• Title, Summary, Keyword: pupal formation

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Production of Vegetable Wasp and Plant Worm by Injection of Paecilomyces japonica to Pupae in the Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (종균의 주사에 의한 작잠번데기 동충하초 생산)

  • 이상몽;박남숙;이호웅;조세연;성수일;문재유;김두호
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.176-179
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    • 1998
  • Injection method of Paecilomyces japonica to Antheraea pernyi pupal body was investigated on feasibility for production of the corresponding vegetable wasp and plant worm. Infection rate of P. japonica to the pupae was 100%, and also fruiting body formation rate was 97%. The initial pupal body weight of 9.38 g befor injection of P. japonica to the pupae was finally reduced to 7.87g after two weeks in vivo culture. From these results, the injection method to pupal body will be useful for the production of Antheraea vegetable wasp and plant worm in future.

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Temporal and Spatial Role of Pupal Stage Specific Cuticle Protein in Artogeia rapae (배추흰나비 용기 특이 큐티클 단백질의 시공간적 역할)

  • Shin, Myung-Ja;Park, Jeong-Nam;Seo, Eul-Won
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2007
  • Present study aims to investigate the topical distribution of pupal stage specific cuticle protein and its temporal and spatial role during the wing formation of Artogeia rapae. ArCP27(27 kd cuticle protein) was identified as pupal stage specific cuticle protein in cuticle tissues and has not shown any qualitative differences by local portions of body. ArCP27 maintained constant concentration just after pupal ecdysis to 5-day old pupal stage but thereafter decreased. In fat body, ArCP27 was found in both thoracic and abdominal fat body from the last larval to pupal stage. In wing cuticle, ArCP27 began to find from 5-day old pupal stage. Immunologically ArCP27 in thoracic and abdominal cuticle has the response against the ArCP27 at 5-day old pupa but since then has no response. But the antibody against ArCP27 has reacted to 5- and 7-day old pupal and adult wing protein. $^3H-leucine$ was not incorporated into ArCP27 in 5- and 7-day old thoracic and abdominal cuticle but was incorporated into ArCP27 in 7-day old wing cuticle and adult wing, suggesting that ArCP27 partly participates the wing cuticle formation by the process of digestion and reabsorption of old cuticle.

Corneal Formation of the Compound Eye in Pieris rapae L. (배추흰나비 복안의 각막 형성)

  • Kim, Chang-Shik;Kim, Woo-Kap;Kim, Chang-Whan
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 1994
  • The corneal formation of compound eye of Pieris rapae L., which was mostly made during pupal stage, was morphologically investigated with light microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The regeneration of the microvilli were found on the surface membranes of corneagen cells and retinular pigment cells of preommatidium after apolysis pupal cuticle. The microvilli were finally differentiated to corneal nipples of the ommatidium. The corneal cuticle was generated on the superficial layer of the preommatidium from corneagen cells and retinular pigment cells. The corneal process was also formed under the cuticular layer from the corneagen cells. The pore canal was appeared within the cuticular layer and connected with the retinular pigment cell as if the root of interommatidial hair was connected. The interommatidial hair was projected randomly among the ommatidial facets and cornal nipple was arrayed regular on the ommatidial facets. The cornea was convex lens and the refracting power by its convex shape was 4 diopter.

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Rhabdomere Formation in Late Pupal Stage of Drosophila melanogaster; Observation Using High-Pressure Freezing and Freeze-Substitution, and High-Voltage Electron Microscopy (초고압 동결장비와 초고압투과전자현미경을 이용한 초파리의 감간분체 형성과정의 구조분석)

  • Mun, Ji-Young;Arii, Tatsuo;Hama, Kiyoshi;Han, Sung-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2007
  • The late pupal stage of Drosophila melanogaster occurs immediately before the completion of retinal development, during which the rhabdomere rapidly forms. In this period, the photoreceptor cells were fixed and dehydrated using a high-pressure freezer (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) technique, which is the most effective in preserving the cell structures, and observed using high-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) at 1000 KV. The rhabdomere was classified structurally into three types of formation patterns using stereo-tiling image of thick sections. Initially, hexagonal arrays of rhabdomere existed in different angles. In addition, small pieces of rhabdomere could be observed in the cytoplasm of the photoreceptor rolls, which were visible during the profess of rhabdomere formation. In addition, multiple layers of rhabdomere strings were observed. We observed there are at least three types of vesicles related to rhabdomere formation in photoreceptor cells. In addition, it was found that these vesicles initiate the formation of the rhabdomeres during the pupal stage. Collectively, these data suggest that rhabdomeres were mainly formed through vesicles, and that parts of the rhabdomere formed first and then gathered and formed rhabdomeres in the late pupal stage.

