• Title, Summary, Keyword: protein content

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QTL Analysis of Protein Content in Double-haploid Lines of Rice

  • Qin, Yang;Kim, Suk-Man;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the main-effect QTLs, epistatic QTLs and QTL-by-environment interactions (QE), which are involved in the control of protein content. A population of 120 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between 'Samgang' and 'Nagdong', was planted and determined for protein content over three years. Based on the population and a genetic linkage map of 172 markers, QTL analysis was conducted by WinQTLcart 2.5 and QTLMAPPER. Three main-effect QTLs affecting protein content of brown rice were detected from 2004 to 2006 on chromosomes 1 and 11. The qPC11.2 was repeatedly detected across two years. Seven pairs of epistatic loci were identified on eight chromosomes for protein content and collectively explained 39.15% of phenotype variation. These results suggest that epistatic effects might be an even more important component of the genetic basis for protein content and that the segregation of the DH lines for protein content could be largely explained by a few main-effect QTLs and many epistatic loci.

Influences of Protein Characteristics on Processing and Texture of Noodles from Korean and US Wheats

  • Kang, Chon-Sik;Seo, Yong-Won;Woo, Sun-Hee;Park, Jong-Chul;Cheong, Young-Keun;Kim, Jung-Gon;Park, Chul-Soo
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2007
  • Protein characteristics of Korean wheat were evaluated to determine the effects of protein content and quality on processing and textural properties of white salted noodles compared to US wheat flours with various wheat classes and commercial flours for making noodles. Protein quality parameters, which were independent of protein content and included SDS sedimentation volume with constant protein weight, mixograph mixing time and proportion of 50% 1-propanol insoluble protein, of Korean wheat flours with 2.2+12 subunits in high molecular weight glutenin subunit compositions were comparable to those of commercial flours for making noodles. Parameters related to noodle making, including optimum water absorption, thickness and color of noodle dough sheet, correlated with protein content and related parameters, including SDS sedimentation volume with constant flour weight, mixograph water absorption and gluten yield. No significant relationship was found in protein parameters independent of protein content. Hardness of cooked noodles from Korean wheats was lower than that of US wheat flours compared to similar protein content of commercial noodle flours. Adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness of cooked noodles from Korean wheats were similar to US wheat flours. Hardness of cooked noodles correlated with protein content and related parameters.

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Variance Components and Genetic Parameters Estimated for Fat and Protein Content in Individual Months of Lactation: The Case of Tsigai Sheep

  • Oravcova, Marta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to assess variance components and genetic parameters for fat and protein content in Tsigai sheep using multivariate animal models in which fat and protein content in individual months of lactation were treated as different traits, and univariate models in which fat and protein content were treated as repeated measures of the same traits. Test day measurements were taken between the second and the seventh month of lactation. The fixed effects were lactation number, litter size and days in milk. The random effects were animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of ewe. The effect of flock-year-month of test day measurement was fitted either as a fixed (FYM) or random (fym) effect. Heritabilities for fat content were estimated between 0.06 and 0.17 (FYM fitted) and between 0.06 and 0.11 (fym fitted). Heritabilities for protein content were estimated between 0.15 and 0.23 (FYM fitted) and between 0.10 and 0.18 (fym fitted). For fat content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.04 and 0.11 (FYM fitted) and between 0.02 and 0.06 (fym fitted). For protein content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.13 and 0.20 (FYM fitted) and between 0.08 and 0.12 (fym fitted). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by fym effect ranged from 0.39 to 0.43 for fat content and from 0.25 to 0.36 for protein content. Genetic correlations between individual months of lactation ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 (fat content) and from 0.64 to 0.99 (protein content). Fat content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models roughly corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.13 (FYM fitted) and 0.07 (fym fitted). Protein content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models also corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.18 (FYM fitted) and 0.13 (fym fitted).

Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed protein and oil content in soybean.

