• Title, Summary, Keyword: prochloraz

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Simultaneous determination for fungicide prochloraz and its metabolites in animal commodities with GC-ECD after hydrolysis (가수분해 후 GC-ECD를 이용한 축산물 중 살균제 Prochloraz 및 그의 대사물의 동시분석)

  • Park, Ji-Su;Choi, Hoon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2020
  • The analytical method was established for simultaneous determination of fungicide prochloraz and its metabolites in several animal commodities using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electron capture detector (ECD). Samples including beef meat, pork meat, chicken meat, milk, and egg were hydrolyzed with pyridine hydrochloride which converts prochloraz and its metabolites to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) because residue definition for prochloraz was 'sum of prochloraz and its metabolites containing the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol moiety, expressed as prochloraz', for compliance with MRLs from animal commodities. Therefore, residual prochloraz was extracted with acetone, decomposed to 2,4,6-TCP, partitioned with dichloromethane, purified with aminopropyl SPE and quantified as 2,4,6-TCP with GC-ECD. The instrumental limit of quantitation and method LOQ (MLOQ) was 0.01 ㎍/mL and 0.02 mg/kg for prochloraz and 0.005 ㎍/mL and 0.01 mg/kg for 2,4,6-TCP, respectively. The linearity of the calibration curve was good with R2 >0.995 in the range of 0.005-0.2 ㎍/mL. Fortification levels of prochloraz were 0.02 mg/kg (MLOQ) and 0.2 mg/kg (10MLOQ) for recovery tests. Overall recoveries of prochloraz were >90% with <10% of coefficient variation (C.V.). This established analytical method was fully validated and could be useful for quantification of prochloraz and its metabolites in animal commodities as official analytical method.

Safe and easy disposal of prochloraz wastewaters after used as rice seed disinfectant (벼 종자소독 후 prochloraz 폐액의 안전 폐기 방법)

  • Park, Byung-Jun;Choi, Ju-Hyeon;Kim, Chan-Sub;Lee, Byung-Moo;Ihm, Yang-Bin;Cho, Il-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2003
  • For safe and easy disposal of prochloraz wastewaters after used as rice seed disinfectant in Korean farms, this experiment was carried out. By addition of several agricultural materials commonly utilizing in farmers, removal effect of prochloraz from waste solution was also investigated. When rice seeds after soaking in diluted prochloraz solution were rinsed with water several times, prochloraz was removed $9.2\sim10.6%$ at the first rinse and less than 3 % at the fourth rinse. A half life of prochloraz was $4\sim5$ days in aqueous system. Hydrolysis of prochloraz was more rapidly in alkali solution than neutral and acidic one at $25^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$. By the irradiation under $5530J/cm^2$ using xenone lamp, prochloraz was photo-degraded to 87.7% in aqueous system. The removal efficiency of prochloraz by addition of several agricultural materials were as follows: 93.6% by lime, 90.7% by composed pig manure, 89.4% by activated charcoal, 78.0% by straw ash, 70.3% by sandy loam soil, 47.0% by zeolite and 24.1 % by rice straw. When prochloraz solution was sprayed on the field soil, it was dissipated upto 90% within 35 days.

Morphological Changes of Fungal Cell Wall and ABC Transporter as Resistance Responses of Rice Bakanae Disease Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi CF337 to Prochloraz (세포벽의 형태학적 변화와 ABC Transporter에 기초한 벼키다리병원균 Fusarium fujikuroi CF337의 살균제 prochloraz에 대한 저항성 반응)

  • Yang, You-Ri;Lee, Si-Woo;Lee, Se-Won;Kim, In-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: The resistance of rice bakanae disease pathogens against the fungicide prochloraz has been reported. Understanding the resistance mechanisms is an important for better control of the pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the resistance mechanisms of Fusarium fujikuroi CF337 (CF337) against prochloraz. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morphological changes in the cell wall of CF337 grown in potato dextrose broth (PDB) with or without prochloraz was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Growth inhibition of CF337 was examined in PDB containing prochloraz or an ABC transporter inhibitor or both of them. Cell wall thickness of CF337 grown in PDB with prochloraz was significantly increased from $80.73{\pm}1.99nm$ to $193.11{\pm}7.07nm$. Significant inhibition in the growth of CF337 was observed in the presence of both prochloraz and the inhibitor, but no growth inhibition was observed in the presence of the inhibitor or prochloraz. Sequence analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) gene of CF337 showed 70 to 80% similarities to the genes of the pathogens resistant to other fungicides. CONCLUSION: Efflux transporter system and changes in cell wall thickness were suggested as resistance mechanisms of CF337 against prochloraz.

