• Title, Summary, Keyword: promoter hypermethylation

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Analysis of FHIT Gene Methylation in Egyptian Breast Cancer Women: Association with Clinicopathological Features

  • Zaki, Seham Mahrous;Abdel-Azeez, Hala A.;El Nagar, Mona Roshdy;Metwally, Khaled Abdel-Aziz;Ahmed, Marwa M. Samir S.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1235-1239
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    • 2015
  • Background: Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. Epigenetics alterations in FHIT contributes to tumorigenesis of breast cancer. Objective: Our objective was to study FHIT promoter region hypermethylation in Egyptian breast cancer patients and its association with clinicopathological features. Materials and Methods: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to study the hypermethylation of FHIT promoter region in 20 benign breast tissues and 30 breast cancer tissues. Results: The frequency of hypermethylation of FHIT promoter region was significantly increased in breast cancer patients compared to bengin breast disease patients. The Odd's ratio (95%CI) of development of breast cancer in individuals with FHIT promoter hypermethylation (MM) was 11.0 (1.22-250.8). There were also significant associations between FHIT promoter hypermethylation and estrogen, progesterone receptors negativity, tumor stage and nodal involvment in breast cancer pateints. Conclusions: Our results support an association between FHIT promotor hypermethylation and development of breast cancer in Egyptian breast cancer patients. FHIT promoter hypermethylation is associated with some poor prognostic features of breast cancer.

5'-CpG Island Promoter Hypermethylation of the CAV-1 Gene in Breast Cancer Patients of Kashmir

  • Syeed, Nidda;Hussain, Firdous;Husain, Syed Akhtar;Siddiqi, Mushtaq A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2012
  • Background: Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), encoding the structural component of cellular caveolae, is a suggested tumor suppressor gene involved in cell signalling. Aberrant promoter methylation of CAV-1 is associated with inactivation of expression. We previously observed CAV-1 mutations in breast cancers and therefore devised this study to examine the hypermethylation status of the promoter region of CAV-1 with reference to breast cancer progression and development. Methods: Hypermethylation status of CAV-1 was analyzed by methylation specific PCR. Loss of expression of the CAV-1 gene was further evaluated by semi-quantitative rt-PCR. Results: 28/130 (21.5%) breast cancer cases showed promoter hypermethylation with reduced CAV-1 expression levels when compared with adjacent normal breast tissue. CAV-1 gene hypermethylation was significantly related to menopausal status, histopathological grade and age. Conclusion: The rationale of our study is that CAV-1 gene is transcriptionally repressed in breast cancer cells due to hypermethylation. Our results reveal that promoter hypermethylation and loss of expression of the CAV-1 gene is an important alternative mechanism for inactivation of CAV-1 leading to complete gene silencing.

Hypermethylation of Promoter Region of LATS1 - a CDK Interacting Protein in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas - a Pilot Study in India

  • Reddy, Vijaya Ramakrishna;Annamalai, Thangavelu;Narayanan, Vivek;Ramanathan, Arvind
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1599-1603
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    • 2015
  • Background: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes due to promoter hypermethylation is one of the frequent mechanisms observed in cancers. Hypermethylation of several tumor suppressor genes involved in cell cycle regulation has been reported in many types of tumors including oral squamous cell carcinomas. LATS1 (Large Tumor Suppressor, isoform 1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression by forming complexes with the cyclin dependent kinase, CDK1. Promoter hypermethylation of the LATS1 gene has been observed in several carcinomas and also has been linked with prognosis. However, the methylation status of LATS1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas is not known. As oral cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in India, the present study was designed to investigate the methylation status of LATS1 promoter and associate it with histopathological findings in order to determine any associations of the genetic status with stage of differentiation. Materials and Methods: Tumor chromosomal DNA isolated from biopsy tissues of thirteen oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsy tissues were subjected to digestion with methylation sensitive HpaII enzyme followed by amplification with primers flanking CCGG motifs in promoter region of LATS1 gene. The PCR amplicons were subsequently subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis along with undigested amplification control. Results: HpaII enzyme based methylation sensitive PCR identified LATS1 promoter hypermethylation in seven out of thirteen oral squamous cell carcinoma samples. Conclusions: The identification of LATS1 promoter hypermethylation in seven oral squamous cell carcinoma samples (54%), which included one sample with epithelial dysplasia, two early invasive and one moderately differentiated lesions indicates that the hypermethylation of this gene may be one of the early event during carcinogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have explored and identified positive association between LATS1 promoter hypermethylation with histopathological features in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

BRD7 Promoter Hypermethylation as an Indicator of Well Differentiated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

