• Title, Summary, Keyword: proximal tubule

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Nephrotoxicity Assessment of Cephaloridine using Rat Renal Proximal Tubule Suspension (랫트의 신장 근위곡세뇨관 현탁액을 이용한 Cephaloridine의 신장독성 평가)

  • 홍충만;장동덕;신동환;최진영;조재천;이문한
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 1995
  • Rat renal proximal tubule suspension was prepared from adult male Sprague Dawley rat (250-300g) by mechanical (non-enzymatical) method and evaluated as a pontential model for mechanistic studies and early screening of nephrotoxicity, using anionic antibiotics (cephaloridine). Cephaloridine (CPL) produced an increase in LDH release into media. This release results from decrease a proximal tubule cell viability and subsequently increase the permeability of cell viability and subsequently increase the permeability of cell membrane. Since loss of intracellular potassium and ATP into media is the sign of disruption of cell membrane, especially basolateral membrane (BLM), CPL induced proximal tubule cell compromise also appear be associated with BLM, maybe $Na^+-K^+$ ATPase. Also seen was significant depression in brush border membrane (BBM) ALP activity and no significantly increase in BBM GGT activities. The inhibition of typical anion, PAH accumulation (especially, CPL 5 mM) and cation, TEA (especially, 4hours incubation) were seen dose dependently. This is because of CPL accumulation in renal proximal tubule and increase of cytotoxicity.

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Effects of High Glucose on Na,K-ATPase and Na/glucose Cotransporter Activity in Primary Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Han, Ho-Jae
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 1995
  • Renal proximal tubular hypertrophy and hyperfunction are known to be early manifestations of experimental and human diabetes. As the hypertrophy and hyperfunction have been suggested to be central components in the progression to renal failure, an understanding of their underlying causes is potentially important for the development of therapy. A primary rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell culture system was utilized to evaluate the possibility that the renal proximal tubular hypertrophy and hyperfunction observed in vivo in diabetes mellitus, can be attributed to effects of elevated glucose levels on membrane transport systems. Primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubules, which achieved confluence at 10 days, exhibited brush-border characteristics typical of proximal tubular cells. Northern analysis indicated $2.2{\sim}2.3$ and 2.0 kb Na/glucose cotransporter RNA species appeared in fresh and cultured proximal tubule cells after confluence, repectively. The cultured cells showed reduced Na/glucose cotransporter activity compared to fresh proximal tubules. Primary cultured proximal tubule cells incubated in medium containing 20 mM glucose have reduced ${\alpha}-MG$ transport compared to cells grown in 5 mM glucose. In the proximal tubule cultures incubated in medium containing 5 mM or 20 mM glucose, phlorizin at 0.5 mM inhibited 0.5 mM ${\alpha}-MG$ uptake by 84.35% or 91.85%, respectively. The uptake of 0.5 mM ${\alpha}-MG$ was similarly inhibited by 0.1 mM ouabain (41.97% or 48.03% inhibition was observed, respectively). In addition, ${\alpha}-MG$ uptake was inhibited to a greater extent when $Na^{+}$ was omitted from the uptake buffer (81.86% or 86.73% inhibition was observed, respectively). In cell homogenates derived from the primary cells grown in 5 mM glucose medium, the specific activity of the Na/K-ATPase $(6.17{\pm}1.27\;{\mu}mole\;Pi/mg\;protein/hr)$ was 1.56 fold lower than the values in cell homogenates treated with 360 mg/dl D-glucose, 20 mM $(9.67{\pm}1.22\;{\mu}mole\;Pi/mg\;protein/hr)$. Total $Rb^{+}$ uptake occurred at a significantly higher rate (1.60 fold increase) in primary cultured rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell monolayers incubated in 20 mM glucose medium $(10.48{\pm}2.45\;nM/mg\;protein/min)$ as compared with parallel cultures in 5 mM glucose medium. $Rb^{+}$ uptake rate in 5 mM glucose medium was reduced by 28% when the cultures were incubated with 1 mM ouabain. The increase of the $Rb^{+}$ uptake by rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells in 20 mM glucose could be attributed primarily to an increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive $Rb^{+}$ uptake $(5\;mM\;to\;20\;mM;\;4.68{\pm}0.85\;to\;8.38{\pm}1.37\;nM/mg\;protein/min)$. In conclusion, the activity of the renal proximal tubular Na,K-ATPase is elevated in high glucose concentration. In contrast, the activity of the Nafglucose cotransport system is inhibited.

