• Title, Summary, Keyword: protein nutritional quality

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Rapid In Vitro Methods for Protein Evaluation (단백질(蛋白質) 품질평가(品質評價)를 위(爲)한 신속방법(迅速方法))

  • Ryu, Hong-Soo;Lee, Kang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.202-213
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    • 1985
  • The protein nutritional quality of foods has become an important factor to food processors with the advent of nutritional labeling regulations for foods. Then, as is true today, the officially approved assay for protein nutritional quality was the rat based protein efficiency ratio(PER) bioassay. The PER bioassay requires a minimum of 28 days to performe, and is therefore not applicable to routine quality assurance use by the food industry. Within the past ten years there has been a research emphasis placed on the development of rapid, inexpensive, biological and/or chemical based assays for protein nutritional quality. It was hoped that if a rapid assay could be developed and thoroughly tested, it could be used in lieu of the PER bioassay in the day-to-day quality assurance screening of food ingredients and products. The rapid assays developed in the hope of attaining this goal have been based on microorganisms, proteolytic enzymes, and amino acid profiles, as well as combinations of the above. In this review, it will be described and briefly discussed many of procedures which had contributed conceptually as well as practically to the development of in vitro methods for the evaluation of protein quality. Special emphasis will be placed on the C-PER(computed protein efficiency ratio) assay which combines data from in vitro protease digestion and amino acid composition to predict protein nutritional quality designed by Satterlee et al. (1980), and the DC-PER(discriminant computed PER) which is a method of estimating protein quality based on rat assay and in vitro digestibility obtained using solely essential amino acid data will be also introduced.

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Elderly Nutrition Improvement Program in the community health center : Nutritional evaluation of the elderly using the Index of Nutritional Quality and food group intake pattern (보건소 노인 영양 개선 사업 : 영양밀도와 섭취 식품군의 다양성에 의한 노인 영양 평가)

  • Im, Gyeong-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.182-196
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    • 1997
  • Physiological changes that affect nutrient absorption and utilization occur in older adults, and the collection of nutritional information is an important part of examining the nutrition and health issue. A nutritional survey using the 24-hour recall method was performed to identify nutritional quality and leading patterns of food group intake for protein, vitamin C, P and Fe were over 1, whereas those for vitamin A, $B_1$, $B_2$, niacin and Ca were below 1. The MAR(Mean Adequacy Ratio) was relatively low(0.75). The percentage of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was 65.1, 15.6, and 19.5, respectively, thus the quantities of energy source were ideal. The Older subjects revealed poorer nutrition quality than the younger subjects did. The food group intake pattern of the elderly was not diverse, only 9% of them consumed all food groups in a day. These results suggest that nutritional guidelines for older Koreans should focus on the maintenance of adequate energy intake. In addition, selection of foods with high protein and calcium, such as dairy food, should be emphasized, particularly in the older elderly. Nutrition programs should target individuals at risk of not receiving enough nutrients, like the oldest elderly, and persons with lower education.

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A Study on Nutritional Intakes in Elderly People in Wando Area (완도지역 성인 및 노인의 영양소 섭취 실태조사)

  • Cha, Bok-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.880-891
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrients intakes and nutritional quality of Adults and Elderly People in an island area (Wando). A three-day dietary intakes survey, using a 24 hour recall method was obtained from 187 subjects aged 46 to 84 (mean age 65.3) living in an island area (Wando). Nutient intakes were analyzed using CAN-Pro soft program and compared to Korean RDA. The quality of nutrients was assessed by analyzing nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and index of nutritional quality (INQ). The average daily mean energy intakes were 1869.0 kcal for males and 1943.9 kcal for females, respectively. Daily intakes of protein for males and females were 28.0 and 30.4 g and those of fat were 31.5 and 28.51 g, respectively. Nutrient consumed below $75\%$ of Korean RDA was protein, vitamin A, Ca and Zn in both males and females. Average CPF ratio of males and females were 78.8 : 6.0 : 15.1 and 80.0 : 6.4 13.4, respectively. Energy intake ratio from protein was significantly higher in over 60 years males. Carbohydrate dependency decreased with age. Protein dependency increased with age. Nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) of energy, protein vitamin A and vitamin E were increased with age in males. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR), an index of overall dietary quality, were not significantly different by age group. Average MAR for males and females was 0.77 and 0.78, respectively. The index of nutritional quality (INQ) showed the tendency to decrease with age. Especially, there were significantly decreases in INQ of all nutrients, except protein, with age. Based on these results, it is evident that people in the island area did not consume enough nutrients. Specially, dietary intake of protein, vitamin A, vitamin E, and Ca were not adequate. (Korean J Community Nutrition 10(6) : $880\∼891$, 2005)

Quality of Diet and Nutritional Intake and Mortality Risk among South Korean Adults Based on 12-year Follow-up Data (식사 질과 영양섭취상태가 사망위험에 미치는 영향에 관한 12년 추적연구)

