• Title, Summary, Keyword: prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase

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Preferential Peroxidase Activity of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide H Synthase for Lipid Peroxides

  • Yun, Seol-Ryung;Han, Su-Kyong;Song, In-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.94-94
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    • 2001
  • Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the committed step in prostaglandins and thromboxane A$_2$-- oxygenation of arachidonic acid to the hydroperoxy endoperoxide PGG$_2$, followed by reduction PGG$_2$to the alcohol PGH$_2$. The two reactions by PGHS -- cyclooxygenase and peroxidase -- occur at distinct but structurally and functionally interconnected sites. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. Initially a peroxide reacts with the heme group, yielding Compound I and an alcohol derived from the oxidizing peroxide. Compound I next undergoes an intramolecular reduction by a single electron traveling from Tyr385 along the peptide chain to the proximal heme ligand, His388, and finally to the heme group. Following the binding of arachidonic acid, Tyr385 tyrosyl radical initiates the cyclooxygenase reaction by abstracting the 13-pro(5) hydrogen atom to give an arachidonyl radical, which sequentially reacts with two molecules of oxygen to yield PGG$_2$. In order to characterize PGHS peroxidase active site, we examined various lipid peroxides with purified recombinant ovine PGHS proteins and determined the rate constants. The results have shown that twenty-carbon unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides have similar efficiency in peroxidation by PGHS, irrespective of either the location of hydroperoxy group or the number of double bonds. It was also confirmed by the subsequent study with PGHS peroxidase active site mutants.

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Association of Polymorphisms in Epidermal Growth Factor, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 and Prolactin Receptor Genes with Semen Quality in Duroc Boars

  • Huang, S.Y.;Song, H.L.;Lin, E.-C.;Lee, W.C.;Chiang, J.C.;Tsou, H.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.793-798
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    • 2006
  • The quality characteristics of semen are important indicators of the fertility of a boar. Development of genetic markers for the semen quality in boars will be beneficial to the improvement of porcine fertility. We investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor (EGF), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes, and semen quality traits in boars. The genomic DNA of 233 boars (157 Duroc and 86 Landrace) from a central testing station was subjected to genotyping for surveying gene frequency. The EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR genotypes were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Thirty-seven normal, mature Duroc boars from an AI center were also genotyped and their semen quality traits were collected. The effect of genotype on semen quality traits was analyzed by the least-squares means method using data corrected for season. The frequencies of the AA genotype of EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR in Duroc boars were 0.14, 0.01 and 0.66, respectively. In Landrace, the frequencies of the AA genotype were 0.03, 0.09 and 0.62, respectively. Boars with the BB genotype in EGF, with the AB genotype in PTGS2 and with the AA genotype in PRLR had significantly better semen quality with a higher percentage of normal sperm and a lower percentage of immature sperm than those with other genotypes. These findings imply that polymorphisms of EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR genes might be used as markers for improving the semen quality of boars.

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 (PTGS2) and Phospholipase A2 Group IIA (PLA2G2A) Genes with Susceptibility to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  • Liu, Fen;Wei, Wen-Qiang;Cormier, Robert T.;Zhang, Shu-Tian;Qiao, You-Lin;Li, Xin-Qing;Zhu, Sheng-Tao;Zhai, Yan-Chun;Peng, Xiao-Xia;Yan, Yu-Xiang;Wu, Li-Juan;He, Dian;He, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1797-1802
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    • 2014
  • Background: The prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) genes encode enzymes that are involved in arachidonic acid and prostaglandin biosynthesis. Dysregulation of both genes is associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We therefore hypothesized that there is an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and susceptibility to ESCC. Methods: We performed a gene-wide tag SNP-based association study to examine the association of SNPs in PTGS2 and PLA2G2A with ESCC in 269 patients and 269 healthy controls from Taihangshan Mountain, Henan and Hebei Provinces, the rural area of China which has the highest incidence of esophageal cancer in the world. Thirteen tag SNPs in PLA2G2A and 4 functional SNPs in PTGS2 were selected and genotyped using a high-throughput Mass Array genotyping platform. Results: We found a modest increased risk of ESCC in subjects with the PTGS2 rs12042763 AA genotype (OR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-3.04) compared with genotype GG. For PLA2G2A, a decreased risk of ESCC was observed in subjects with the rs11677 CT (OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.29-0.85) or TT genotype (OR=0.51, 95%CI, 0.17-0.96) or the T carriers (CT+TT) (OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.31-0.85) when compared with the CC genotype. Also for PLA2G2A, rs2236771 C allele carriers were more frequent in the control group (P=0.02). Subjects with the GC (OR=0.55, 95%CI, 0.33-0.93) or CC genotype (OR=0.38, 95% CI, 0.16-0.94) or the C carriers (GC+CC) (OR=0.52, 95%CI, 0.32-0.85) showed a negative association with ESCC susceptibility. Conclusions: Our results suggest that PTGS2 and PLA2G2A gene polymorphisms may modify the risk of ESCC development.