Antifungal Activity of Prochloraz and Triadimefon on Valsa ceratosperma (사과나무 부란병(腐爛病)에 대(對)한 Prochloraz와 Triadimefon의 항균성(抗菌性))

  • Hong, Jong Uck;Lee, Dong Jin;Kim, Jang Eok
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.7
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 1989
  • In order to elucidate the antifungal activity of prochloraz(imidazole) and triadimefon(triazole), the mycelia of the Valsa ceratosperma were treated with the compounds in vitro. Prochloraz applied to the target pathogen inhibited mycelial growth more than triadimefon. The concentration for the 50% inhibition of mycelial growth ($I_{50}$) was 1-5 ppm in treatment of prochloraz and 5-10 ppm in treatment of triadimefon. The mycelia of Valsa ceratosperma treated with low concentration of prochloraz and triadimefon were morphologically abnormal as observed with an optical microscope. Content of total lipid and fatty acids were not changed by the treatments of prochloraz and triadimefon, respectively, in liquid medium.

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Sensitivity to Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibiting-Fungicides of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolated from Persimmon Trees (감나무로부터 분리한 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides의 스테롤 생합성 저해제에 대한 감수성)

  • Lim, Tae-Heon;Lee, Dong-Woon;Choi, Yong-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Han, Sang-Sub;Cha, Byeong-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2009
  • In 2008, 110 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were obtained from infected twigs of persimmon collected at Sangju and five fungicides (prochloraz manganese complex, tebuconazole, mancozeb+myclobutanil, fluquinconazole+prochloraz, and tebuconazole+tolyfluanid) were evaluated to determine their growth on fungicide-medium. Among them, the mycelial growth of 97.3 and 98.2% of isolates was inhibited over 91% in response to prochloraz ($250\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) and tebuconazole ($125\;{\mu}g/m{\ell}$), respectively, compared to untreated control. In response to mancozeb+myclobutanil, fluquinconazole+prochloraz, and tebuconazole+tolyfluanid, isolates of 96.4, 99.1 and 96.4% of them were inhibited by fungicides, respectively. Isolates showed the highest sensitivity to fluquinconazole+prochloraz among 5 fungicides. The correlation between tebuconazole and tebuconazole+tolyfluanid was higher (r=0.85).

Detection for the Resistance of Fusarium spp. Isolated from Rice Seeds to Prochloraz and Cross-resistance to Other Fungicides Inhibiting Sterol Biosynthesis (벼 종자에서 분리한 Fusarium속 균주들의 prochloraz에 대한 저항성 검정 및 교차 저항성 조사)

  • Shin, Myeong-Uk;Kang, Hyo-Jung;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2008
  • To assess the resistance to prochloraz, $EC_{50}$ values of Fusarium isolates obtained from rice seed were investigated through the agar dilution method. $EC_{50}$ value of 36 isolates of Fusarium spp. to prochloraz ranged from 0.020 to $1.78{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ with an average of $0.25{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$. According to the species of Fusarium, the average $EC_{50}$ value was fluctuated; $0.091{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ for F. moniliformis, $0.11{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ for F. proliferatum and $0.31{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ for F. fujikuroi. The resistant baseline was decided at $0.5{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ to determine if the isolate was resistant to prochloraz or not. Based on the resistant baseline, the ratio of resistant isolates was 14%. There was no correlation between the resistance to prochloraz and the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. on rice seedlings. The resistant isolates of F. fujikuroi did not show the cross-resistance to other sterol biosynthesis inhibiting fungicides, triflumizole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole and tebuconazole.

Effect of Prochloraz on Electrolytic Leakage and Spore Germination of Puccinia recondita Causing Wheat Leaf Rust

  • Kim, Heung-Tae;Jang, Kyung-Soo;Park, Gyung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Woo;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2003
  • The effects of prochloraz on membrane permeability and germination of uredospores of Puccinia recondita were investigated to determine its potential mode of action on wheat leaf rust control activity. Disease control activity of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) and their activities on uredospore membrane permeability and germination were examined with wheat leaf rust pathogen, both in vitro and in vivo. While wheat leaf rust was not controlled by prochloraz, electrolytic leakage and spore germination of P. recondita uredospore was the highest with the use of prochloraz among the eight fungicides tested. Prochloraz stimulated uredospore of P. recondita to germinate at a higher ratio. Although certain EBIs, such as hexaconazole, showed excellent control activity, their effects on uredospore membrane permeability and germination was much inferior to prochloraz. Therefore, results of this study suggest that effects of EBIs on membrane permeability and germination of uredospore are not always correlated with their disease control activity.