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Transformation of Rabbit Proximal Tubule Cells by Strontium Phosphate Transfection with a Plasmid Containing SV4O Early Region Genes

  • Han, Ho-Jae;Taub, Mary L.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 1994
  • In this study, it was investigated whether immortalized proximal tubule cells transformed with pRSVT could survive through the numerous passages. Results were as follows: 1. The cells transfected with pRSVT formed rapidly growing, multilayered colonies within 2 weeks in a hormone defined medium. Domes were also observed in some of the cultures. 2. r-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was equivalent to that observed in primary renal proximal tubule cell cultures. 3. Transformed cells with pRSVT form tubules in matrigel following 20 passages. 4. Genomic DNA of transformants was digested with either the restriction enzyme Xba or BamH1. A band of approximately 7.5kb was detected with Xba. Three BamH1 bands were detected at approximately 15 kb, 6.5 kb, and 3 kb.

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Effect to Testosterone on the Growth of Primary Rabbit Proximal Tubule Cells in Serum-Free Medium (Testosterone이 토끼 근위 세뇨관 상피세포의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Chu Min-Ho;Park Seung-Joon;Chang Joo-Ho;Jung Jee-Chang
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 1995
  • In order to examine the effect of testosterone of the cell growth, using a primary rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell culture system, we observed the effect of 3 growth factors and testosterone supplementation on the growth of primary rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells in the serum-free medium. 1 nM of testosterone showed a potentiation of the effect on the growth of the proximal tubule cell in serum-free medium, but higher concentration (>10 nM) of testosterone indeed inhibited the growth. In the absence of hydrocortisone as a growth supplement in serum-free medium, testosterone caused to potentiate the growth of the cell. In the presence of hydrocortisone, testosterone also potentiated the grwoth of the proximal tubule cells. According to the Northern analysis, testosterone increased significantly the level of ${\beta}-actin$ mRNA in proximal tubular cells of rabbit kidney. Consequently we may suggest that growth stimulatory effect of testosterone on the primary rabbit kidney proximal tubule cell in serum-free and hormonally defined media ascribed to increase the synthesis of ${\beta}-actin$, which is an important protein consisting of cellular microfilament.

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Rapid Measurement of $NH_3$ and Weak Acid Permeation Through Liposomes and Renal Proximal Tubule Membranes

  • Bae, Hae-Rahn;Suh, Duck-Joon;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.203-214
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    • 1994
  • Using the methods of stopped-flow and epifluorescence microscopy with entrapped fluorophore, membrane permeability of $NH_3$ and weak acids in liposomes, renal brush border (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV), and primary culture cells from renal proximal tubule was measured. Permeability coefficient (cm/sec) of $NH_3$ was $(2.9{\times}10^{-2}$ in phosphatidylcholine liposome $25^{\circ}C)$, $5.9{\times}10^{-2}$ in renal proximal tubule cell $(37^{\circ}C)$, $4.0{\times}10^{-2}\;and\;2.4{\times}10^{-2}$ in BBMV and BLMV $(25^{\circ}C)$, respectively. Formic acid has the highest permeability coefficient among the weak acids tested, which was $4.9{\times}10^{-3}$ in liposome, $5.0{\times}10^{-3}$ in renal proximal tubule cell, $9.1{\times}10^{-3}$ in BBMV and $3.8{\times}10^{-3}$ in BLMV. There was a linear relationship between external concentration of nonionized formic acid and initial rate of flux of formic acid in liposome, and the slope coincided with the value of permeability coefficient of formic acid measured in pH 7.0. These results show that techniques of stopped-flow and epifluorescence microscopy with entrapped fluorophore provide the precise method of measurement of very rapid transport of nonelectrolytes through membranes with the advantages of instantaneous mixing effect, good resolution time and easy manipulation.