  • Balasubramanian, Anandh;Subramaniam, Ramkumar;Narayanan, Vivek;Annamalai, Thangavelu;Ramanathan, Arvind
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1615-1619
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    • 2015
  • Background: Promoter hypermethylation mediated gene silencing of tumor suppressor genes is considered as most frequent mechanism than genetic aberrations such as mutations in the development of cancers. BRD7 is a single bromodomain containing protein that functions as a subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to regulate transcription. It also interacts with the well know tumor suppressor protein p53 to trans-activate genes involved in cell cycle arrest. Loss of expression of BRD7 has been observed in breast cancers and nasopharyngeal carcinomas due to promoter hypermethylation. However, the genetic status of BRD7 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) is not known, although OSCC is one of the most common among all reported cancers in the Indian population. Hence, in the present study we investigated OSCC samples to determine the occurrence of hypermethylation in the promoter region of BRD7 and understand its prevalence. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA extracted from biopsy tissues of twenty three oral squamous cell carcinomas were digested with methylation sensitive HpaII type2 restriction enzyme that recognizes and cuts unmethylated CCGG motifs. The digested DNA samples were amplified with primers flanking the CCGG motifs in promoter region of BRD7 gene. The PCR amplified products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis along with undigested amplification control. Results: Methylation sensitive enzyme technique identified methylation of BRD7 promoter region seventeen out of twenty three (74%) well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma samples. Conclusions: The identification of BRD7 promoter hypermethylation in 74% of well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas indicates that the methylation dependent silencing of BRD7 gene is a frequent event in carcinogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the occurrence of BRD7and its high prevalence in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

Promoter Methylation Status of DNA Repair Gene (hMLH1) in Gastric Carcinoma Patients of the Kashmir Valley

  • Wani, Majid;Afroze, Dil;Makhdoomi, Muzamil;Hamid, Iqra;Wani, Bilal;Bhat, Gulzar;Wani, Rauf;Wani, Khursheed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4177-4181
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    • 2012
  • Cancer is a multi-factorial disease and variation in genetic susceptibility, due to inherited differences in the capacity to repair mismatches in the genome, is an important factor in the development of gastric cancer (GC), for example. Epigenetic changes, including aberrant methylation of 5/CpG islands in the promoter regions of mismatch repair (MMR) genes like hMLH1, have been implicated in the development of various types of GC. In the present study we evaluated the role of hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in Kashmiri GC patients and controls, and assessed correlations with various dietary and lifestyle factors. The study included 70 GC patients (56 males and 14 females; age ($mean{\pm}S.D$) $50{\pm}11.4$ years). Distinction between methylated and unmethylated was achieved with MS-PCR and DNA band patterns. The Chi-square test was applied to assess the risk due to promoter hypermethylation. We found a strikingly high frequency of promoter hypermethylation in GC cases than in normal samples (72.9% (51/70) in GC cases vs 20% (14/70) in normal samples (p=0.0001).We also observed a statistically significant association between methylated hMLH1 gene promoter and smoking, consumption of sundried vegetables and hot salted tea with the risk of GC. This study revealed that hMLH1 hypermethylation is strongly associated with GC and suggested roles for epigenetic changes in stomach cancer causation in the Kashmir valley.

Prognostic Significance of $O^6$-MGMT and Promotor Hypermethylation in Patients with Soft Tissue Sarcomas (연부조직육종 환자에서 $O^6$-MGMT 와 촉진자 과메틸화의 예후적 중요성)

  • Suh, Jeung-Tak;Kim, Jeung-Il;Oh, Jong-Seok;Choi, Kyung-Un
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.13-25
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The DNA repair protein, $O^6$-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), removes alkyl adducts from the $O^6$ position of guanine. Epigenetic inactivation of MGMT has been found in human neoplasia and considered one of the implicated factors in chemoresistance. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patiensts with soft tissue sarcomas (STS) were analyzed for the status of MGMT protein expression by immunohistochemistry and the promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene using methylation-specific PCR. Result: The loss of MGMT expression was found in 20 cases (32.3%) of total 62 STS. MGMT promoter hypermethylation rate was 25.0% (11/44 cases). The loss of MGMT expression showed significant association with high AJCC stage, high FNCLCC grade, and aggressive behavior. However,when the group who received chemotherapy was analyzed (n=27), loss of MGMT expression was correlated with worse survival in multivariate analysis (p=0.024). MGMT promoter hypermethylation is associated with high FNCLCC grade. MGMT promoter hypermethylation status had a strong correlation with loss of MGMT expression (p=0.000). Conclusion: Our results suggest that MGMT promoter hypermethylation and loss of MGMT expression had a tendency to be associated with poor prognosis and that loss of MGMT protein expression is frequently occurs via MGMT promoter hypermethylation.