Association between Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 (PTGS2) Polymorphisms and Blood Pressure in Korean Population

  • Jin, Hyun-Seok;Hong, Kyung-Won;Lim, Ji-Eun;Han, Hye-Ree;Lee, Jong-Young;Park, Hun-Kuk;Oh, Berm-Seok
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 2008
  • Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels, and chronical elevation of blood pressure is known as hypertension. Although hypertension is affected by genetic and environmental factors, the genetic background of hypertension is not fully understood. One of the candidate genetic factors, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), is a membrane-bound enzyme, catalyzing the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin, and recently SNPs of PTGS2 gene was associated with hypertension in Japanese population. Therefore the association of PTGS2 polymorphisms was investigated with blood pressure in healthy Korean subjects, 470 unrelated individuals randomly selected from Ansung and Ansan cohorts. The 25 SNPs of PTGS2 gene were identified by the sequencing analysis of 24 Korean samples. Among identified polymorphisms, three SNPs (rs689466, -1329A>G; rs5275, +6365T>C; rs4648308, +8806G> A) were selected for further association analysis, and rs689466 located in promoter region was associated with blood pressure as well as triglyceride level in the blood. By in silico analysis, rs689466 locates in v-Myb transcription factor binding site, and the v-Myb site disappears when the SNP is changed from A to G nucleotide. Individuals with A/G and G/G genotype in rs689466 have higher blood pressure than those with A/A genotype, and the regression p-value is 0.008 for systolic and 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure. In summary, the PTGS2 polymorphism (rs689466) is associated with blood pressure in Asian populations based on this and Japanese studies, shedding light on it as a genetic risk marker of hypertension.

Enzymological Evaluation of Oral Inflammation inhibitory activity by Aloe vera peel extract (Aloe vera peel 추출물에 의한 구강염증 저해 효과의 효소학적 평가)

  • Pack, Chung-Sun;Ryu, Il-Hwan;Lee, Kap-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.753-759
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    • 2001
  • To evaluate antiinflammation of Aloe vera peel, antiimflammation substances were extracted from Aloe vera peel and identified, and we investigated the effect of the its substance the inhibitory effect on the activity of hyaluoronidase, elastase, collagenase and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase. The water extract from Aloe vera peel were successfully purified with solvent fractionation, silica gel column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography and UV spectrometer. Two purified active substances were identified as aloe-emodin and barbaloin by Mass Spectrometer, $^1H-NMR$ and FT-IR. Aloe-emodin and barbaloin. $IC_{50}$ values of aloe-emodin and barbaloin against hyaluronidase activity were 40 and $70\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Leuckocyte elastase, which is related to the destruction of various tissue, $IC_{50}$ values of them were 50 and $60\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. $IC_{50}$ values of aloe-emodin and barbaloin against collagenase activity were 40 and $60\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. and $IC_{50}$ values of aloe-emodin and barbaloin aganist the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, which play an important role in inflammatory reactions, were 40 and $70\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Inhibitory effects of aloe-emodin, barbaloin and aspirin against carrageenan paw edema were 74.9, 52.9 and 51.9% as inhibiton percentage, respectively, at dose of 100 mg/kg and that of indomethancin was 49.7 at dose of 10 mg/kg. Cell cytotoxicity of barbaloin against human gingival cells was lower than that of aloe-emodin. Aloe-emodin and barbaloin did not show cytotoxicity against human gingival cells at concentration of 1.0 and $5.0\;{\mu}g/mL$, However, aloe-emodin and barbaloin showed less cytotoxicity than chlorhexidine, which usually have been used as the agent of anticaries and antiinflammation. These results suggested that aloe-emodin and barbaloin from Aloe vera peel have the effect of anticaries and antiinflammation.