  • Kim, Hye-Ryun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.354-365
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Studies that reported the association between diet quality/nutritional intake status and mortality have rarely used long-term follow-up data in Asian countries, including Korea. This study investigated the association between the risk of mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) and the diet quality/nutritional intake status using follow-up 12-year mortality data from a nationally representative sample of South Koreans. Methods: 8,941 individuals who participated in 1998 and 2001 Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were linked to mortality data from death certificates. Of those individuals, 1,083 (12.1%) had died as of December, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relative risks of mortality according to the level of diet quality and intakes of major nutrients. Indicators for diet quality index and nutritional intake status were assessed using MAR (mean adequacy ratio) and energy and protein intake level compared with the 2010 Korean DRI. Results: Higher diet quality/nutritional intake status were associated with lower mortality; the mortality risk (95% confidence interval) from all-cause of lowest MAR group vs highest was 1.66 (1.27 to 2.18) among ${\geq}30$ year old, and 1.98 (1.36 to 2.86) among 30~64 year old individuals. Those with below 75% of energy and protein intake of Korean DRI had higher mortality risks of all-cause mortality compared to the reference group. Diet quality/nutritional intake status was inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Conclusions: Poor Diet quality/nutritional intake status were associated with a higher risk of mortality from all-cause and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer among South Korean adults.

Protein Qualities and textural Properties of Cookies Containing Crucian Carp Extraction Residue (붕어고음 잔사분말을 첨가한 Cookies의 품질특성)

  • 김오순;황은영;이진화;류홍수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.482-487
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    • 2001
  • To find the possibility in utilizing the fish meat processing by-products, protein nutritional quality and textural properties of crucian carp extraction residue (CCER, feeze dired) incorporated into cookies were investigated. Moisture, ash and protein contents in cookies were increased with the higher residue treatments, but lipid contents were similar within all levels (3%, 9% and 15%). Major constitutional amino acids were revealed as glutamic acid, proline, leucine and arginine, and the sum of those amino acids was about 50% of total amino acid contents. Cookies with residue (CCER) had higher (80.74~84.50%) in vitro protein digestibility than standard cookies (83.32%), while slightly lower trypsin indigestible substrate (TIS) contents were showed in CCER containing cookies than control. CCER treatments resulted the decreased protein nutritional quality in C-PER (computed protein efficiency ratio) value from 2.41 (standard) to 1.15 (cinnamon flavored. 9% CCER), and those C-PER of all cookies were lower than ANRC casein (2.50). Lipophilic browning was developed steadily till 60 days storage and a significant (p<0.05) changes of browning ws not noteed between 60 days and 90 days storage. Color of cookies, expressed as L, a and b value, was significantly (p<0.05) lightened with the increased CCER. Similar trends by treatments were noted for hardness. Cookies containing 9% CCER were similar to control regarding textual and sensory properties.

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Effects of Heat Treatment on the Nutritional Quality of Milk. IV. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Physical and Nutritional Properties of Milk Protein (우유의 열처리가 우유품질과 영양가에 미치는 영향: IV. 우유의 열처리가 우유단백질의 이화학적 성질과 영양에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Jong-Wook;Jung, Jiyoon;Mim, Tae Sun;Oh, Sejong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.270-285
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    • 2017
  • Among milk proteins, caseins are not subjected to chemical changes during heat treatment of milk; however, whey proteins are partially denatured following heat treatment. The degree of whey protein denaturation by heat treatment is decreased in the order of high temperature short time (HTST) > low temperature long time (LTLT) > direct-ultra-high temperature (UHT) > indirect-UHT. As a result of heat treatment, several changes, including variations in milk nitrogen, interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and k-casein, variations in calcium sulfate and casein micelle size, and delay of milk coagulation by chymosin action, were observed. Lysine, an important essential amino acid found in milk, was partially inactivated during heat treatment. Therefore, the available amount of lysine decreased slightly (1~4% decrease) after heat treatment, However, the influence of heat treatment on the nutritional value of milk was negligible. Nutritional value and nitrogen balance did not differ significantly between UHT and LTLT in milk. In conclusion, our results showed that heat treatment of milk did not alter protein quality. Whey proteins denatured to a limited extent during the heat treatment process, and the nutritional value and protein quality were unaffected by heat treatment.

Evaluating Nutritional Quality of Single Stage- and Two Stage-fermented Soybean Meal

