• Title, Summary, Keyword: pullets

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Effect of Colors of Feed-trough on the Behaviour of Pullets (給餌器具의 色彩變化에 따른 産卵用 育成鷄의 行動形態에 미치는 影響)

  • Song, Youn-Han;Ko, Byeong-Dae
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of colors of feed-trough on the eating behaviour of pullets. A total of 64 12wks old pullets were assigned to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with 4 treatments(control, blue, yellow, red colored feed-troughs). The results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Average daily gain and eed intake of the pullets were significantly(P<0.05) decreased with red color feed-troughs. 2. Feed conversion ratio appeared to be improved in the yellow color group compared to the others. 3. Total time spent for eating were not significantly different, among treatments.

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Effect of Scavenging and Protein Supplement on the Feed Intake and Performance of Improved Pullets and Laying Hens in Northern Vietnam

  • Minh, Do Viet;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1553-1561
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    • 2004
  • Two feeding trials were conducted with 128 pullets from 4 to 20 weeks of age and 96 laying hens from 23 to 63 weeks of age to evaluate the effects of scavenging and type of protein supplement on the feed intake and performance of improved pullets and laying hens. The experiments had a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments and four replicates. Treatments were: Control (Cont), scavenging but with access to a balanced concentrate at night; confinement (CF) and given the control feed ad libitum; scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with soybean meal replaced by cassava leaf meal (CLM); scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with fishmeal replaced y soybean meal (SBM). The mean daily dry matter (DMI), metabolizable energy (MEI) and crude protein intakes (CPI) of the pullets and laying hens, respectively, were 28%, and 18% higher for the confinement treatment (CF) compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). The DMI, MEI and CPI of the pullets were not significantly different among scavenging treatments (p>0.05), but for the layers DMI, MEI and CPI were significantly higher for the CLM and SBM treatments compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.001). In the growing period, the average daily weight gain (ADG), supplement feed conversion ratio (FCR) and supplement feed cost/kg eggs (FCS) were not significantly different for CF compared to Cont, and among scavenging treatments (p>0.05). In the laying period, the hen-day production was significantly lower, and supplement FCR and FCS significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). Egg weight, and yolk, albumen and shell percentage and shape index were not significantly different among the scavenging treatments (p>0.05). However, shell and yolk percentages were significantly lower for the CF compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.01). Mortality was significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments for pullets, and was significantly lower for the CF compared to scavenging treatments for laying hens (p<0.001). It was concluded that scavenging pullets and layers were getting around 28% and 18%, respectively, of their nutrient requirements from scavenging activities, resulting in correspondingly lower supplement feed conversion ratios and feed costs. Daily gains of the pullets were not affected by scavenging or protein supplement, but egg production and mortality were lower for the confined hens.

Paper and Agar Electrophoretic Studies of Serum Proteins of the Cockerels and Pullets (노지(瀘紙) 및 한천(寒天) 전기영동법(電氣泳動法)에 의(依)한 중추혈청단백분획(中錐血淸蛋白分劃)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Chung Don
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.117-120
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    • 1968
  • Normal value of serum proteins of cockerels and pullets was obtained by seperating serum proteins of 80(♂40, ♀40)immature domestic fowls for routine clinical application purpose, using paper and agar electrophoresis. The concentration count of serum proteins which were fractionated was determined by using densitometer and planimeter. The fractionation value of serum proteins (of cockerels and pullets was indicated in the table 1. The composition of serum proteins by paper and agar electrophoresis showed remarkable differences between cockerels and pullets, but only ${\beta}$-globulin could not found difference between them.

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Screening of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme a Reductase Inhibitors in vitro and Its Application to Pullets

  • Yeom, Keum-Hee;Hwang, Suk-Yeun;Lee, Kyung-Woo;Woo, Moon-Sook;Park, Sun;Min, Dae-Gyu;Lee, Bong-Duk;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.70-74
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    • 1999
  • The primary objective of these studies was to screen the materials showing inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. The secondary objective was to determine the effect of garlic, lovastatin and copper on cholesterol concentrations in plasma. liver and brease muscle of pullets. In experiment 1, the degree of inhibition of the selective samples on HMG-CoA reductase activity was determined in vitro. The inhibition rate of water soluble garlic extracts, lovastatin and copper to HMG-coA reductase activity were 51.3%, 87.5%, and 82.0% respectively . In experiment 2, control diet (basal diet), garlic powder (3% in diet) , lovastatin (300mg/kg of diet) and copper(200mg/kg of diet) were fed to pullets in order to investigate the changes of cholesterol concentration in plasma and tissues. Plasma total cholesterol , and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced in pullets fed a diet containing 3 % garlic powder. However, coper significantly increased total cholesterol compared to controls and lovastatin did not affect plasma chholesterol concentration . Total cholesterol inlover and breast muscle inpullets were not affectedb y adding cholesterol lowering materials to the diets. The data suggests that it is not easy for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to reduce cholesterol levels in the body due to complication in cholestrol metabolism . However, garlic administration can lower the levels of plasma cholesterol in pullets.