Use of Sodium Hypochlorite for the Control of Bakanae Disease in Rice (벼 키다리병 방제를 위한 차아염소산나트륨 이용)

  • Shin, Dong Bum;Goh, Jaeduk;Lee, Bong Choon;Kang, In Jeong;Kang, Hang-Won
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.259-263
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    • 2014
  • For application of sodium hypochlorite as a seed disinfectant to the control of bakanae disease caused by Gibberella fujikuroi in rice, we investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite for antifungal activity, eliminating fungus from seeds and reducing disease occurrence in vitro and greenhouse. The viability of the pathogen was significantly reduced at $80{\mu}l/l$ concentration of sodium hypochlorite, and the pathogens did not grow at over $100{\mu}l/l$ concentration of sodium hypochlorite. The effect of eliminating fungus was 90% at treatment of 0.3% sodium hypochlorite solution to infected rice seeds for eight hours. When the rice seeds were soaked into 0.5% and 0.3% sodium hypochlorite solutions for twelve hours, the disease incidences of rice seedling were remarkably reduced to 4.3% and 4.7%, respectively, compared to 97.3% of non-treatment control. The rates of seedling stand were 29.1% and 26.9% higher with the sodium hypochlorite treatment than that of non-treatment control. When prochloraz and sodium hypochlorite was treated to naturally severely infested rice seeds with bakanae disease, the disinfection effect was higher than that of prochloraz alone treatment. When the seeds were soaked in sodium hypochlorite before or after prochloraz, the rate of seed contamination was low as 4.0% or 6.3%, respectively, compared to prochloraz alone as 13.7%. The disease incidence was low as 3.7% or 8.3%, respectively, compared to prochloraz alone as 14.3%. The disinfection effect of treatment with prochloraz after sodium hypochlorite was higher than that of treatment with prochloraz before sodium hypochlorite.

Sensitivity to Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolated from Persimmon in 2013 in Sangju, Gyeongsangbukdo (2013년 경북 상주지역 감나무로부터 분리한 Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 탄저병균의 스테롤 생합성 저해 살균제에 대한 감수성)

  • Lim, Tae Heon;Lee, Dong Woon;Kwon, Oh Gyeong;Han, Sangsub;Cha, Byeongjin;Song, In Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2015
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious pathogens of persimmon in Korea. In 2013, 67 isolates of C. gloeosporioides were isolated from infected fruits, leaf and twigs of persimmon (Diosprosi kaki) at Sangju, Gyeongsangbukdo and fungal responses against five fungicides (prochloraz manganese complex, tebuconazole, mancozeb+myclobutanil, fluquinconazole+prochloraz, and tebuconazole+tolyfluanid) were evaluated by their growth on the fungicide-medium. All isolates were inhibited mycelium growth on the medium with each recommended application concentration of flied. $EC_{50}$ (${\mu}g/ml$) of tebuconazole was from 0.02 to 1.04 and average was 0.31. $EC_{50}$ (${\mu}g/ml$) of prochloraz manganese complex was 0.02~0.23 average was 0.078. Average $EC_{50}$ values (${\mu}g/ml$) of Fluquinconazole+Prochloraz (FP) was 0.029. On the basis $EC_{50}$ (${\mu}g/ml$), the correlation coefficient (r) between tebuconazole and prochloraz manganese complex, prochloraz manganese complex and FP, tebuconazole and FP were 0.42, 0.44 and 0.27, respectively.

Effects of Prochloraz and Tebuconazole on Control of Fusarium Bulb and Root Rot of Oriental Orchid, Cymbidium goeringii (Prochloraz와 Tebuconazole의 Fusarium oxysporum에 의한 춘란(Cymbidium goeringii) 구경썩음병 방제효과)

  • Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Lee, Sun-Mi;Cho, Weon-Dae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.72-78
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    • 2003
  • Eight fungicides including prochloraz, tebuconazole, benomyl, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, azoxystrobin, and fluazinam were examined for their control effects on Fusarium bulb and root rot of oriental orchid, Cymbidium goeringii. Among the chemicals, prochloraz and tebuconazole were the most effective on suppression of the causal pathogen, F. oxysporum in vitro and on control of the disease in vivo. Prochloraz and tebuconazole inhibited mycelial growth of the fungi 95~100% at 10ppm a.i. and microconidial germination 75~100% at 100ppm a.i. Prochloraz and tebuconazole showed 80~92% and 84~88% protective control value on the disease, respectively. However, curative effects on infected orchid were relatively low. Other chemicals showed no or lower than 20% curative and 50% protective control value. Results indicated that prochloraz and tebuconazole can be used for the control of the Fusarium bulb and root rot of oriental orchids. However, the chemicals need to be applied prior to the disease development to achieve successful control efficacy.