• Title, Summary, Keyword: puffing

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Monitoring of Chemical Changes in Explosively Puffed Ginsengvand the Optimization of Puffing Conditions

  • Yoon, Sung-Ran;Lee, Gee-Dong;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2010
  • Response surface methodology was used to predict the optimum conditions of explosive puffing process for ginseng. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of moisture content and puffing pressure on dependent variables such as functional compounds (extract yield, crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content) and sensory properties. Correlation coefficients $(R^2)$ of models for crude saponin, acidic polysaccharide, and total phenolic content were 0.9176 (p<0.05), 0.9494 (p<0.05), and 0.9878 (p<0.001), respectively. Functional compounds increased with decreasing moisture content and increasing puffing pressure. Overall palatability was high at 15-20% moisture content and 98-294 kPa of puffing pressure. On the basis of superimposed contour maps for functional compounds and overall palatability of puffed ginseng, the optimum ranges of puffing conditions were 10-17% moisture content and 294-392 kPa puffing pressure.

Effect of Puffing on Quality Characteristics of Red Ginseng Tail Root (팽화처리가 홍미삼의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Hee-Do;Kim, Young-Chan;Kim, Sung-Soo;Sim, Gun-Sub;Han, Chan-Kyu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2007
  • Effect of puffing treatment on saponins, total sugars, acidic polysaccharide, phenolic compounds, microstructure and pepsin digestibility of dried red ginseng tail root were tested. Puffing samples of dried red ginsneng tail root were pre-pared at 20rpm, 15 $kg/cm^2$, $120{\sim}150^{\circ}C$, and for 30 min by a rotary type apparatus of 5 L capacity. Crude saponin content of puffing red ginseng tail root was increased 26.5% compared to non-puffing, especially $Rg_3$ content was increased from 0.49 mg/g to 0.72 mg/g. Total sugar content was not changed, but acidic polysaccharide content was slightly decreased from 7.15% to 6.44% by puffing treatment. Total phenolic compounds was increased from 7.86% to 9.94% by puffing. In terms of individual phenolic compounds, salicylic acid was quantified in puffing tail root, but gentisic acid was quantified in non-puffing. Syringic acid was the most predominant phenolic acid, increased to about 6 times by puffing treatment. On the other hand, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were highly decreased. Microstructure of cross-section in puffing tail root was shown to more uniform shape compared to non-puffing. Pepsin digestibilities of puffing and non puffing red ginseng tail root were 22.4% and 46.2%, respectively (p<0.05). The results indicated that puffing treatment might be useful increasing the bioactive components, preference and digestibility.

Optimization of Milling and Puffing Conditions of the Varieties of Wheats (밀쌀 품종별 도정 및 퍼핑 조건의 최적화)

  • 박근실;유희중;이수한;김진수;노완섭
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.423-429
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    • 2001
  • Process optimization of milling and puffing condition of the typical varieties of wheat such as HRS, ASW, and SW were studied. Distibution of optimal milling size of 8 mesh-on was more than 90% after milling of three wheats. That of HRS was the highest, 78%, and that of SW and ASW were pretty high, above 75%. Moisture content of three wheats was between 10∼12%, and protein content which are important for texture profile and puffing was 12.68%, 13.59%, and 11.82% for SW, HRS, and ASW, respectively. Puffing was optimal of 7 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ heating pressure for SW, and 5 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ lot HRS and ASW when the puffing process was pursued at 14.5 ∼15.0 kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ steam pressure. Moisture content decreased from 11∼l3% to 5.6∼6.0% after puffing. Bulk density of SW, HRS, and ASW was 0.0441, 0.0523, and 0.0460, respectively. Size distribution of HRS was 82.4% after Puffing. Press strength of HRS was high, 51.0%, and texture of HRS was crispy.

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Development of Vacuum Puffing Machine for Non-deep Fried Yukwa and Its Puffing Characteristics by Process Variables (비유탕 유과 제조를 위한 진공팽화기의 개발 및 공정변수에 따른 유과의 팽화특성)

  • Yu, Je-Hyeok;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the quality of Yukwa puffed by using a vacuum puffing machine and compare to deep-fried Yukwa. The effect of vacuum puffing condition including heating temperature(100-${160^{\circ}C}$), preheating time(0-8 min) and vacuum puffing time(5-20 min) on physical and microstructure characteristics of the Yukwa was investigated. Vacuum puffed Yukwa at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 10 min puffing time had highest value in volumetric expansion ratio(10.04) and lowest value in bulk density(0.15 g/$cm^{3}$). The breaking strength showed the lowest value of 140 g/$cm^{3}$ in vacuum puffing Yukwa at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 15 min puffing time. The Yukwa puffed with the vacuum puffing machine at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 15 min puffing time had the higher value of bulk density and the lower value of volumetric expansion ratio than those of deep-fried Yukwa. Increasing preheating time and vacuum puffing time caused an increase in white and an decrease in yellowness. The vacuum-puffed Yukwa exhibited smaller and uniform cell structure, while deep-fried Yukwa exhibited apparently in larger pores inside and smaller pores near the surface layer. The optimum condition of vacuum puffing machine for the production of vacuum-puffing Yukwa was ${120^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 4 min preheating time and 5 min puffing time.

Changes of Volatile Component Contents in a Red Ginseng Tail Root by Puffing (팽화처리에 의한 홍미삼의 휘발성 성분의 변화)

  • Han, Chan-Kyu;Choi, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Sim, Gun-Sub;Shin, Dong-Bin
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.311-314
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    • 2008
  • This study evaluated changes in concentrations of volatile compounds contained in red ginseng tail roots through puffing treatment. The results showed that 59 out of 63 volatile compounds were detected from the puffing treated roots. While most terpene and furan compounds seem to be increased by puffing treatment, most alcoholic, aldehyde and acid compounds seem to be decreased, and terpene compounds content accounted for 70% of the 63 volatile components in the puffed red ginseng tail roots.

