• Title, Summary, Keyword: production area

Search Result 3,603, Processing Time 0.088 seconds

The Exploitation of World Fishery Resources for 10 Years under the New Regime in the Sea (신해양질서 10년후 세계어업자원 이용동향)

  • 이장욱;허영희
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.43-87
    • /
    • 1992
  • In this paper, state of exploitation of world fishery resources after 10 years under the new regime in the sea, called the era of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) expending up to a 200 nautical miles from coastal line, was reviewed to determine effect from establishing EEZ in the world fishery production and its export/import volume based on the fishery statistics annually published by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nation. The world total production from marine living resources had a trend showing a waned increase during 1970's when most of coastal states were translated into the reality of EEZ. From mid-1980's onwards, it increased rapidly, reaching about 85 million tons . Such increase in production was basically from the Pacific Ocean, accounting for more than 60% of the world total production. Fishing areas where showed increase in the production after the new regime in the sea were the southwestern Atlantic (FAO area 41) , the eastern Indian (FAO area 57) and the whole fishing areas in the Pacific except the eastern central Pacific (FAO area 77). Increase in the production from distant-water fishing countries came from the regions of the southwest Atlantic (FAO area 41) and the southwest Pacific (FAO area 81) . The production from coastal states was up from the regions of the eastern Indian (FAO area 57) , the northwest and northeast Pacific (FAO areas 61 and 67) and the southeast Pacific (FAO area 87) . It was likely that the exploitation of the fishable stocks was well monitored in the areas of the northwest Atlantic (FAO area 21) , the eastern central Atlantic (FAO area 34) and the northeast Pacific (FAO area 67) through appropriate management measures such as annual harvest level, establishment of total allowable catch etc. The marine fisheries resources that have made contribution to the world production, despite expansion of 200 EEZ by coastal states, were sardinellas, Atlantic cod, blue whiting and squids in the Atlantic Ocean : tunas which mainly include skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna, croakers and pony fishes in the Indian Ocean : and sardine, Chilean pilchard, Alaska pollock, tunas (skipjack and yellowfin tuna) , blue grenadier and blue whiting including anchoveta in the Pacific Ocean. It was identified that both fishery production and its export since introduction of the new regime in the sea were dominated by such coastal states as USA, Canada, Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, South Africa and Newzealand. But difficulties have been experienced in the European countries including Norway, Spain, Japan and Rep. of Korea. Therefore, majority of coastal states are unlikely to have yet undertaken proper utilization as well as rational management of marine living resources in their jurisdiction during the last two decades. The main target species groups which led the world fishery production to go up were Alaska pollock, cods, tunas, sardinellas, chub and jack mackerel and anchoveta. These stocks are largely expected to continue to contribute to the production. The fisheries resources which are unexploited, underexploited and/or lightly exploited at present and which will be contributed to the world production in future are identified with cephalopods, Pacific jack mackerel and Atlantic mackerel, silver hake including anchovies. These resources mainly distribute in the Pacific regions, especially FAO statistical fishing areas 67, 77 and 87. It was likely to premature to conclude that the new regime in the sea was only in favour of coastal states in fishey production.

  • PDF

Environmental Conditions and Resource Management in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Thailand. I. Production Systems and Management of Resources

  • Skunmun, P.;Boonsom, J.;Kaewsuwan, S.;Chantalakhana, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.215-219
    • /
    • 1999
  • This study aims to make detail examination of smallholder dairy farming systems in the Nongpho Dairy Cooperative. Forty-three dairy farms were selected from three geographical areas i.e. irrigated area, municipality area, and factory area. Within each area some number of sample farms were selected from each of the three levels of farm and animal crowdedness (very crowded, crowded, and not crowded farms). Detail data were collected during 1996 to 1997, they were socio-economic conditions of the sample farms and farmers, dairy production systems and management of resources (animals, bam, feeds, stocking rates, herd structure, animal body conditions, milk yield and milk quality, manure and farm wastes management, and other related items). Detail information useful for the improvement of farm production efficiency were discussed. It was very clear that much improvement of smallholder dairy production can be achieved if the recommendations given by this study were implemented.

Determination of Marginal Sowing Date for Soybean in Paddy Field Cultivation in the Southern Region of Korea

  • Park, Hyeon Jin;Han, Won-Young;Oh, Ki-Won;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Lee, Byong Won;Ko, Jong-Min;Baek, In Youl;Kang, Hang Won
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.61 no.2
    • /
    • pp.104-112
    • /
    • 2016
  • A double-cropping system with soybean (Glycine max) following the cultivation of potato, garlic, and onion is widely adopted in the southern region of Korea. For this system, marginal dates for planting must be determined for profitable soybean yields, because the decision to plant soybean as a second crop is occasionally delayed by harvest of the first crop and weather conditions. In order to investigate the effect of planting date on soybean yield, three cultivars (early and late maturity) were planted on seven different dates from May 1 to July 30 in both paddy and upland fields across 2012 and 2013. Soybean yields were significantly different among the planting dates and the cultivars; however, the interaction between cultivar and planting date was not significant. Based on linear regression, the maximum yield of soybean was reached with a June 10 planting date, with a sharp decline in yield for crops planted after this date. The results of this study were consistent with those of a previous one that recommends early and mid-June as the optimum planting period. Regardless of soybean ecotype, a reduction in yield of greater than 20% occurred when soybean was planted after mid-July. Frost during soybean growth can reduce yields, and the late maturity cultivars planted on July 30 were damaged by frost before completing maturation and harvest; however, early maturity cultivars were safely harvested. For sufficient time to develop and reach profitable yields, the planting of soybean before mid-July is recommended.

Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Abundance and Production in the Saemangeum Area (새만금 주변 해역에서 박테리아 개체수 및 생산력의 공간 분포)

  • Choi, Dong-Han;Noh, Jae-Hoon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.509-518
    • /
    • 2008
  • Distribution of bacterial abundance and production was investigated in seawater around Saemangeum dike 7 times during March, $2007{\sim}July$, 2008. In the inner area of the dike, salinity variation was great due to river runoff from Mangyung and Dongjin Rivers and high chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations up to $124.3{\mu}g\;l^{-1}$ was found. In the outer area of the dike, salinity was higher than in the inner area of the dike, and chl a was lower up to 10 times than in the inner area of the dike. Thus, the area of Saemangeum showed meso- to hypereutrophic conditions. Bacterial abundance and production ranged from 0.3 to $4.3{\times}10^9\;cells\;l^{-1}$ and from 5.2 to $570 pmol\;l^{-1}h^{-1}$ in outer area of the dike, respectively, while in the inner area of the dike bacterial abundance and production was 3 to 4 times higher ($0.4{\sim}12.7{\times}10^9\;cells\;l^{-1}$ and $12.3{\sim}1309\;pmol\;l^{-1}h^{-1}$, respectively) than those in the outer area. In both areas, bacterial abudance and production was highest in summer and lowest in winter. However, the variations of bacterial parameters was very large in each season. These large variations seemed to be related with the supply of organic matter. Bacterial abundance and production showed significant negative correlations with salinity in the inner area, suggesting that allochthonous organic matter input by river runoff could be an important factor in regulating the distribution of bacterial abundance and production. In addition, bacterial production also correlated positively with chl a in the inner area, suggesting that autochthonous substrate might be another regulating factor of bacterial growth in the area. These results suggest that the supply of both allochthonous organic substrates introduced by river runoff and autochthonous substrates produced by phytoplankon could be important in regulating bacterial growth and utilization of organic matter in the area. Thus, to manage water quality in the inner area of dike, it seems to be important to lower the load of both organic and inorganic nutrients from adjacent rivers.

Implementation of Remote Monitoring Scenario using CDMA Short Message Service for Protected Crop Production Environment

  • Bae, Keun-Soo;Chung, Sun-Ok;Kim, Ki-Dae;Hur, Seung-Oh;Kim, Hak-Jin
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.36 no.4
    • /
    • pp.279-284
    • /
    • 2011
  • Protected vegetable production area is greater than 26% of the total vegetable production area in Korea, and portion of protected production area is increasing for flowers and fruits. To secure stable productivity and profitability, continuous and intensive monitoring and control of protected crop production environment is critical, which is labor- and time-consuming. Failure to maintain proper environmental conditions (e.g., light, temperature, humidity) leads to significant damage to crop growth and quality, therefore farmers should visit or be present close to the production area. To overcome these problems, application of remote monitoring and control of crop production environment has been increasing. Wireless monitoring and control systems have used CDMA, internet, and smart phone communications. Levels of technology adoption are different for farmers' needs for their cropping systems. In this paper, potential of wireless remote monitoring of protected agricultural environment using CDMA SMS text messages was reported. Monitoring variables were outside weather (precipitation, wind direction and velocity, temperature, and humidity), inside ambient condition (temperature, humidity, $CO_2$ level, and light intensity), irrigation status (irrigation flow rate and pressure), and soil condition (volumetric water content and matric potential). Scenarios and data formats for environment monitoring were devised, tested, and compared. Results of this study would provide useful information for adoption of wireless remote monitoring techniques by farmers.

Sustainable Roughage Production in Korea - Review -

  • Hur, S.N.;Lim, K.B.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.445-448
    • /
    • 1999
  • Beef and dairy cattle are the primary ruminant livestock in Korea, but there is a serious shortage of both fresh and dry forages. Small areas of forage crops or pastures, unfavorable soil and climatic conditions, high costs for pasture production, low establishment and management technologies, etc. are the main factors limiting roughage production in Korea. To meet the roughage demand of cattle several suggestions are presented. About 845,000 ha of hilly area could be developed for pastureland. Almost the same area of paddy field, and more than 200,000 ha of reclaimed land could be used for pasture production. If all the potential area is developed for pastureland, the area could be extended to 10 times more than is presently used for pasture crops and pastureland. Productivity would be increased by developing new technologies of establishment and management. Silvo-pastoral systems should be introduced to Korea.