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Identification of Phosphatidylcholine-Phospholipase D and Activation Mechanisms in Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Chung, Jin-Ho;Chae, Joo-Byung;Chung, Sung-Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 1996
  • The present study showed that receptor-mediated activation of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells by angiotensin II, the $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore A23187, or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) all stimulated phospholipase D (PLD). This was demonstrated by the increased formation of phosphatidic acid, and in the presence of 0.5% ethanol, phosphatidylethanol (PEt) accumulation. Angiotensin II leads to a rapid increase in phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid formation preceeded the formation of diacylglycerol. This result suggests that some phosphatidic acid seems to be formed directly from phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed by Pill. On the other hand, EGTA substantially attenuated angiotensin II and A23187-induced PEt formation, and when the cells were pretreated with verapamil angiotensin II-induced Pill activation was completely abolished. These results provide the evidence that calcium ion influx is essential for the agonist-induced Pill activation. In addition, staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, strongly inhibited PMA-induced PEt formation, but was ineffective on angiotensin II-induced PEt accumulation. $GTP{\gamma}S$ also stimulates PEt formation in digitonin-permeabilized cells, but pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin failed to suppress angiotensin II-induced PEt formation. From these results, we conclude that in the rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells the mechanisms of angiotensin II- and PMA-induced Pill activation are different from each other and mediated via a pertussis toxin-insensitive trimeric G protein.

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Effect of Probenecid on Tetraethylammonium (TEA) Transport Across Basolateral Membrane of Rabbit Proximal Tubule

  • Choi, Tae-Ryong;Kim, Yong-Keun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1996
  • The effect of probenecid on the transport of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied in renal cortical slices and isolated membrane vesicles to investigate the interaction of organic anion with the organic cation transport system in proximal tubule. Probenecid reversibly inhibited TEA uptake by renal cortical slices in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range of 1 and 5 mM. The efflux of TEA was not affected by the presence of 3 mM probenecid. Kinetic analysis indicated that probenecid decreased Vmax without significant change in Km. Probenecid inhibited significantly tissue oxygen consumption at concentrations of 3 and 5 mM. However, probenecid did not significantly reduce TEA uptake in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from renal cortex even at a concentration as high as 10 mM. These results indicate that probenecid reduces TEA uptake in cortical slices by inhibiting tissue metabolism rather than by an interaction with the organic ration transporter.

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A Study on $Na^+$ and Water Reabsorption in the Nephron Segment Beyond Proximal Tubule Measured by Lithium Clearance

  • Han, O-Soo;Goo, Yong-Sook;Sung, Ho-Kyung
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.189-200
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    • 1991
  • During the past few years it has been proposed that lithium clearance can be used as a reliable measure for the outflow of tubular fluid from the proximal tubule. This study was aimed to characterize the inflow dependent reabsorption of Na in renal tubule beyond the proximal tubule. For this purpose, lithium clearance was used as a measure for the inflow from the proximal tubule and the changes in reabsorption fraction of Na and water were determined in rabbits. Rabbits were pretreated with hypotonic saline solutions for an hour (50 mM/L NaCl, 20 ml/hr/kg). And then a hypertonic solution of 500 mM/L NaCl (20 ml/kg) was administered intraperitoneally in conjunction with a bolus of LiCl solution (2 mM/kg, i.v.) for conditioning the $C_{Li}$ and urine flow rate. To rule out the effect of $Li^+$ on tubular functions, a bolus of NaCl solution (2 mM/kg, i.v.) was administered. Fifteen, thirty, and sixty minutes after injection of hypertonic saline arterial blood and urine samples were taken. Urinary and plasma concentrations as well as urinary output of $Li^+,\;Na^+\;and\;K^+$ were measured. From these $C_{Li},\;C_{Na}$ and the reabsorption fraction of Na and water $(Fr_{Na}\;&\;FrH_2O)$ were calculated. These results were compared with those from control groups in which the same amount of isotonic saline (145 mM/L NaCl) and of 15% dextran solution were administered in the same way as that in experimental group. Followings are the results obtained. 1) The plasma concentration of $Na^+$ in rabbits injected with hypertonic saline reached the peak value after 15 min and thereafter no significant change was observed. Hematocrit values did not show any change, while urinary excretion of $Na^+$ increased markedly during the first 15 min and decreased thereafter. These results were not affected by an injection of a small amount of LiCl. 2) The clearances of $Li^+,\;Na^+\;and\;K^+$ in rabbits injected with hypertonic saline and LiCl solution decreased. 3) In spite of the variation in $C_{Li},\;Fr_{Na}$ did not show any significant change while $FrH_2O$ increased gradually. 4) $C_{Li}$ decreased also in rabbits received isotonic saline. $Fr_{Na}$ tended to be higher than that in hypertonic saline group, while $FrH_2O\;and\;Fr_{Na}$ did not associated with the decrease in $C_{Li}$. 5) $C_{Li}$ of the rabbits received dextran solution fluctuated persistently and $Fr_{Na}\;and\;FrH_2O$ did not change in along with $C_{Li}$ although $Fr_{Na}$ had a tendency to be higher than that in hypertonic saline group. 6) From the above results it was concluded that: (a) In rabbits with normal body store of $Na^+$, the $Fr_{Na}$ of renal tubule beyond proximal tubule. calculated from $C_{Li}$ as a measure of inflow from proximal tubule is constant in spite of variations in $C_{Li}$. (b) The $FrH_2O$ calculated from $C_{Li}$ is dependent largely upon ADH rather than inflow from proximal tubule. (c) When there is a decrease in plasma $Na^+$ concentration or ineffective body fluid. $Li^+$ reabsorption may occur in the thick segnent of Henle's loop and hence the determination of $Fr_{Na}$ and $FrH_2O$ will not be easy one, but $Fr_{Na}$ is constant under the same experimental conditions.