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The Prostaglandin Synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) rs5277 Polymorphism Does not Influence Risk of Colorectal Cancer in an Iranian Population

  • Khorshidi, Fatemeh;Haghighi, Mahdi Montazer;Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini;Azimzadeh, Pedram;Damavand, Behzad;Vahedi, Mohsen;Almasi, Shohreh;Aghdaei, Hamid Asadzadeh;Zali, Mohammad Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3507-3511
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    • 2014
  • Background: The prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [PTGS2, commonly known as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)] is an enzyme induced by proinflammatory stimuli that is often overexpressed in malignant tissue and involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, regulators of processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis, all relevant for cancer development. We investigated whether a functional genetic polymorphism, rs5277, in COX-2 may have a risk-modifying effect on sporadic colorectal cancer in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study on 167 patients with colorectal cancer and 197 cancer-free controls in Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2007 and 2011. Peripheral blood samples of both groups were processed for DNA extraction and genotyping of the COX-2 gene polymorphism (rs5277) using PCR-RFLP. RFLP results were confirmed by direct sequencing. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: There was no significant difference in the distribution of COX-2 gene rs5277 polymorphism genotype and the allelic form, among CRC patients compared with the healthy control group (p: 0.867). Conclusions: Our results suggest that rs5277 polymorphism in COX2 could not be a good prognostic indicator for patients with CRC.

Pharmacological Actions of New Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid on Cardiovascular System (신우황청심원액의 심혈관계에 관한 약효연구)

  • 조태순;이선미;김낙두;허인회;안형수;박대규
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.390-401
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    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the pharmacological properties of New Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid (NCL), effects of Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid (CL) and NCL were compared. In isolated rat aorta, NCL and CL showed the relaxation of blood vessels in maximum contractile response to phenylephrine (10$^{-6}$ M) without regard to intact endothelium or denuded rings of the rat aorta. Furthermore, the presences of the inhibitor of NO synthase and guanylate cyclase did not affect the relaxation of NCL and CL. NCL and CL inhibited the vascular contractions induced by acetylcholine, prostaglandin endoperoxide or peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), NCL and CL significantly decreased heart rate. NCL and CL, at high doses, had a negative inotropic effect that was a decrease of LVDP and (-dp/dt)/(+dp/dt) in the isolated perfused rat hearts, and also decreased the contractile force and heart rate in the isolated rat right atria. In excised guinea-pig papillary muscle, NCL and CL had no effects on parameters of action potential at low doses, whereas inhibited the cardiac contractility at high doses. These results suggested that NCL and CL have weak cardiovascular effects with relaxation of blood vessels and decrease of heart rate, and that this effect is no significant differences between two preparations.

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Effects of Hyaluronidase during In Vitro Maturation on Maturation and Developmental Competence in Porcine Oocytes

