• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein content

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Effect of Cowpea Precipitate Flour Protein on Characteristics of Gel (동부앙금의 단백질 함량이 Gel화 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김경애;이선영;정난희;전은례
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of protein content on the physicochemical properties, gelatinized characteristics and textural properties of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature. The contents of protein, total fat, and ash ranged from 0.35%∼1.38%, 0.54%∼0.64%, and 0.21%∼0.25%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns were all Ca-type, showing no difference according to the protein content. Protein content did not make any difference in the blue values of cowpea precipitate. The blue value of cowpea precipitate powder as protein content was decreased. The water-binding capacity of cowpea precipitate powder increased as the protein content increased. Swelling power and solubility of cowpea precipitate powder increased as protein content decreased. The transmittance of cowpea precipitate powder was not different according to the protein content. The initial pasting temperature of cowpea precipitate powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyser (RVA) showed no differences according to the protein content. In sensory evaluation, the color and clarity of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature as the protein content increased, and the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, acceptability were greater when the gels were stored for 48 hrs. Instrumental analyses using a rheometer showed that the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs, which was increased as the high protein content increased. For the gels stored for 48 hrs, all other factors are significantly different except cohesiveness as the protein content increased.

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QTL Analysis of Protein Content in Double-haploid Lines of Rice

  • Qin, Yang;Kim, Suk-Man;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.165-171
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the main-effect QTLs, epistatic QTLs and QTL-by-environment interactions (QE), which are involved in the control of protein content. A population of 120 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between 'Samgang' and 'Nagdong', was planted and determined for protein content over three years. Based on the population and a genetic linkage map of 172 markers, QTL analysis was conducted by WinQTLcart 2.5 and QTLMAPPER. Three main-effect QTLs affecting protein content of brown rice were detected from 2004 to 2006 on chromosomes 1 and 11. The qPC11.2 was repeatedly detected across two years. Seven pairs of epistatic loci were identified on eight chromosomes for protein content and collectively explained 39.15% of phenotype variation. These results suggest that epistatic effects might be an even more important component of the genetic basis for protein content and that the segregation of the DH lines for protein content could be largely explained by a few main-effect QTLs and many epistatic loci.

Using Chlorophyll(SPAD) Meter Reading and Shoot Fresh Weight for Recommending Nitrogen Topdressing Rate at Panicle Initiation Stage of Rice

  • Nguyen, Hung The;Nguyen, Lan The;Yan, Yong-Feng;Lee, Kyu-Jong;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2007
  • Nitrogen management at the panicle initiation stage(PI) should be fine-tuned for securing a concurrent high yield and high quality rice production. For calibration and testing of the recommendation models of N topdressing rates at PI for target grain yield and protein content of rice, three split-split-plot design experiments including five rice cultivars and various N rates were conducted at the experimental farm of Seoul National University, Korea from 2003 to 2005. Data from the first two years of experiments were used to calibrate models to predict grain yield and milled-rice protein content using shoot fresh weight(FW), chlorophyll meter value(SPAD), and the N topdressing rate(Npi) at PI by stepwise multiple regression. The calibrated models explained 85 and 87% of the variation in grain yield and protein content, respectively. The calibrated models were used to recommend Npi for the target protein content of 6.8%, with FW and SPAD measured for each plot in 2005. The recommended N rate treatment was characterized by an average protein content of 6.74%(similar to the target protein content), reduced the coefficient of variation in protein content to 2.5%(compared to 4.6% of the fixed rate treatment), and increased grain yield. In the recommended N rate treatments for the target protein content of 6.8%, grain yield was highly dependent on FW and SPAD at PI. In conclusion, the models for N topdressing rate recommendation at PI were successful under present experimental conditions. However, additional testing under more variable environmental conditions should be performed before universal application of such models.