Ecological characteristics of the Firefly, Luciole lateralis (애반딧불이(Luciola lateralis)의 생태학적 특성)

  • Oh, Hong-Sik;Kang, Young-Kook;Nam, Sang-Ho
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2009
  • The Luciola lateralis larva took 5.3 days from climbing on the land to the pupal cocoon formation. It took 6.6 days for a larva to eventually transform to a pupa after building a pupal cocoon. The size of pupal cocoon was 10.1 mm in length, 4.7 mm in width and its wall thickness was 1.3 mm. The mean pupal period was 10.5 days. The adult stayed 6.8 days in the pupal cocoon before escaping the cocoon. The peak adult emergence appeared around 9 p.m., and decreased after 10 p.m. The optimal soil temperature for emergence was $23.4^{\circ}C$. The female adult of the natural population (Nat-type) lived shorter, laid fewer eggs, and the oviposition frequency was fewer than that of the Lab-type individuals. However, a few individuals from the natural population laid 200-400 eggs. The less number of oviposition in the natural population may be due to the fact that the female adults might lay eggs before the collection for the experiment.

Implications of Temperature and Humidity on Pupation Patterns in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

  • Lakshminarayana, P.;Naik, S.Sankar;Reddy, N.Sivarami
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2002
  • The implications of temperature (25,30 and 35$^{\circ}C$) and relative humidity (60, 70 and 80%) on the pupation patterns were studied in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Larvae of two pure silkworm breeds, Pure Mysore (PM) and NB4D2 and their hybrid, PM ${\times}4 NB4D2 were reared under experimental conditions under natural day photoperiodic (LD 12: 12) condition. The three developmental marker events viz., larval ripening, pharate pupal formation and pupal formation occurred at or around the beginning of the photo-phase. The computed of mean vector (equation omitted), based on the circular statistics, also confirmed the above. However, the length of mean vector, r and the mean vector angular variance, s varied according to temperature and humidity conditions imposed; the variations being non-significant. Extreme temperature and humidity conditions, however, resulted in reduction in pupation rate (%) for PM and PM ${\times}4 NB4D2. On the other hand, in NB4D2 pupation percentage reduced below the economic level. The temperature and humidity together seems to exert synergic impact on the pupation rate at least in the silkworm Bombyx mori, L.

Metabolism of Leucine During the Early Pupal State of Cabbage Worm, Pieris rapae L. (배추흰나비 (Pieris rapae L.)의 초기 용시기에 따른 Leucine의 대사)

  • Jeon, Jin-Seon;Choe, Rim-Soon;Park, Choon-Keun;Kim, Hak-Ryul
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1979
  • To determine the metabolism of leucine during the cuticle formation and the sclerotization process in Pieris rapae L., $U-^3$H-leucine or $U-^4$C-tyrosine is injected into the haemolymph of newly molted pupa through dorsal cuticle of heart area. The results show that leucine as a common amino acid participates in the synthesis of cuticle protein over the first 3 hr after ecdysis. It is also shown that leucine in the haemolymph at ecdysis is freely being moved between major internal organs during the short time period post-ecdysis, providing the evidence for some involvements including haemolymph protein synthesis and storage of fat body and gut in metabolism of leucine.

