Chul Sung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2019
  • Probiotics show low cell viability after oral administration because they have difficulty surviving in the stomach due to low pH and enzymes. For the oral delivery of probiotics, developing a formula that protects the probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity while providing living cells is mandatory. In this study, we developed tablets using a new pH-sensitive phthalyl inulin (PI) to protect probiotics from gastric conditions and investigated the effects of different compression forces on cell survival. We made three different tablets under different compression forces and measured survivability, disintegration time, and kinetics in simulated gastric-intestinal fluid. During tableting, there were no significant differences in probiotic viability among the different compression forces although disintegration time was affected by the compression force. A higher compression force resulted in higher viability in simulated gastric fluid. The swelling degree of the PI tablets in simulated intestinal fluid was higher than that of the tablets in simulated gastric fluid due to the pH sensitivity of the PI. The probiotic viability formulated in the tablets was also higher in acidic gastric conditions than that for probiotics in solution. Rapid release of the probiotics from the tablet occurred in the simulated intestinal fluid due to the pH sensitivity. After 6 months of refrigeration, the viability of the PI probiotics was kept. Overall, this is the first study to show the pH-sensitive properties of PI and one that may be useful for oral delivery of the probiotics.

Effect of Dietary Probiotics Supplementation to Feed for Monogastric Animals (단위가축을 위한 생균제의 급여 효과)

  • Min, Byeong-Jun;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2002
  • 'Probiotics' as a live microbial feed supplementation which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its microbial balance and it is known to as a substitue for antibiotics in livestock feed industry. Lactic acid bacteria as a Lactobacillus sp. is formed acid and decrease pH in gastro-intestine that is result in suppress harmful microorganism. Lactobacillus sp. also produces vitamin and a variety amino acids. Yeast as a saccharomyces sp. secretes digestive enzymes, decreases ammonia emission and increases feed palatability by alcohol and glutamic acid. The effects of dietary probiotics in monogastric animals that improve weight gain and feed efficiency ratio and decrease diarrhea accurence frequency in pigs. Also, probiotics increase egg production ratio and beneficial microorganisms in laying hens. In broiler, they have more gain weight and lower blood cholesterol concentrations by probiotics. However, the other study reported probiotics supplementation in animal diets has no effect on ADG, G/F or performance. Thus, future study in these area will allow for more efficient use of the probiotics, selection of more superior microorganism and development of more efficient environment-friendly probiotics like a photosynthetic bacteria.

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Role of Probiotics in Human Gut Microbiome-Associated Diseases

  • Kim, Seon-Kyun;Guevarra, Robin B.;Kim, You-Tae;Kwon, Joongi;Kim, Hyeri;Cho, Jae Hyoung;Kim, Hyeun Bum;Lee, Ju-Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1335-1340
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    • 2019
  • Probiotics, including bacteria and yeast, are live microorganisms that have demonstrated beneficial effects on human health. Recently, probiotic bacteria are constantly being studied and their applications are also being considered in promising adjuvant treatments for various intestinal diseases. Clinical trials and in vivo experiments have extended our current understanding of the important roles that probiotics play in human gut microbiomeassociated diseases. It has been documented through many clinical trials that probiotics could shape the intestinal microbiota leading to potential control of multiple bowel diseases and promotion of overall wellness. In this review, we focused on the relationship between probiotics and the human gut microbiota and its roles in gut microbiome-associated diseases. Here, we also discuss future directions and research areas that need further elucidation in order to better understand the roles of probiotics in the treatment of intestinal diseases.