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Variance Components and Genetic Parameters Estimated for Fat and Protein Content in Individual Months of Lactation: The Case of Tsigai Sheep

  • Oravcova, Marta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.170-175
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to assess variance components and genetic parameters for fat and protein content in Tsigai sheep using multivariate animal models in which fat and protein content in individual months of lactation were treated as different traits, and univariate models in which fat and protein content were treated as repeated measures of the same traits. Test day measurements were taken between the second and the seventh month of lactation. The fixed effects were lactation number, litter size and days in milk. The random effects were animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of ewe. The effect of flock-year-month of test day measurement was fitted either as a fixed (FYM) or random (fym) effect. Heritabilities for fat content were estimated between 0.06 and 0.17 (FYM fitted) and between 0.06 and 0.11 (fym fitted). Heritabilities for protein content were estimated between 0.15 and 0.23 (FYM fitted) and between 0.10 and 0.18 (fym fitted). For fat content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.04 and 0.11 (FYM fitted) and between 0.02 and 0.06 (fym fitted). For protein content, variance ratios of permanent environmental effect of ewe were estimated between 0.13 and 0.20 (FYM fitted) and between 0.08 and 0.12 (fym fitted). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by fym effect ranged from 0.39 to 0.43 for fat content and from 0.25 to 0.36 for protein content. Genetic correlations between individual months of lactation ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 (fat content) and from 0.64 to 0.99 (protein content). Fat content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models roughly corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.13 (FYM fitted) and 0.07 (fym fitted). Protein content heritabilities estimated with univariate animal models also corresponded with heritability estimates from multivariate models: 0.18 (FYM fitted) and 0.13 (fym fitted).

Response of Grain Yield and Milled-Rice Protein Content to Nitrogen Rates Applied at Different Growth Stages of Rice

  • Nguyen, Hung The;Kim, Min-Ho;Nguyen, Lan Thi;Lee, Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2006
  • Response of grain yield and milled-rice protein content to nitrogen (N) rates at various growth stages is critical for quantifying real-time and real-amount of applied N requirement for target grain yield and protein content. An experiment including 10 N rate treatments at transplanting, tillering and panicle initiation stages with four rice cultivars in 2003, 6 N treatments with two rice cultivars in 2004 and 2005 was conducted. Increase of N rates at PIS significantly increased both grain yield and milled-rice protein content but increase of N rates at tillering stage significantly increased grain yield but not milledrice protein content. Therefore, high grain yield and low milled-rice protein content would be difficult to obtain only by adjusting N rates at PIS. Internal N use efficiency (INUE) was 60.5 kg grain/kg N accumulation on an average over N treatments, cultivars, and experimental years, showing considerable reduction especially at high shoot N accumulation in the experimental year of low sunshine duration. Milled-rice protein content tended to increase almost linearly with increasing shoot N accumulation, but it revealed big variation even at the same shoot N accumulation at harvest. Milled-rice protein content decreased with increasing INUE. N accumulation in the milled rice increased at an almost constant proportion of 45.5 percent of the shoot N accumulated at harvest, showing slight decresing proportion with the increasing shoot N accumulation.

Studies on the Improvement of Grain and Eating Quality of Barley 1. Varietal Difference of Protein Content and its Variation (보리의 품질 및 식미개선에 관한 연구 1보. 단백질함량의 품종간차이와 그의 변이)

  • Hong-Suk Lee;Young Ho Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1977
  • The varietal differences of protein content in barley grain and its variation under different cultural conditions were studied. The varietal variation of protein content was significant with the range of 8~18%. The protein content of barley grain were increased by heavier nitrogen application and decreased by shading treatment and drill seeding. There was negative correlation between protein content and grain weight in hulled barley, while positive correlation between nitrogen content of plant and leaf at heading stage and protein content of barley grain was significant in Haganemugi and Buheung.