Change of Ginsenoside Profiles in Processed Ginseng by Drying, Steaming, and Puffing

  • Shin, Ji-Hye;Park, Young Joon;Kim, Wooki;Kim, Dae-Ok;Kim, Byung-Yong;Lee, Hyungjae;Baik, Moo-Yeol
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.222-229
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    • 2019
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was processed by drying, steaming, or puffing, and the effects of these processes on the ginsenoside profile were investigated. The main root of 4-year-old raw Korean ginseng was dried to produce white ginseng. Steaming, followed by drying, was employed to produce red or black ginseng. In addition, these three varieties of processed ginseng were puffed using a rotational puffing gun. Puffed ginseng showed significantly higher extraction yields of ginsenosides (49.87-58.60 g solid extract/100 g of sample) and crude saponin content (59.40-63.87 mg saponin/g of dried ginseng) than non-puffed ginseng, respectively. Moreover, puffing effectively transformed the major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1) of ginseng into minor ones (F2, Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5), comparable to the steaming process effect on the levels of the transformed ginsenosides. However, steaming takes much longer (4 to 36 days) than puffing (less than 30 min) for ginsenoside transformation. Consequently, puffing may be an effective and economical technique for enhancing the extraction yield and levels of minor ginsenosides responsible for the major biological activities of ginseng.

Changes in the Chemical Components of Red and White Ginseng after Puffing (팽화 가공에 따른 홍삼과 백삼의 성분변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Tae;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.355-361
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    • 2009
  • In this study, raw ginseng produced by different methods was puffed, and physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared. Raw ginseng included white ginseng lateral root (WGL), red ginseng lateral root (RGL), red ginseng main root (RGM), and red ginseng main root with 15% (w/w) moisture (RGMM). All samples were puffed at a pressure of 7 kg/cm2. Crude saponin content was increased after puffing compared with that of control ginseng. RGM and RGMM showed significant increases in crude saponin content, from 1.67% and 1.41% to 2.84% and 3.09% (all w/w), respectively. However, the ginsenoside content of WGL was decreased after puffing. Rg3, Rh1, and Rh2 values of red ginseng were increased by puffing compared with those of control red ginseng. The total sugar content of ginseng decreased after puffing. The mineral components of puffed ginseng were similar to those of raw ginseng. Levels of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of ginseng were increased after puffing, and electron-donating ability was greatly increased. The acidic polysaccharide content of ginseng increased slightly and the amino acid content decreased due to the high temperature used during puffing.

Comparison of Alcohol Fermentation from Husked Rice and Barley Cooked by Hot Air Puffing and Steaming (열풍팽화 및 자숙한 벼와 보리의 알코올 발효성 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Han;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Choi, I-Seub;Kim, Joong-Man
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 1995
  • The saccharification ratio and efficiency of alcohol fermentation from hot air puffed and steamed flour of husked rice and barley varieties were compared. Enzymatic hydrolysis of husked rice flour was improved by puffing, and that of glutinous rice was higher than that of nonglutinous one. By puffing of husked rice and barley, alcohol production was slightly increased, but fermentation period was reduced comparing with steam cooked husked rice and barley. Fermentation efficiencies of husked rice by puffing and rice by steam cooking were 90.72% and 87.77%, respectively. Residual reducing sugar of barley mash was higher than that of rice mash. The pH of mash was gradually increased during fermentation and was high in case of puffing treatment.

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Development of Gas Puffing INPIStron for Pulsed Power Supply (Pulsed Power전원장치용 Gas Puffing INPIStron의 개발)

  • Seo, Kil-Soo;Kim, Young-Bae;Cho, Kuk-Hee;Lee, Hyeong-Ho
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.49 no.12
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    • pp.679-684
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    • 2000
  • Closing switch, key component of pulsed power system, is constructed simply and used frequently due to the easy control and manufacture of one. The kind of one are spark-gap, triggered vacuum switch, pseudo-spark switch and INPIStron. But the electrode of spark gap switch is damaged with the hot spot by Z-pinch and then the life of one become short. INPIStron with inverse pinch effect has long life but it is difficult trigger system to provide uniform discharge between cathode and anode. In this paper, the design and manufacturing of INPIStron with gas puffing trigger method in order to supply uniform discharge inter-electrode and the performance of the developed INPIStron applied to 500[kA]-2[MJ] pulsed power system is presented.

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Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on Physical Properties of Instant Puffed Rice Snacks (수분함량과 온도에 따른 즉석팽화 쌀 스낵의 물리적 특성)

  • Tie, Jin;Yu, Je-Hyeok;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.846-852
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    • 2012
  • The physical properties of instant puffed rice snacks with non-glutinous, glutinous, and steamed non-glutinous rice were evaluated at different moisture content and puffing temperatures. Raw materials were tempered to 9%, 12%, 15%, and 18% moisture content and puffed at $200^{\circ}C$, $210^{\circ}C$ and $220^{\circ}C$. With the increase in moisture content and puffing temperature, puffed snacks were less bulky. As the moisture content decreased and puffing temperature increased, the whiteness (L) value of puffed snacks decreased, while the redness (a) and yellowness (b) values increased. WSI and WAI were higher with an increase in moisture content and puffing temperature. Instant puffed rice snacks made from non-glutinous, glutinous, and steamed non-glutinous rice showed differences in bulk density, WSI, and WAI, while no difference was found in color values. When the moisture content increased from 9% to 15%, the cells within the products became more uniform and smaller. The instant puffed rice snacks made from glutinous rice showed the smallest and most uniform cell structure.