• Title, Summary, Keyword: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)

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THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2, 6-KETO-PROSTAGLANDIN F1α, AND LEUKOTRIENE B4 IN PULPAL AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS (치수 및 치근단병소에서 Prostaglandin E2, 6-keto-Prostaglandin F1α, Leukotriene B4의 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Shon, Won-Jun;Baek, Seung-Ho;Lim, Sung-Sam
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2000
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) and Leukotrienes (LTs) have been implicated in the genesis of pulpal and periapical inflammation. In this study, the relationships among $PGE_2$, 6-keto-PG $F_1{\alpha}$ (a stable metabolite of $PGI_2$) and $LTB_4$ concentrations in inflamed pulp and periapical lesions were discussed. Pulp tissue were obtained in routine endodontic treatment and periapical lesions in periapical surgery after clinical diagnoses were made. These specimens were divided into four groups as normal pulp group (Control group), acute pulpitis group, chronic pulpitis group, and periapical lesion group. Pulp tissue and periapical lesions were stored in liquid nitrogen. The concentration of $PGE_2$, $PGI_2$ and $LTB_4$ were measured with ELISA. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Significantly higher levels of $PGE_2$, 6-keto-PG $F_1{\alpha}$ a and $LTB_4$ were found in acute pulpitis group than chronic pulpitis group and periapical lesion group(p<0.05). Periapical lesion group showed significantly higher mean concentrations of $PGE_2$ and $LTB_4$ than chronic pulpitis group. In control and chronic pulpitis group, significant higher levels of $PGI_2$ than $PGE_2$ and $LTB_4$ were found. These results suggested that the high levels of $PGE_2$ and $LTB_4$ in periapical lesions may be due to rich endothelium., fibroblast and lymphocyte known as the main producers of $PGE_2$ and $LTB_4$. $PGI_2$ may be thought to one of the most abundant PGs in normal pulp tissue.

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Prostaglandin E2 Up-regulation and Wound Healing Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Eriobotryae Folium in Human Keratinocyte (피부 각질세포에 대한 비파엽 에탄올 추출물의 PGE2 조절 작용과 상처치료 효과)

  • Im, Do Youn;Lee, Kyoung In
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.457-462
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    • 2014
  • Prostaglandin (PG) $E_2$ is an important mediator of skin wound healing without excessive scarring and gastric ulcer healing. However, $PGE_2$ has a short lifetime in vivo because it is metabolized rapidly by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Ethanol extract of Eriobotryae folium (EFEE) elevated intracellular and extracellular $PGE_2$ levels in HaCaT cells and inhibited 15-PGDH ($ED_{50}$ : $168.4{\mu}g/mL$) with relatively low cytotoxicity ($IC_{50}$ : $250.0{\mu}g/mL$). Real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 enzymes were increased and prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was decreased in HaCaT cells by EFEE. Moreover, wound healing effect of EFEE ($168.4{\mu}g/mL$) was comparable to that of TGF-${\beta}1$ (300 pg/mL) as a positive control. These results demonstrate that EFEE may be valuable therapeutic materials for the treatment of $PGE_2$ level dependent diseases.

Simultaneous Determination of Prostaglandin E1 and Prostaglandin E1 Ethyl Ester in Hairless Mouse Skin Homogenate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Choi, Han-Gon;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Li, Dong-Xun;Piao, Ming-Guan;Kwon, Tae-Hyub;Woo, Jong-Soo;Choi, Young-Wook;Yoo, Bang-Kyu;Yong, Chul-Soon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2005
  • A rapid and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of prostaglandin $E_{1}\;(PGE_{1})$ and prostaglandin $E_{1}$ ethyl ester $(PGE_{1}-EE)$ in hairless mouse skin homogenate. The sample treatment procedure involved deproteination and precipitation by acetonitrile. $PGE_{1}$ and $PGE_{1}-EE$ in supernatant were separated in a reversed-phase C18 column without being interfered by other components present in hairless mouse skin homogenate. 9-Anthracenecarboxylic acid was used as an internal standard. The retention times of $PGE_{1}$, 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid and $PGE_{1}-EE$ were, 4.5, 9.5 and 18.0 min, respectively. The assay showed linearity from 1 to $40\;{\mu}g/ml$ for both $PGE_{1}$ and $PGE_{1}-EE$. Precision expressed as RSD ranged from 2.3 to 14.1 % for $PGE_{1}$ and 1.6 to 11.0% for $PGE_{1}-EE$. Accuracy ranged from 100.5 to 119.6 % for $PGE_{1}$ and from 98.0 to 103.7% for $PGE_{1}-EE$. This method was employed successfully to follow the time course of concentrations of $PGE_{1}$ and $PGE_{1}-EE$ in hairless mouse skin homogenate for stability study.