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Clinicopathological Significance of BRCA1 Promoter Hypermethylation in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

  • Saelee, Pensri;Chaiwerawattana, Arkom;Ogawa, Kumiko;Cho, Young-Man;Tiwawech, Danai;Suktangman, Vimol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10585-10589
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1), mapped on chromosome 17q21, is implicated in the mechanisms of cellular DNA repair. Inactivation of this gene is involved in the development of many human cancers, including breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and expression in breast cancer cases. Sixty-one breast cancers were examined for BRCA1 hypermethylation by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 45 paired normal breast tissues were analyzed for altered BRCA1 mRNA levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Aberrant methylation status in BRCA1 was detected in 15 of 61 cases (24.6%), while reduced expression was found in 7 of 45 (15.6%). BRCA1 hypermethylation was statistically associated with tumor grade III (p=0.04), a high frequency of stage IIB (p=0.02), and triple-negative phenotype (OR= 3.64, 95%CI =1.1-12.3, p=0.03). Our findings indicated that BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation is a useful prognostic marker for breast cancer.

Promoter Methylation of CDKN2A, $RAR{\beta}$, and RASSF1A in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: Quantitative Evaluation Using Pyrosequencing

  • Lee, Jung Uee;Sul, Hae Joung;Son, Ji Woong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.73 no.1
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2012
  • Background: While qualitative analysis of methylation has been reviewed, the quantitative analysis of methylation has rarely been studied. We evaluated the methylation status of CDKN2A, $RAR{\beta}$, and RASSF1A promoter regions in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) by using pyrosequencing. Then, we evaluated the association between methylation at the promoter regions of these tumor suppressor genes and the clinicopathological parameters of the NSCLCs. Methods: We collected tumor tissues from a total of 53 patients with NSCLCs and analyzed the methylation level of the CDKN2A, $RAR{\beta}$, and RASSF1A promoter regions by using pyrosequencing. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the hypermethylation of CDKN2A and the loss of $p16^{INK4A}$ immunoexpression. Results: Hypermethylation of CDKN2A, $RAR{\beta}$, and RASSF1A promoter regions were 16 (30.2%), 22 (41.5%), and 21 tumors (39.6%), respectively. The incidence of hypermethylation at the CDKN2A promoter in the tumors was higher in undifferentiated large cell carcinomas than in other subtypes (p=0.002). Hyperrmethylation of CDKN2A was significantly associated with $p16^{INK4A}$ immunoexpression loss (p=0.045). With regard to the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC, certain histopathological subtypes were found to be strongly associated with the loss of $p16^{INK4A}$ immunoexpression (p=0.016). Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma showed $p16^{INK4A}$ immunoexpression loss more frequently. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves analysis showed that methylation level and patient survival were barely related to one another. Conclusion: We quantitatively analyzed the promoter methylation status by using pyrosequencing. We showed a significant correlation between CDKN2A hypermethylation and $p16^{INK4A}$ immunoexpression loss.

Hypermethylation Status of E-Cadherin Gene in Gastric Cancer Patients in a High Incidence Area

  • Rashid, Haroon;Alam, Khursheed;Afroze, Dil;Yousuf, Adfar;Banday, Manzoor;Kawoosa, Fizalah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2757-2760
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    • 2016
  • Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most prevalant cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. As in other cancers gastric carcinogenesis is multifactorial involving environmental, genetic and epigenetic components. Epigenetic silencing due to hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes is one of the key events in gastric carcinogenesis. This study was aimed to analyse the hypermethylation status of the E-Cadherin (CDH1) gene promoter in GCs in the ethnic Kashmiri population. In this study a total of 80 GC patients were recruited. Hypermethylation in tumour tissue was detected by methylation specific PCR (MS-PCR). Hypermethylation of CDH1 promoter was observed in 52 (65%) of gastric carcinoma cases which was significantly much higher than adjacent normal tissue [$p{\leq}0.0001$]. Further the frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation was significantly different with intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer [55.7% vs 82.1%; p<0.05]. Moreover females and cases with lymph node invasion had higher frequencies of CDH1 hypermethylation [$P{\leq}0.05$]. Thus the current data indicate a vital role of epigenetic alteration of CDH1 in the causation and development of gastric cancer, particularly of diffuse type, in our population.

Screening of Differential Promoter Hypermethylated Genes in Primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Khor, Goot Heah;Froemming, Gabrielle Ruth Anisah;Zain, Rosnah Binti;Abraham, Mannil Thomas;Thong, Kwai Lin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8957-8961
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    • 2014
  • Background: Promoter hypermethylation leads to altered gene functions and may result in malignant cellular transformation. Thus, identification of biomarkers for hypermethylated genes could be useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Objectives: To screen hypermethylated genes with a microarray approach and to validate selected hypermethylated genes with the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSPCR). Materials and Methods: Genome-wide analysis of normal oral mucosa and OSCC tissues was conducted using the Illumina methylation microarray. The specified differential genes were selected and hypermethylation status was further verified with an independent cohort sample of OSCC samples. Candidate genes were screened using microarray assay and run by MSPCR analysis. Results: TP73, PIK3R5, and CELSR3 demonstrated high percentages of differential hypermethylation status. Conclusions: Our microarray screening and MSPCR approaches revealed that the signature candidates of differentially hypermethylated genes may possibly become potential biomarkers which would be useful for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets of OSCC in the near future.