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Influences of Protein Characteristics on Processing and Texture of Noodles from Korean and US Wheats

  • Kang, Chon-Sik;Seo, Yong-Won;Woo, Sun-Hee;Park, Jong-Chul;Cheong, Young-Keun;Kim, Jung-Gon;Park, Chul-Soo
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2007
  • Protein characteristics of Korean wheat were evaluated to determine the effects of protein content and quality on processing and textural properties of white salted noodles compared to US wheat flours with various wheat classes and commercial flours for making noodles. Protein quality parameters, which were independent of protein content and included SDS sedimentation volume with constant protein weight, mixograph mixing time and proportion of 50% 1-propanol insoluble protein, of Korean wheat flours with 2.2+12 subunits in high molecular weight glutenin subunit compositions were comparable to those of commercial flours for making noodles. Parameters related to noodle making, including optimum water absorption, thickness and color of noodle dough sheet, correlated with protein content and related parameters, including SDS sedimentation volume with constant flour weight, mixograph water absorption and gluten yield. No significant relationship was found in protein parameters independent of protein content. Hardness of cooked noodles from Korean wheats was lower than that of US wheat flours compared to similar protein content of commercial noodle flours. Adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness of cooked noodles from Korean wheats were similar to US wheat flours. Hardness of cooked noodles correlated with protein content and related parameters.

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SPATIAL YIELD VARIABILITY AND SITE-SPECIFIC NITROGEN PRESCRIPTION FOR THE IMPROVED YIELD AND GRAIN QUALITY OF RICE

  • Lee Byun-Woo;Nguyen Tuan Ahn
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • 2005.08a
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    • pp.57-74
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    • 2005
  • Rice yield and protein content have been shown to be highly variable across paddy fields. In order to characterize this spatial variability of rice within a field, the two-year experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in a large-scale rice field of $6,600m^2$ In year 2004, an experiment was conducted to know if prescribed N for site-specific fertilizer management at panicle initiation stage (VRT) could reduce spatial variation in yield and protein content of rice while increasing yield compared to conventional uniform N topdressing (UN, ,33 kg N/ha at PIS) method. The trial field was subdivided into two parts and each part was subjected to UN and VRT treatment. Each part was schematically divided in $10\times10m$ grids for growth and yield measurement or VRT treatment. VRT nitrogen prescription for each grid was calculated based on the nitrogen (N) uptake (from panicle initiation to harvest) required for target rice protein content of $6.8\%$, natural soil N supply, and recovery of top-dressed N fertilizer. The required N uptake for target rice protein content was calculated from the equations to predict rice yield and protein content from plant growth parameters at panicle initiation stage (PIS) and N uptake from PIS to harvest. This model equations were developed from the data obtained from the previous two-year experiments. The plant growth parameters for this calculation were predicted non-destructively by canopy reflectance measurement. Soil N supply for each grid was obtained from the experiment of year 2003, and N recovery was assumed to be $60\%$ according to the previous reports. The prescribed VRT N ranged from 0 to 110kg N/ha with average of 57kg/ha that was higher than 33kg/ha of UN. The results showed that VRT application successfully worked not only to reduce spatial variability of rice yield and protein content but also to increase rough rice yield by 960kg/ha. The coefficient of variation (CV) for rice yield and protein content was reduced significantly to $8.1\%\;and\;7.1\%$ in VRT from $14.6\%\;and\;13.0\%$ in UN, respectively. And also the average protein content of milled rice in VRT showed very similar value of target protein content of $6.8\%$. Although N use efficiency of VRT compared to UN was not quantified due to lack of no N control treatment, the procedure used in this paper for VRT estimation was believed to be reliable and promising method for managing within-field spatial variability of yield and protein content. The method should be received further study before it could be practically used for site-specific crop management in large-scale rice field.