External Lyogel Formulation of Prostaglandin E1 Ethyl Ester (프로스타글란딘 E1 에칠에스테르의 외용 리오겔 제제 설계)

  • Yang, Sung-Woon;Lee, Jin-Kyo;Lee, Ji-Eun;Kim, Hee-Kyu;Park, Hye-Sook;Kim, Jong-Seok;Choi, Han-Gon;Yong, Chul-Soon;Choi, Young-Wook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2004
  • External lyogels containing prostaglandin $E_1$ ethyl ester $(PGE_1-EE)$, a prodrug of prostaglandin $E_1\;(PGE_1)$ as a therapeutic agent for erectile dysfunction, were formulated to overcome the aqueous instability and enhance the percutaneous absorption. Lyogels of $PGE_1-EE$ were prepared with ethanol (EtOH)/proplyene glycol (PG) cosolvent system as a vehicle, cineol as an enhancer, and hydroxypropylcellusose as a gelling agent. In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed to determine the rate of $PGE_1$ absorption through rat or hairless mouse skin. The permeability of $PGE_1-EE$ lyogel with enhancer was 16-fold greater than that of lyogel without enhancer. Cosolvent produced 9-fold increase in percutaneous absorption. Pharmacodynamic effects of lyogels were evaluated in mature male cats in terms of intracavernosal pressure (ICP). Lyogels containing 0.1 % of $PGE_1-EE$ showed higher ICP compared to intraurethral preparation of $PGE_1$ (1 %) and enhancer-free control lyogel. The shelf-life $(t_{10%})$ of lyogel at refrigerated condition $(4^{\circ}C)$ was calculated as 928 days, which is 4.2 times longer than that of control hydrogel. As a result, $PGE_1-EE$ was formulated successfully to a lyogel system with a selective enhancer and cosolvent system for the topical delivery of $PGE_1$.

Effects of Bojungikgi-tang on Trimellitic Anhydride-induced Contact Hypersensitivity in BALB/c Mice (보중익기탕(補中益氣湯)이 접촉성 과민반응에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Yang-Gu;Jung, Myung;Bok, Young-Ok;Lee, Jin-Ho;Kang, Suk-Hoon;Lim, Kyu-Sang;Yun, Young-Gab
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.16-32
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    • 2016
  • Objective : The water extract of Bojungikgi-tang (BTE) composed with Ginseng Radix, Astragali Radix, Angelicae gigantis Radix, Atractylodes Rhizoma alba, Aurantii nobilis Pericarpium, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Cimicifuga Rhizoma, and Bupleuri Radix and it has been traditionally used for chronic diseases or weakness after illness in oriental countries. However, little is known about the effects of aqueous extract of BTE on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BTE on TMA-induced CHS in BALB/c mice.Methods : In this study, the extract of BTE was prepared by extracting with distilled water at 100℃ for 2.5 h. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through 0.45 μm filter. Mice were orally administrated with or without BTE extract of different doses (25-200 ㎎/㎏/day) for 28 days. During the challenge period, mice were externally applied with different doses of BTE extract one time per day 30 min before TMA treatment. I examined the effects of BTE on the serum levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in isolated peritoneal macrophages, Th2 cytokine production in isolated spleen cells, ear swelling responses, and the leukocyte infiltration induced by TMA.Results : The orally and externally administration of BTE dose-dependently reduced the serum levels of hapten-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG1 titer, and PGE2 production as well as ear swelling responses and leukocyte infiltration in TMA-induced BALB/c mice. The levels of NO and PGE2 production from peritoneal macrophages stimulated with TMA-BSA were markedly suppressed by pretreatment with BTE in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) production from spleen cells stimulated with ConA were markedly suppressed by BTE treatment in a concentration dependent manner.Conclusions : These results suggest that BTE treatment suppresses chronic contact hypersensitivity, and it can be assumed that the suppression of ear swelling, serum IgE, NO and PGE2 levels, leukocyte infiltration, and Th2 cytokines in an animal model. Therefore, these properties may contribute to the strong anti-CHS response effect of BTE.