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A Study about the Mechanism of $Ca^{2+}$ and Pi Homeostasis by Estradiol 17$\beta$ in Proximal Tubule Cells in the Osteoporosis

  • Han Ho-jae;Park Soo-Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2004
  • It has been reported that osteoporosis induced by the deficiency of estrogens in menopause is associated with the unbalance of Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi levels. Proximal tubule is very important organ to regualte Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi level in the body. However, the effect of estrogens on Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi regulation was not elucidated. Thus, we examined the effect of 17-β estradiol (E₂) on Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi uptake in the primary cultured rabbit renal proxiaml tubule cells. In the present study, E₂(> 10/sup -9/M) decreases Ca/sup 2+/uptake and stimulates Pi uptake over 3 days. E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by actinomycin D (a gene transcription inhibitor), cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). tamoxifen, and progesterone (estrogen receptor antagonists). E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor), Rp-cAMP (a cAMP antagonist), and PKI (a protein kinase A inhibitor). Indeed, E₂ increased cAMP formation. In addition, E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by staurosporine, H-7, and bisindolylmaleimide I (protein kinase C inhibitors) and E₂ translocated PKC from cytoslic fraction to membrane fraction. In conclusion, E₂ decreased Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulated Pi uptake via cAMP and PKC pathway in the PTCs.

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The Protective Effect of Ginseng Saponin against High Glucose-Induced Secretion of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I in Primary Cultured Rabbit Proximal Tubule Cells (신장 근위세뇨관 세포에서 고포도당에 의한 IGF-I 분비 촉진작용에 있어서 인삼의 차단효과)

  • Jung, Ho-Kyoung;Lim, Suel-Ki;Park, Min-Jung;Bae, Chun-Sik;Yoon, Kyung-Chul;Han, Ho-Jae;Park, Soo-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2009
  • Diabetic nephropathy is associated with the dysfunction of proximal tubule cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) has also been considered to play an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Ginsenosides have been used as a remedy for diabetes in Asian countries. Therefore, we examined the preventive effect of ginsenosides against high glucose-induced alteration of IGF-I secretion in the primary cultured proximal tubule cells. In present study, Ginseng saponin (GS) completely blocked high glucose-induced stimulation of IGF-I secretion in proximal tubule cells, whereas panaxatriol (PI) and panaxadiol (PD) partially suppressed. In addition, high glucose stimulated cAMP formation and protein kinase C(PKC) activity from cytosolic to membrane fraction. GS completely prevented high glucose-induced stimulation of cAMP and PKC activity while PT and PD partially did. Furthermore, high glucose-induced stimulation of IGF-I was blocked by the treatment of PKI (protein kinase A inhibitor) and bisindolylmaleimide I (protein kinase C inhibitor). In conclusion, GS prevented high glucose-induced dysfunction of proximal tubule cells.