  • Jeong, Namhee;Park, Soo-Kwon;Ok, Hyun-Choong;Kim, Dool-Yi;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Choi, Man-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.148-148
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    • 2017
  • Soybean is an important economical resource of protein and oil for human and animals. The genetic basis of seed protein and oil content has been separately characterized in soybean. However, the genetic relationship between seed protein and oil content remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used a combined analysis of phenotypic correlation and linkage mapping to dissect the relationship between seed protein and oil content. A $F_{10:11}$ RIL population containing 222 lines, derived from the cross between two Korean soybean cultivars Seadanbaek as female and Neulchan as male parent, were used in this experiment. Soybean seed analyzed were harvested in three different experimental environments. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 180K SoyaSNP Chip and QTLs of both traits were analyzed using the software QTL IciMapping. QTL analyses for seed protein and oil content were conducted by composite interval mapping across a genome wide genetic map. This study detected four major QTL for oil content located in chromosome 10, 13, 15 and 16 that explained 13.2-19.8% of the phenotypic variation. In addition, 3 major QTL for protein content were detected in chromosome 10, 11 and 16 that explained 40.8~53.2% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTLs was found to be associated with both seed protein and oil content. A major QTL were mapped to soybean chromosomes 16, which were designated qHPO16. These loci have not been previously reported. Our results reveal a signi cant genetic relationship between seed protein and oil fi content traits. The markers linked closely to these major QTLs may be used for selection of soybean varieties with improved seed protein and oil content.

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Canavanine Effects on the Amylase Activity and Protein Content in Barley Half Seeds (Canavanine에 의한 보리 무배부 종자의 Amylase 활성과 단백질 함량의 변화)

  • 전방욱
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 1983
  • L-canavanine was added to GAs treated barley seeds, and induced amylase activity, soluble protein content, and arginine content were mesured. Canavanine, added at the beginning of the incubation period, inhibited amylase activity and protein accumulation. Amylase activity decreased markedly by addition of canavanine at 6 hr after incubation, where soluble protein content was not affected. The addition of canavanine after 12 hr incubation did not show serioud inhibited effect on the amylase activity and protein accumulation. GAs incubation caused decrement in arginine content per mg protein, but it was somewhat recovered by canavanine treatment. The longer the time between GAs and canavanine addition was, the less the recovery ration was. Arginine content in the $\alpha$-amylase fraction (ammonium sulfate 20~50% saturation) was lower than in 0~20% fraction, but higher than in 50~80% fraction. These results and control expreiments, using cordycepin and cycloheximide, support the idea that canavanine might incorporate into protein.

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Seasonal Variation of Proximate Composition in Edible Portion or Ark Shell (Scapharca subcrenata) (새고막(Scapharca subcrenata) 가식부 일반성분의 계절변동)

  • 박춘규
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1226-1229
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the harvest time for the production of high value added ark shell(Scapharca subcrenata) cultured at the south coast of Korea, the seasonal variations of proximate composition(mois ture, protein, fat, ash and glycogen) in the edible portions of ark shell were measured from December 1994 to December 1995. Moisture contents were the lowest in spring, but the highest in summer season being the spawning season of the S. subcrenata. The other hand, protein contents were a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. In June, just before the spawning season, fat and glycogen content was the highest, and ash content was little changed through a year. After spawning season, glycogen contents, showed decrement. In evaluating the seasonal variation of protein, moisture, and glycogen content in ark shell, the relationships of moisture protein content, moisture glycogen content and glycogen protein content show to be reverse.

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Studies on the Biochemical Features of Soybean Seeds for Higher Protein Variety -With Emphasis on Accumulation during Maturation and Electrophoretic Patterns of Proteins- (고단백 대두 품종 육성을 위한 종실의 생화학적 특성에 관한 연구 -단백질의 축적과 전기영동 유형을 중심으로)

  • Jong-Suk Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.135-166
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    • 1977
  • Some biochemical features of varietal variation in seed protein and their implications for soybean breeding for high protein were pursued employing 86 soybean varieties of Korea, Japan, and the U.S.A. origins. Also, studied comparatively was the temporal pattern of protein components accumulation during seed development characteristic to the high protein variety. Seed protein content of the 86 soybean varieties varied 34.4 to 50.6%. Non-existence of variety having high content of both protein and oil, or high protein content with average oil content as well as high negative correlation between the content of protein and oil (r=-0.73$^{**}$) indicate strongly a great difficulty to breed high protein variety while conserving oil content. The total content of essential amino acids varied 32.82 to 36.63% and the total content of sulfur-containing amino acids varied 2.09 to 2.73% as tested for 12 varieties differing protein content from 40.0 to 50.6%. The content of methionine was positively correlated with the content of glutamic acid, which was the major amino acid (18.5%) in seed protein of soybean. In particular, the varieties Bongeui and Saikai #20 had high protein content as well as high content of sulfur-containing amino acids. The content of lysine was negatively correlated with that of isoleucine, but positively correlated with protein content. The content of alanine, valine or leucine was correlated positively with oil content. The seed protein of soybean was built with 12 to 16 components depending on variety as revealed on disc acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 86 varieties were classified into 11 groups of characteristic electrophoretic pattern. The protein component of Rm=0.14(b) showed the greatest varietal variation among the components in their relative contents, and negative correlation with the content of the other components, while the protein component of Rm=0.06(a) had a significant, positive correlation with protein content. There was sequential phases of rapid decrease, slow increase and stay in the protein content during seed development. Shorter period and lower rate of decrease followed by longer period and higher rate of increase in protein content during seed development was of characteristic to high protein variety together with earlier and continuous development at higher rate of the protein component a. Considering the extremely low methionine content of the protein component a, breeding for high protein content may result in lower quality of soybean protein.n.