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Effect of Protein Feeding Systems for Egg-type Growing Pullets on Pullet Growth, Nutrient Consumption and Subsequent Laying Performance (난용계 육성기의 단백질 공급체계가 육성계의 성장 및 영양소 섭취량과 산란능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 이규호;정연종
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.257-266
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    • 1994
  • Three protein feeding systems for egg-type pullets involving conventional step-down protein 18-15-12%), step-up protein(12-15-18%) and single-stage low protein (13-13-13%) with an iso-energy level of 2,900 ME kcal /kg were compared to examine the effect on pullet growth and subsequent laying performance. During the growing period, pullets subjected to the step-up and single-stage low protein feeding systems were lighter in body weight and consumed less feed and netabolizable energy than those on the conventional step-down protein feeding system(P<0.05). 3ut the pullets on the step-up protein diet consumed more protein, and those on the single-stage low protein diet consumed less protein than those on the step-down protein diet(P<0.05). Also, he feed cost was less in pullets on the single-stage low protein diet than in those on the other systems(P<0.05). During the laying period, sexual maturity was later in hens reared on the step-up and single-stage low protein diets than in those on the step-down protein diet(P<0.05), however, average hen-day egg production and egg weight were not significantly affected by the protein feeding systems in the growing period. Daily feed intake and feed required per egg were significantly reduced in hens on the single-stage low protein diet compared to those on conventional protein feeding system(P<0.05). It was concluded that the 13% single-stage low protein feeding system produced smaller pullets with less feed, energy, protein, and feed cost during the growing period, and hens reared on that system consumed less feed during the laying period without any impairment of production compared to the conventional rearing system.

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Screening of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitors In Vitro and Its Application to Pullets (HMG-CoA Reductase의 저해제 탐색과 가금의 콜레스테를 저하 효과)

  • Moon, Young-Ja;Yeom, Keum-Hee;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2002
  • The primary objective of these studies was to screen the materials showing inhibitions of HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. The secondary objective was to determine the effect of garlic, lovastatin and copper on cholesterol concentrations in plasma, liver and breast tissues in pullets. The degree of inhibition of the selective samples on HMG-CoA reductase activity was determined in vitro. The inhibition ratios of water soluble garlic extracts, lovastatin (methanol extracts) and copper to HMG-CoA reductase activity were 51.3%, 87.5%, and 82.0%, respectively. Control diet (basal diet) and experimental diets, garlic powder (3% in diet), lovastatin (300mg/Kg of diet) and copper (200mg/Kg of diet) were fed to pullets in order to investigate the changes of cholesterol concentration in plasma and tissues. Total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in blood plasma were significantly reduced in pullets fed diet containing 3% garlic powder. However, copper significantly increased total cholesterol compared to control and lovastatin did not affect plasma cholesterol concentration. Total cholesterol and triglyceride of liver and breast tissues in pullets were not affected by adding the cholesterol-lowering materials to diets. The data suggests that it is not easy for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors to reduce cholesterol levels in body due to complication of cholesterol metabolism. However, garlic administration can lower the levels of plasma cholesterol in pullets.

Effects of Dietary Energy and Protein Levels on Growth of Egg Breeder Pullets (산란종계 육성기 사료의 에너지 및 단백질 수준이 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • 노성래;유선종;김성권;김은집;안병기;강창원
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy and protein levels on the growth rate of egg breeder pullets. A total of 360 Hy-Line Brown pullets aged 2 to 6 weeks (Phase I) were fed 5 rations differing in dietary protein (17, 19 and 20%) and energy (2,800, 2,950 and 3,050 kcal/kg, TMEn) leveIs for a period of 5 weeks and those aged 6 to 10 weeks (Phase II) were fed 5 rations differing in dietary protein (15, 16 and 17%) and energy (2,800, 2,900 and 3,000 kcal/kg, TMEn) levels in order to evaluate the optimum dietary energy and protein leveIs for egg breeder pullets reared in cages. Their body weight gains were significantly influenced by the dietary protein levels (P<0.05). The dietary energy levels did not greatly affect the growth performances throughout the experimental period. The low energy and protein regimen based on NRC requirement (control) was found to produce smaller pullets and lower tibia bone measurements as compared to the higher regimen groups. With the increase in dietary energy and protein levels, tibial bone strength and ash content also gradually increased (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the flock uniformity among the treatments. These results indicate that increases in dietary energy and protein levels above the NRC requirements appeared to be more effective in obtaining the optimal growth and bone developments of egg breeder pullets reared in cage.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON THE PERFORMANCES OF STARCROSS PULLETS