  • Jeon, Ye-Eun;Hwangbo, Yong;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.86-92
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to investigate effects of hyaluronidase during IVM on oocyte maturation, oxidative stress status, expression of cumulus expansion-related (PTX, pentraxin; GJA1, gap junction protein alpha 1; PTGS2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) and fatty acid metabolism-related (FADS1, delta-6 desaturase; FADS2, delta-5 desaturase; PPARα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha) mRNA, and embryonic development of porcine oocytes. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were incubated with 0.1 mg/mL hyaluronidase for 44 h. Cumulus expansion was measured at 22 h after maturation. At 44 h after maturation, nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured. Gene expression in cumulus cells was analyzed using real time PCR. The cleavage rate and blastocyst formation were evaluated at Day 2 and 7 after insemination. In results, expansion of cumulus cells was suppressed by treatment of hyaluronidase at 22 h after maturation. Intracellular GSH level was reduced by hyaluronidase treatment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, hyaluronidase increased ROS levels in oocytes (p < 0.05). Only PTGS2 mRNA was enhanced in COCs by hyaluronidase (p < 0.05). Population of oocytes reached at metaphase II stage was higher in control group than hyaluronidase treated group (p < 0.05). Both of cleavage rate and blastocyst formation were higher in control group than hyaluronidase group (p < 0.05). Our present results showed that developmental competence of porcine oocytes could be reduce by hyaluronidase via inducing oxidative stress during maturation process and it might be associated with prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, we suggest that suppression of cumulus expansion of COCs could induce oxidative stress and decrease nuclear maturation via reduction of GSH synthesis and it caused to decrease developmental competence of mammalian oocytes.

Pharmacological Actions of New Wonbang Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid on Cardiovascular System (신원방우황청심원액의 심혈관계에 관한 약효)

  • 조태순;이선미;김낙두;허인회;안형수;권광일;박석기;심상호;신대희
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.66-78
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the pharmacological properties of New Wonbang Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid (NSCL), effects of Wonbang Woohwangchungsimwon Liquid (SCL) and NSCL were compared. In isolated rat aorta, NSCL and SCL showed the relaxation of blood vessels in maximum contractile response to phenylephrine (10$^{-6}$ M) regardless to intact endothelium or denuded rings of the rat aorta. Furthermore, the presences of the inhibitor of NO synthase and guanylate cyclase did not affect the relaxing effect of NSCL and SCL. NSCL and SCL inhibited the vascular contractions induced by acetylcholine, prostaglandin endoperoxide or peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), NSCL and SCL significantly decreased heart rate. NSCL and SCL, at high doses, had a negative inotropic effect that was a decrease of left ventricular developed pressure and (-dp/dt)/(+dp/dt) in the isolated perfused rat hearts, and also decreased the contractile force and heart rate in the isolated rat right atria. In excised guinea-pig papillary muscle, NSCL and SCL had no effects on parameters of action potential such as resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude, APD$_{90}$ and V$_{max}$ at low doses, whereas inhibited the cardiac contractility at high doses. These results suggested that NSCL and SCL have weak cardiovascular effects with relaxation of blood vessels and decrease of heart rate, and that this effect is no significant differences between cardiovascular effects of two preparations.s.

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Pharmacological Actions of New Woohwangchungsimwon Pill on Cardiovascular System (신우황청심원의 심혈관계에 대한 약효)

  • Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee;Kim, Nak-Doo;Huh, In-Hoi;Ann, Hyung-Soo;Kwon, Kwang-Il;Park, Seok-Ki;Shim, Sang-Ho;Shin, Dae-Hee;Park, Dai-Kyu
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.802-816
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    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the pharmacological properties of New Woohwangehungsimwon Pill (NWCH). Effects of Woohwangehungsimwon Pill (WCH) and NWCH were compared using various experimental models. In isolated rat aorta, NWCH and WCH showed the relaxation of blood vessels in maximum contractile response to phenylephrine ($10^{-6}$M) without regard to endothelium containing or denuded rings of the rat aorta. Furthermore, the presence of the inhibitors of NO synthase and guanylate cyclase did not affect significantly the relaxative effects of NWCH and WCH. NWCH and WCH inhibited the vascular contractions induced by acethylcholine, prostaglandin endoperoxide or peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. In conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRs), NWCH and WCH decreased significantly heart rate. These, at high doses, had a negative inotropic effect that was a decrease of LVDP and (-dp/dt)/(+dp/dt) in the isolated perfused rat hearts, and also decreased the contractile force and heart rate in the isolated rat right atria. In excised guinea-pig papillary muscle, these had no effects on parameters of action potential at low doses, whereas inhibited the cardiac, contractility at high doses. Furthermore, these had a significant inhibitory effects on heart acceleration in normotensive rats and SHRs. These results suggested that NWCH and WCH have weak cardiovascular effects, and that there is no significant differences between two preparations.

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