• Title, Summary, Keyword: pyrazine

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Aroma Components of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) Te and Its Model System

  • Park, Sung-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.88-91
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    • 1999
  • Aroma components of tea processed from Korean chicory roots were isolated and identified. The model system of amino-carbonyl reaction was carried out to study the formation mechanism of aroma compounds of chicory tea during manufacturing process. The concentration extracts from chicory tea and model system were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography(GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine compounds, including pyrazines, furans, acids, alcohols, pyrroles and lactones were isolated and identified in chicory tea. The main compounds were pyrazines including methyl pyrazine, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2, 6-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methyl pyrazine, thrimethyl pyrazine, 3-ethyl-2-5-dimenthyl pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2-3-dimenthyl pyrazine, and 2-acetyl-3-methy pyrazine and pyrroles including acethl pyrrole and formlyl pyrrole ; and furans including furfural , acetyl furan, 5-methyl furan, 5-methyl furfuralm, and furfuryl alcohol. These pyrazine compounds of a roasted and nutty aroma may be important contributors to the flavor of chicory tea. The aroma concentrate of model system also had a roasted and nutty aroma and the main compounds were methyl pyrazine, 2, 5-dimetyl pyrazine, 2, 6-dimethyl pyrazine and trimethyl pyrazine.

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Volatile Compounds of Chonggugjang Prepared by Different Fermentation Methods and Soybean Cultivars (발효방법 및 대두품종을 달리한 청국장의 향기성분)

  • Yoo, Seon-Mi;Kim, Haeng-Ran;Kim, Jin-Sook;Chang, Chang-Moon;Choe, Jeong-Sook
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 1999
  • This study was attempted to develop technique of masking the pungent odor of chonggugjang using two-stage fermentation method with mixed pure cultures. Cooked soybeans were fermented with Lactobacilli or Aspergillus oryzae at $38^{\circ}C$ for 36 hrs, and then re-fermented with Bacillus subtilis for 12 hrs. The volatile compounds of chonggugjang were obtained with a SDE(Simultaneous steam Distillation and solvent Extraction) system and the extracts were identified by GC and GC-MS. The experimental results revealed the presence of 35 volatile compounds in control chonggugjang(only Bacillus subtilis inoculation). Among them, the major volatile compounds were 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl pyrazine. Twenty-nine kinds of volatile compounds were in chonggugjang prepared by two-stage fermentation method with Lactobacilli and Bacillus subtilis(II), and major volatile compounds were identified to be 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2,5-dimethyl Pyrazine. In chonggugjang(Asp. oryzae and then Bacillus subtilis inoculation(III)), the contents of hexadecanoic acid and 2-methyl pyrazine were patricularly high and the main components of chonggugjang fermented with rice straw(IV) were 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine etc. In conclusion, the flavor compounds such as 2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl pyrazine were increased by the inoculation of Lactobacilli or Asp. oryzae, where as unpleasant odor components-butyric acid and valeric acid were decreased. Compared with volatile compounds of chonggugjang made from different soybean cultivars, the flavor compounds (2-methyl pyrazine 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine 2-acetyl pyrazine 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine) of chonggugiang prepared with Sinpaldalkong were high.

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Comparison of Pyrazines Formed in Chicken By-Products Hydrolyzed by Enzymes (효소 처리된 닭고기 부산물에서 헝성된 pyrazines의 비교)

  • 손성희;조인희;김영석
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2004
  • To investigate the formation of pyrazines, by-products of chicken were hydrolyzed by protease/peptidase for 4, 8 and 24 hours, after which the hydrolysates were heated with glucose, fructose and xylose, respectively, at l80$^{\circ}C$ for l00min. The formation of pyrazines showed a significant difference by quality and quantity according to the degree of protein hydrolysis. Especially, the formation of 2-methyl pyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine was considerably affected by, the degree of protein hydrolysis. Also, 3-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2-butyl-3-methyl pyrazine, 2-butyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine, methyl pyrazine, and 3-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine were identified only in the hydrolysates for 24 hours.