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On the Occurrence and Distribution of Storage Proteins During the Metamorphosis of Bombyx mori L (누에의 變態에 따른 貯藏蛋白質의 出現과 分布에 관하여)

  • Eul Won Seo;Hak Ryul Kim
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1986
  • Electrophoretic, immunological, and column chromatography methods were used to determine the appearance and distribution of storage proteins in various organs during the metamorphosis of Bombyx mori L. Two storage proteins start to appear in haemolymph in early 5th instar stage and show the identical mobility with fat body proteins. These proteins show the high concentration in haemolymph in last instar stage but accumulate in fat body after pupation. Storage protein-2 shows the distinct pattern for general storage proteins in both male and females. This protein is involved with the formation of cuticle protein in late last instar stage and appears to be temperally deposited in midgut during the pupal stage. Also SP-2 shows the identity with vitellogenin electrophoretically and immunologically and especially the positive reaction with antibody against yolk protein during the pupal stage, demonstrating that the storage protein is closely related to the formation of yolk protein.

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Effects of 20-hydroxyecdysoneon Adult Development of Diapausing Fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury) Pupae (휴면중인 미국흰불나방 번데기의 성충발육에 미치는 20-hyderoxyecdysone의 영향)

  • Seung Lyeol Gha;Kyung Saeng Boo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 1995
  • Studies were carried out to elucidate the efficacy of exogeneous 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment on terminating pupal diapause in the fall webworm. Hyphantria cunea Drury. And the difference was also investigated between normal adult development and post-diapause development after 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment. In the diapause termination rate of pupae treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone after storage for various periods at 16L:8D and $25\pm$$1^{\circ}C$, at the highest rate was observed from the group stored for the longest period and the lowest rate from those stored for 1.5 months. The time needed for adult emergence was inversely proportional to the chilling (at $0\pm$$1^{\circ}C$) period, and the longer its exposure period at low temperature, the higher its sensitivity to 20-hydroxyecdysone treatment. Pupal diapause duration was almost the same, regardless of storage period in the total darkness or at the photoperiod of 16L:8D, and also they successfully emerged to adult even without any experience at low temperature. The oxygen consumption rate in normally developing pupae showed nearly a typical U-form. But, that of diapausing pupae treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone slowly increased and jumped 14 days after the treatment. Pupal diapause began before formation of adult tissues, an a timing of adult tissue formation coincided with ascending timing of the metabolic rate in both normally developing pupae and diapausing pupae treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone. The diapausing pupae treated with 20-hydroxyecdysone was similar to normally developing pupae in band patterns of proteins from haemolymph or fat body.

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Effects of several insect growth regulators on the development of housefly, Musca domestica L., larvae (IGR계 살충제가 집파리 유충의 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chung-Gyoo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 1998
  • Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of several insecticides with insect growth regulator (IGR) properties on the larval development of housefly, Musca domestica, which was collected at a large pigpen in Hamyang, Gyeongnam, Korea in 1997. Commercial formulations of the chemicals were diluted with tap water into a range of concentrations, and mixed with larval media. In addition to the IGRs, imidacloprid 5% WP was tested, too. The IGRs treated at the 2nd instar stage induced higher larval mortalities than percentages of malformed pupae. The result were, however, opposite when the IGRs were treated at the 3rd instar stage. Overall mortality resulting from larval death and malformed pupae was dependent on concentration. Diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron, flufenoxuron, tebufenozide, and imidacloprid, treated to the 2nd instar larvae, showed mortality over 95 % at concentrations of 5 ppm, 3 ppm, 30 ppm, 5 ppm, over 1000 ppm, 1000 ppm, respectively. Higher concentrations were needed to get the same level. of mortality in the 3rd instar larvae as that in the 2nd larvae. Overall mortality over 95% at the 3rd instar could be get at concentrations of 100 ppm, 10 ppm, 300 ppm, 10 ppm of diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron, flufenoxuron, respectively. Tebufenozide (1,000 ppm) and imidacloprid (300 ppm) were less effective than the other chemicals, showing only 36.7% and 86.7% mortalities, respectively. The chemicals also affected pupal weight at high concentrations. Decrease of pupal weight was distinct at high concentrations of teflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, tebufenozide, imidacloprid. Diflubenzuron and triflumuron were less effective. From these results it could be concluded that the IGR insecticides can be used as control agents by interfering with moulting and pupation process of housefly, by reducing pupal weight which could be resulted in low fertility and less oviposition.

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