Inhibitory Effects of Extracts from Arabis glabra on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Production in RAW264.7 Macrophages (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 장대나물 추출물의 Nitric oxide 및 Prostaglandin E2생성 저해효과)

  • Nam, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Jong-Taek;Kim, Yul-Ho;Kim, Ki-Deog;Yoo, Dong-Lim;Lee, Jong-Nam;Hong, Su-Young;Kim, Su-Jeong;Sohn, Hwang-Bae;Kim, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Bo-Sung;Shin, Ji-Sun;Lee, Kyung-Tea;Park, Hee-Jhun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2015
  • Arabis glabra is a localized common rhizomatous flowering plant, This plant is often used in Korean traditional systems of medicine as a remedy for blood cleaning, detoxification, abscess, gastrospasm, arthritis, contraction and diarrhea. Generally drugs that are used for arthritis have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, validity of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of A. glabra using the ethanolic extract and its sub-fractions. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on RAW 264.7macrophages. Our results indicated that hexane and chloroform fraction significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in the cells. The hexane fraction inhibitory activity for NO tests with IC50 values showed in 21.0 ㎍/㎖. The chloroform fraction inhibitory activity for PGE2 tests with IC50 values showed in 18.0 ㎍/㎖. These efficacy are expected to be able to present the potential for the development of health functional food for the prevention inflammatory diseases because it has sufficient preventive medical possibilities. Further, it is determined that it is necessary to further study the mechanism of cytokine and protein expression associated with inflammation.

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ON TOOTH MOVEMENT AND ROOT RESORPTION IN CATS (Prostaglandin E2가 치아이동과 치근흡수에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Gang-Hee;Suhr, Cheong-Hoon
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was performed to study the effect of prostaglandin $E_2$ on tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontically treated cats. Twenty five cats were divided into five groups and closed coil springs delivered 80gm were stretched between upper canine and 3rd premolar. $10{\mu}g$ of $PGE_2$ was injected locally in the submucosal area of the upper right canine, while the left side served as a control and was injected saline 0.1ml. The distance between canine tip and central cusp tip of the 3rd premolar was measured. Scanning electron photomicrographs were made of the coronal half of the distal root surface of canines and cemental craterings were observed and quantified using point-counting volumetry. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and paired t-test. The results were as follows: 1. The rate of tooth movement of the $PGE_2$ side was increased, particularly at 1 day, compared with the control side. 2. The rate of tooth movement was minimum from 7 days to 10 days. 3. The resorption of root surface of the $PGE_2$ side was decreased from 4 days to 10 days, compared with the control side.