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Comparisons between Micro-Kjeldahl and Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Protein Content Analysis of Malting Barley Grain (근적외분광분석법과 Micro-Kjeldahl 법 간의 맥주보리 종실의 단백질함량 분석 비교)

  • Kim, Byung-Joo;Suh, Duck-Yong;Suh, Hyung-Soo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.489-494
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    • 1994
  • Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy(NIRS) has been used as a tool for the rapid, accurate, protein assay of malting barley. NIRS used in this study was filter type instruments, Neotec 102. The objective of this study was to obtain the best calibration equation, for the rapid, ease and accurate protein content analysis of malting barley using NIRS system. The optimum wavelength for protein content analysis used NIRS were 2095nm, 2095/1941nm, 2095/1941/2282nm, 2905/1941/2282/2086nm, respectively. Mean protein content with this calibration equation in NIRS analysis was 10.59%, while 10.60% in Micro-Kjeldahl one. The range of protein content in Micro-Kjeldahl was 8.66~12.66% and that in NIRS was 8.80~12.35%. When 18 other varieties produced in 1992 were analysed with 2095nm, 2095/1941nm, 2095/1941/2282nm, 2095/1941/2282/2086nm equation, standard deviation of difference (SDD)and standard error of performence(SEP) and $R^2$ values were 0.47, 0.43, 0.95, respectively. Both the mean protein content by Micro-Kjeldahl and by NIRS was 10.25%. With this equation, analysied 31 varities produced in 1993, SDD and SEP and r values were 0.69, 0.67, 0.91, respectively, and that bias value was 0.65. In this analysis, mean protein content by Micro-Kjeldahl was 10.17% and by NIRS was 10.81%. The range of protein content in Micro-Kjeldahl was 7.58~14.29%, What that in NIRS was 8.63~13.93%. After adjusted bias in the best calibration equation, mean protein content of Micro-Kjeldahl was 10.17% and that of NIRS was 10.09%, without variance of SDD, SEP and r values.

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Managing Within-Field Spatial Yield Variation of Rice by Site-Specific Prescription of Panicle Nitrogen Fertilizer

  • Ahn Nguyen Tuan;Shin Jin Chul;Lee Byun-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2005
  • Rice yield and protein content have been shown to be highly variable across paddy fields. In order to characterize this spatial variability of rice within a field, two-year experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in a large-scale rice field of $6,600m^2$ In year 2004, an experiment was conducted to know if variable rate treatment (VRT) of N fertilizer, that was prescribed for site-specific management at panicle initiation stage, could reduce spatial variation in yield and protein content of rice while increasing yield compared to conventional uniform N topdressing (UN, 33kg N/ha at PIS) method. VRT nitrogen prescription for each grid was calculated based on the nitrogen (N) uptake (from panicle initiation to harvest) required for target rice protein content of $6.8\%$, natural soil N supply, and recovery of top-dressed N fertilizer. The required N uptake for target rice protein content was calculated from the equations to predict rice yield and protein content from plant growth parameters at panicle initiation stage (PIS) and N uptake from PIS to harvest. This model· equations were developed from the data obtained from the previous two-year experiments. The plant growth parameters for the calculation of the required N were predicted non-destructively by canopy reflectance measurement. Soil N supply for each grid was obtained from the experiment of year 2003, and N recovery was assumed to be $60\%$ according to the previous reports. The prescribed VRT N ranged from 0 to 110kg N/ha with an average of 57kg/ha that was higher than 33 kg/ha of UN. The results showed that VRT application successfully worked not only to reduce spatial variability of rice yield and protein content but also to increase rough rice yield by 960kg/ha. The coefficient of variation (CV) for rice yield and protein content was reduced significantly to $8.1\%$ and $7.1\%$ in VRT from $14.6\%$ and $13.0\%$ in UN, respectively. And also the average protein content of milled rice in VRT showed very similar value of target protein content of $6.8\%$. In conclusion the procedure used in this paper was believed to be reliable and promising method for reducing within-field spatial variability of rice yield and protein content. However, inexpensive, reliable, and fast estimation methods of natural N supply and plant growth and nutrition status should be prepared before this method could be practically used for site-specific crop management in large-scale rice field.