  • Chen, C.C.;Shih, Y.C.;Chiou, P.W.S.;Yu, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.598-606
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the nutritional quality of soybean meal (SBM) fermented by Aspergillus ($FSBM_A$) and/or followed by Lactobacillus fermentation ($FSBM_{A+L}$). Both fermented products significantly improved protein utilization of SBM with higher trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble true protein content, in vitro protein digestibility and available lysine content, especially in $FSBM_{A+L}$. Moreover, $FSBM_{A+L}$ produced a huge amount of lactic acid resulting in lower pH as compared to the unfermented SBM or soybean protein concentrate (SPC) (p<0.05). $FSBM_A$ and $FSBM_{A+L}$ raised 4.14% and 9.04% of essential amino acids and 5.38% and 9.37% of non-essential amino acids content, respectively. The ${\alpha}$-galactoside linkage oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose content in $FSBM_A$ and $FSBM_{A+L}$ decreased significantly. The results of soluble protein fractions and distribution showed that the ratio of small protein fractions (<16 kDa) were 42.6% and 63.5% for $FSBM_A$ and $FSBM_{A+L}$, respectively, as compared to 7.2% for SBM, where the ratio of large size fractions (>55 kDa, mainly ${\beta}$-conglycinin) decreased to 9.4%, 5.4% and increased to 38.8%, respectively. There were no significant differences in ileal protein digestibility regardless of treatment groups. SPC inclusion in the diet showed a better protein digestibility than the SBM diet. In summary, soybean meal fermented by Aspergillus, especially through the consequent Lactobacillus fermentation, could increase the nutritional value as compared with unfermented SBM and is compatible with SPC.

Effect of Nutritional Support on Underweight Patients (저체중 환자를 대상으로한 영양보충 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 백인경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.496-505
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    • 1991
  • Underweight patients were studied with respect to changes in their nutritional status before and after administration of nutritional beverage. Patients with renal hepatic or endocrine disease gastrectomy malabsorption and weight gain over past 6 months were excluded. Ten patients were participated as controls and were allowed to eat ad libitu, Twenty patients were served as case and were administered in addition to their usual diet 400ml of nutritio-nal beverage(Greenbia) high in calorie and protein for 8 weeks. In the beginning of the study most underweight patients showed depressed nutritional status in terms of calorie intake quality of protein intake and the levels of visceral protein status and serum micronut-rients. The controls consumed less amounts of calories proteins vitamins and minerals while those given the nutritional beverage exceeded their estimated energy requirement(105%) and consumed a mean of 96g protein per day. Those given nutritional beverage for 8 weeks showed significant increase in body weight(3%) hemoglobin(3.2%) hematocrit(5.4%) serum transferrin(19.4%) iron(30.1%) and zinc(20.9%) In the controls however significant improvement was not observed in any parameters compared with initial values. significant improvement was not observed in any parameters compared with initial values. This study suggests that patients with underweight can show mild nutritional deprivation nutritional support can improve their unbalanced status and prevent severe malnutrition.

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Evaluation of Nutritional Quality of Packaged MealsProduced by Packaged Meal Manufactures in Seoul and Kyungki-do (시판 도시락의 영양평가 및 품질관리 방안에 관한 연구)

  • 계승희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 1989
  • To investigate the nutritional quality of packaged meals produced by packaged meal manufactures, a nutritional evaluation was conduced. Samples examined in this study were 95 Products which composed of 86 Doraks, 7 Kimplabs and 2 Yubuchopabs Produced in packaged meal manufactures in Seoul City and Kungki-do province The distribution of food groups showed that amounts of animal foods were abound, but amounts of green vegetables, limited in Dosirak comparing to one meal RDA levels. Amounts of meats, fishes and shells are increased more than amounts of egged and legumina with increase of price of Dosirak. The total kinds of food and the amounts of certain food in Kimpab and Yubuchopab were lower than Dosirak. The energy and protein contents of Dosirak were found to be higher than one meal RDA levels, with exception of protein content in Dosirak of the price 1000 won. The contents of energy and protein in Kimpab and Yubuchopab are less than one meal RDA levels. Calcium and iron contents in Dosirak, and calcium content in Yubuchopab were present in excess compared to the one meal RDA. However, In Kimpab, calcium and iron contents were lower than the one meal RDA. On the whole, vitamin contents of Dosirak were sufficient whereas vitamin contents of Kimpab and Yubuchopab were lower than the one meal RDA. Number of side dishes used in Dosirak were 6-23 items depending on prices. Guidelines were suggested for effective nutritional quality control of packaged meals.

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Protein Nutritional Qualities of Beef Patties Added with Crucian Carp Extraction Residue (붕어고음 잔사분말을 첨가한 쇠고기 Patty의 단백질 품질 평가)

  • 김지영;황은영;이진화;류홍수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.488-493
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    • 2001
  • The know the possibility in development of the low-fat beef patty models using crucian carp9 extraction residues (CCER, freeze dried powder : 5%, 10%, 15%), those protein nutritional quality, texture, color and sensory properties were investigated. About 13∼23% (on dry basis) of lipid in control was reduced in cooked beef patties with the higher addition ratios of CCER. In vitro protein digestibility was not changed in raw patties before cooking but 2∼4% higher digestibility was revealed in cooked patties. Computed protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) and discriminant computed protein efficiency ratio (DC-PER) of beef patties containing CCER were almost same as control. Lightness and red color value of both (raw and cooked) beef patties were decreased with the higher CCER addition ratios but brown color value of cooked samples were similar to control. Stronger hardness was noted in all beef patties containing CCER significantly (p<0.05). Consumer's acceptability were generally decreased by addition of CCER, but 10% level could be recommendable in beef patty processing.

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