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Rice Protein: Its Composition, Structure, Occurence and Biosynthesis (쌀 단백질(蛋白質) : 그의 조성(組成).구조(構造).소재(所在)와 생합성(生蛤成))

  • Lee, Chun-Yung;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.156-170
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    • 1977
  • Some of the recent developments and studies in the area of rice protein are reviewed. Protein content and amino acid composition of rice are briefly described. Emphasis is given to characterization of rice protein fractions, effects of protein content on grain properties and lysine content of rice, occurence of protein in rice grain and biosynthesis of protein during grain development.

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Protein Production from Cellulosic Wastes by Mixed Culture of A. phoenices and C. utilis (Aspergillus phoenicis 및 candida utilis의 혼합배양에 의한 섬유소로부터의 단백질 생산)

  • 이영녹;박경량;이주실;배광성;백대홍
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 1981
  • Protein content of cellulosic wastes, such as spent grain, hop bark, spent rye, rice straw, rice hull, saw dust and used newspaper, was increased by a mixed culture of C. utilis wastes having 66-75% moisture. Among the fungal strains tested. A.phoenicis KU175 was the most powerful to increase the protein content of A. phoenicis during the mixed culture with C. utilis in the CMC medium reached at the peak for one day culture after inoculation of the both strains at the same time, while it reached at peark from the beginning of the mixed culture, when A. phoenicis was inocultated for 12-24hours prior to the inoculation of C.utilis. To increase the protein content of the cellulosic wastes by the mixed culture of C.utilis and A.phoenicis, the inoculation of both strains at the same time was more effective than the preinoculation of A. phoenicis for 6-24 hours. Content of crude cellulose in the used newspaper, saw dust and spent grain was high relatively, and the lignin content of spent grain, spent rye, and rice strew was reduced more than half by the treatment of 2% NaOH. However, effect of alkali treatment of increase the protein content of the cellulosic wastes was not prominent in the case of mixed culture. Protein content of the cellulosic wastes was increased prominently by the mixed culture of C.utilis and A.phoenicis in semi-solid substrate, compared with the single culture of C. utilis, although the latter increased the protein content of cellulosic wastes considerably. The effect of mixed culture of C. utilis and A. phoenicis increased 4-fold the protein content of spent grain, and more than doubled crude protein in hop bark and rice straw.

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Using Chlorophyll(SPAD) Meter Reading and Shoot Fresh Weight for Recommending Nitrogen Topdressing Rate at Panicle Initiation Stage of Rice

  • Nguyen, Hung The;Nguyen, Lan The;Yan, Yong-Feng;Lee, Kyu-Jong;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2007
  • Nitrogen management at the panicle initiation stage(PI) should be fine-tuned for securing a concurrent high yield and high quality rice production. For calibration and testing of the recommendation models of N topdressing rates at PI for target grain yield and protein content of rice, three split-split-plot design experiments including five rice cultivars and various N rates were conducted at the experimental farm of Seoul National University, Korea from 2003 to 2005. Data from the first two years of experiments were used to calibrate models to predict grain yield and milled-rice protein content using shoot fresh weight(FW), chlorophyll meter value(SPAD), and the N topdressing rate(Npi) at PI by stepwise multiple regression. The calibrated models explained 85 and 87% of the variation in grain yield and protein content, respectively. The calibrated models were used to recommend Npi for the target protein content of 6.8%, with FW and SPAD measured for each plot in 2005. The recommended N rate treatment was characterized by an average protein content of 6.74%(similar to the target protein content), reduced the coefficient of variation in protein content to 2.5%(compared to 4.6% of the fixed rate treatment), and increased grain yield. In the recommended N rate treatments for the target protein content of 6.8%, grain yield was highly dependent on FW and SPAD at PI. In conclusion, the models for N topdressing rate recommendation at PI were successful under present experimental conditions. However, additional testing under more variable environmental conditions should be performed before universal application of such models.

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