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The Effect of Aspirin and Prostaglandin E1 on the Patency of Microvascular Anastomosis in Rat (백서에서 Aspirin과 Prostaglandin E1이 미세혈관 문합의 개존에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Kwang Suk;Suh, Jeong Dae;Han, Seung Beom;Lee, Seung Joon;Choi, In Chul;Kim, In Sun;Cho, Seong Jin
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2000
  • In the field of microsurgery, the vascular obstruction of the microvascular anastomosis by thrombus is one of the most important complication. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect between aspirin and prostaglandin $E_1$($PGE_1$) which act as the peripheral vasodilatation and platelet disaggregation. We have used total 48 white male rats and divided them into three gruoups(A, B and C group). Each group consists of 16 rats respectively. A group is as control, B group is medicated with aspirin(3.0mg/kg/day) and C group with $PGE_1(1.2{\mu}g/kg/day)$. The gross and histopathologic findings at anastomosed site were observed on 3, 5, 10 and 15 days after vascular anastomosis and the results were obtained as the followings. 1. The microvascular patency rate is 81.2% in control group, 93.8% in aspirin group and 100% in $PGE_1$ group. 2. On the histologic examination, the formation of mural thrombus is decreased both in the aspirin and $PGE_1$ group as comparing with the control group and also the hypertrophy of the intima forming from media is less formed in $PGE_1$ group than aspirin group and the degree of thickeness is also less. 3. The fibrosis of media is less observed in $PGE_1$ group than aspirin group. According to the above results, the application of $PGE_1$ to the microsurgery is considered to be effective on the prevention of the thrombus formation and on providing high patency rate.

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Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Productions of Prostaglandin D2 and E2 in the Inflamed Lung (프로스타글란딘 D2와 E2의 생성에 대한 허파 마크로파이지의 역할)

  • Joo, Myung-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.845-852
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    • 2010
  • Our previous study showed that lungs infected by Pseudomonas, a gram-negative bacteria, produce prostaglandin $D_2$ ($PGD_2$) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$), the two major prostanoids generated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and that the ratio of $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ can affect the outcome of the bacterial lung infection. In this study, we sought to uncover the mechanism that determines the ratio of $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ produced in lung inflammation. When treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), primary alveolar macrophages, extracted from mouse lung, more $PGE_2$ was produced than $PGD_2$, whereas MH-S, a murine alveolar macrophage cell line, produced more $PGD_2$ than $PGE_2$ in a similar experiment. Western blot analyses showed that the kinetics of COX-2 expression in both cell types is similar and epigenetic silencing of COX-2 expression did not affect expressions of lipocalin-PGD synthase (L-PGDS) and PGE synthase (mPGES-1), major enzymes synthesizing $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ in inflammation, respectively, indicating no effect of COX-2 on expressions of the two enzymes. Expressions of L-PGDS and mPGES-1 were also similar in both cell types, suggesting no effect of the two key enzymes in determining the ratio of $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ in these cells. A single intraperitoneal injection of LPS to C57BL/6 mice induced COX-2 expression and, similar to alveolar macrophages, produced more $PGE_2$ than $PGD_2$ in the lung. These results suggest that the differential expressions of $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ in the lung reflect those in alveolar macrophages and may not be directly determined by the enzymes responsible for $PGD_2$ and $PGE_2$ synthesis.

Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol, Isolated from Ishige okamurae, Increases Prostaglandin E2 through the Expression of Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

  • Kang, Gyeoung-Jin;Han, Sang-Chul;Koh, Young-Sang;Kang, Hee-Kyoung;Jeon, You-Jin;Yoo, Eun-Sook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.520-525
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    • 2012
  • Prostaglandin (PG) $E_2$, the most abundant prostaglandin in the human body, is synthesized from arachidonic acid via the actions of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. $PGE_2$ exerts homeostatic, cytoprotective, inflammatory, and in some cases anti-inflammatory effects. Also, it has been reported that $PGE_2$ is involved in hair growth. Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC) is a phlorotannin compound isolated from the brown algae Ishige okamurae, with various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the biological effect and mechanism of action of DPHC on prostaglandin synthesis in HaCaT human keratinocytes was examined. The results showed that, in these cells, DPHC significantly and dose-dependently induced $PGE_2$ synthesis by increasing the protein and mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2. Interestingly, DPHC-induced COX-1 expression preceded that of COX-2. Also, while both rofecoxib and indomethacin inhibited $PGE_2$ production, the latter was seems to be the more potent. From above results, we can expect that DPHC has some beneficial effects via increasing of $PGE_2$ production.