Spatial Characteristic Analysis for the Main Production Areas of Vegetables based on Landscape Indices (경관지수를 활용한 채소 주산지 공간적 분포 특성 분석)

  • Bae, Seung-jong;Kim, Dae-Sik;Kim, Soo-Jin;Oh, Yun-Gyeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.135-146
    • /
    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to accurately understand the spatial distribution characteristics of the main production area for the three vegetable crops such as Chinese cabbage, radish, and hot pepper. We applied the 8 landscape indices such as TA, NP, PD, LPI, LSI, PLADJ, COHESION, and CONNECT to 35 cities and counties using FRAGSTATS. In the case of main production area for Chinese cabbage, six cities and counties in Gangwon province were revealed as a relatively high degree of aggregation by cultivation parcels than other area. In addition, Gangneung city and Hongcheon county have been analyzed to be the most aggregated area in the case of radish and hot pepper, respectively. In the future, the spatial analysis method used in this study would be helpful to develop an effective regional plan of the main production area.

Metal artifact production and reduction in CBCT with different numbers of basis images

  • Queiroz, Polyane Mazucatto;Santaella, Gustavo Machado;Groppo, Francisco Carlos;Freitas, Deborah Queiroz
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
    • /
    • v.48 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-44
    • /
    • 2018
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different numbers of basis images and the use of metal artifact reduction (MAR) on the production and reduction of artifacts in cone-beam computed tomography images. Materials and Methods: An acrylic resin phantom with a metal alloy sample was scanned, with 450 or 720 basis images and with or without MAR. Standard deviation values for the test areas (around the metal object) were obtained as a way of measuring artifact production. Two-way analysis of variance was used with a 5% significance level. Results: There was no significant difference in artifact production among the images obtained with different numbers of basis images without MAR (P=.985). MAR significantly reduced artifact production in the test areas only in the protocol using 720 basis images (P=.017). The protocol using 450 basis images with MAR showed no significant difference in artifact production when compared to the protocol using 720 basis images with MAR (P=.579). Conclusion: Protocols with a smaller number of basis images and with MAR activated are preferable for minimizing artifact production in tomographic images without exposing the patient to a greater radiation dose.

Development of mechanized system model for the production of winter cereal wrap silage in the fallow paddy field(2) - Cost analysis of mechanized wrap silge production - (답리작 맥류 랩-사일리지의 기계화 시스템 모델 개발(2) - 기계화 모델을 이용한 랩-사일리지의 생산비 분석 -)

  • 박경규;김혁주;김태한;구영모
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.199-208
    • /
    • 2003
  • In order to solve the shortage of roughage supply for dairy farm in Korea, winter cereal forage production after harvesting of rice in the fallow paddy field is studied. This study consist of two parts. One is the model development of the mechanized production which was already reported at the preview paper. This is the 2nd parts of the study. Also, the mechanized production model for cereal forage production in winter was reported in the previous study. In this paper, coverage area and mechanized wrap silge production cost are analyzed and compared to the other available feeds in Korea. Results of the research are summarized as follows; The coverage area for the winter cereal wrap silage production system in Korea is estimated to be 33.7 ha in case of working with a tractor and a set of implements. If two or three tractors are available, the coverage area is estimated to be 68.0 and 101.3 ha, respectively. The break even point (BEP) of the farming size is analyzed as 10 ha and its production(operating) cost is estimated to be 317 to 443 won/TDN-kg at the BEP point. The cost is lowered to 182 won/TDN-kg at 100ha-working, and is much lower compared with prices of imported feeds of 360∼600 won/TDN-kg. Therefore, winter cereal wrap silage model is judged to be feasible and desirable for a large scale production of forage in winter fallow paddy field.

Studies on the Phosphate Accumulation in Tobacco Production Area (연초경작지 토양의 인산 축적에 관한 연구)

  • 김용현;정훈채;박수준;윤병익;김웅주
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.71-79
    • /
    • 1991
  • The experiment was conducted to investigate accumulation o( phosphate in tobacco production area. The results are as follows: 1) The content of available P in burley production area was about 200ppm higher than that in flue-cured tobacco production area, the available P content of 20% tobacco fields surveyed was above 1000ppm P. 2) Tobacco fields having 200ppm of available P which were grouped as medium category for phosphate recommendation were more than 90% out of tobacco fields surveyed. 3) Total phosphate content was above 4000ppm in 42.5% burley tobacco fields before transplanting, and 2000~3000ppm in about 40% flue-cured tobacco fields. 4) Phosphate fractions in soil increased in order of Al-P > Fe-P > Ca-p, and their content was about 50% of total phosphate in tobacco fields surveyed. 5) pH value in most of tobacco fields surveyed ranged from 4.5 to 5.0 and, field soils with pH value below 5.5 were 64 %.

  • PDF