  • Uddin, M. Salah;Tareque, A.M.M.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Khan, M. Jasimuddin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 1991
  • In two experiments 640 starcross replacement pullets between 25 and 154 days of age were fed ad libitum on either of 16 diets formed by the combination of $4CP{\times}4ME$ levels to study the interaction of CP and ME on growth performances. In both experiments, feed intake decreased, but protein intake, energy intake, live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency increased and sexual maturity hastened with the increase of dietary protein and/or energy level. The protein conversion efficiency decreased with the increase of dietary protein level. The energy conversion efficiency, however, did not show any relationship with dietary energy level. There was a greater improvement of growth performance due to simultaneous increase of dietary protein and energy level than that of increasing protein or energy alone.

Dietary Self-selection and Nutrient Feeding Systems for Egg-type Growing Pullets and Layers (난용계의 선택채식과 영양소 공급체계)

  • 이규호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 1994
  • From the observations of dietary self-selection by growing pullets, step-up protein or reverse protein and single-stage low protein pullet feeding systems were developed. They offered another pullet feeding concept that appears to control the body weight effectively and to reduce the consumption of feed and nutrients without impairment of subsequent laying performance. It is obvious from the feed and nutrient consumption pattern of layers fed diets for self-selection of energy, protein and calcium that they have a daily cyclic requirement rather than a constant requirement for nutrients. It seems that a practical self-selective feeding system is needed to meet the daily cyclic requirement for nutrients without consuming an excess of energy and protein at certain times of the day as compared to the complete or single diet where layers have to consume extra energy and protein in the afternoon when they have a specific appetite mainly for calcium.

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Self-administration of an Analgesic Does Not Alleviate Pain in Beak Trimmed Chickens

  • Freire, Rafael;Glatz, Philip C.;Hinch, Geoff
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2008
  • Beak trimming in laying hens is a routine practice in which about 1/3-1/2 of the upper and lower beak is removed with the aim of reducing cannibalism. This experiment aimed to identify if this procedure causes pain by examining self-administration of an analgesic (carprofen) and pecking behaviour in 80 laying pullets beak-trimmed by two different methods at one day of age using hot-blade cauterisation or infra-red cauterisation. We also tested a control treatment, pullets with intact beaks, and a positive control treatment of pullets beak trimmed at 10 weeks of age which were expected to experience some pain due to recent severing of the underlying nerves in the beak. At 11 weeks of age birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age pecked more (p<0.001) gently ($0.6{\pm}0.06N$) at a disc attached to a force-displacement transducer than birds trimmed at 1 day of age with an infra-red machine ($0.9{\pm}0.1N$) or a hot blade ($1.1{\pm}0.07N$) and intact birds ($1.2{\pm}0.1N$). Maximum force of pecks recorded was also lower (p<0.001) in birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age than birds trimmed at 1 day of age with an infra-red method or a hot blade and intact birds. However, the pecking force in birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age was not increased by providing them with analgesic-treated feed, though birds that ate more carprofen had a higher maximum force of peck (p = 0.03). Pecking force in birds beak-trimmed at 1 day of age was the same as the pecking force of intact birds, and was unaffected by feeding pullets carprofen. A method of self-administration of an analgesic had previously revealed that chickens in neuromuscular pain arising from lameness consumed more of a feed containing carprofen than healthy chickens. However, we found no evidence that beak-trimmed pullets consumed more carprofen-treated feed than pullets with an intact beak. It should be noted that the three beak trimming methods resulted in an average 34% reduction in beak length, considered a light trim, and is perhaps not representative of commercial birds where greater portions of the beak are removed. We conclude that although carprofen has been reported to have an analgesic effect on neuromuscular pain in chickens, it appears to have no analgesic effect on potential neuropathic pain arising from the nerves severed by a light beak trim.