Selective Etching of Silicon in TMAH:IPA:Pyrazine Solutions (TMAH:IPA:Pyrazine 용액에서 실리콘의 선택식각)

  • Chung, Gwiy-Sang;Lee, Chae-Bong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.112-116
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    • 2000
  • This paper presents anisotropic ethcing characteristics of single-crystal silicon in tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH):isopropyl alcohol(IPA) solutions containing pyrazine. With the addition of IPA to TMAH solutions, etching characteristics are exhibited that indicate an improvement in flatness on the etching front and a reduction in undercutting, but the etch rate on (100) silicon is decreased. The (100) silicon etch rate is improved by the addition of pyrazine. An etch rate on (100) silicon of $0.8\;{\mu}m/min$, which is faster by 13 % than a 20 wt.% solution of pure TMAH, is obtained using 20 wt.% TMAH:0.5 g/100 ml pyrazine solutions, but the etch rate on (100) silicon is decreased if more pyrazine is added. With the addition of pyrazine to a 25 wt.% TMAH solution, variations in flatness on the etching front were not observed and the undercutting ratio was reduced by 30 ~ 50 %.

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TMAH/IPA Anisotropic Etching Characteristics with Addition of Pyrazine (Pyrazine이 첨가된 TMAH/IPA 이방성 식각특성)

  • 박진성;정귀상
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 1997
  • This work presents the TMAH/IPA anisotropic etching characteristics with addition of Pyrazine. (100) Si etching rate of 0.747 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/min at 8$0^{\circ}C$ was obtained using TMAH 25 wt.% / IPA 17 vol.% / pyrazine 0.1 g. The etching rate of (100) Si is increased about 52% compare to pure TMAH 25 wt.%. But etching rate of (100) Si is decreased with increasing Pyrazine additive. Activation energy of TMAH/IPA/pyrazine is much lower than TMAH and TMAH/IPA solutions. Addition of Pyrazine does not effect on surface flatness and decreases undercutting ratio about 20 %. Therefore, TMAH/IPA/pyrazine is an attractive anisotropic etchant because of alkaline-ion free.

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The Effect of Pyrazine on TMAH:IPA Single-crystal Silicon Anisotropic Etching Properties

  • Gwiy-Sang Chung;Tae-Song Kim
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents the effect of pyrazine on tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH):isopropyl alcohol (IPA) single-crystal silicon anisotropic etching properties. With the addition of IPA to TMAH solutions, etching characteristics are exhibited an improvement in flatness on the etching front and a reduction in undercutting, but the etch rate on (100) silicon is decreased. The (100) silicon etch rate is improved by the addition of pyrazine. An etch rate on (100) silicon of 0.8 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/min, which is faster by 13% than a 20 wt.% solution of pure TMAH, is obtained using 20 wt.% TMAH: 0.5 g/100 ml pyrazine solutions, but the etch rate on (100) silicon is decreased when more pyrazine is added. With the addition of pyrazine to a 25 wt.% TMAH solution, variations in flatness on the etching front are not observed and the undercutting ratio is reduced by 30~50%. These results indicate that anisotropic etching technology using TMAH:IPA:pyrazine solutions provides a powerful and versatile method for realizing of microelectromechanical systems.

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Aroma Characteristic of Chungkukjang with Astragalus membranaceus (황기청국장의 향기특성)

  • Yoon Hyang-Sik;Choi Hye-Sun;Joo Seon-Jong;Kim Ki-Sik;Kim Sook-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.269-272
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    • 2006
  • Aroma compounds in chungkukjang with Astragalus membranaceus (Hwangki) were extracted by the simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), headspace and solid phase microextraction (SPME), and aroma compounds obtained by this method were identified with GC-MS. Thirty compounds were identified, including six ketones, eight alcohols, three heterocyclic compounds, three aldehydes, five hydrocarbones and five other compounds. Major aroma compounds were identified as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2-furanmethanol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, and 4-vinylphenol in SDE, 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, ethanol, 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine and acetic acid in headspace and acetone, ethanol, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, tetramethyl pyrazine and acetic acid in SPME. The content of pyrazines identified in headspace and SPME methods was higher than that of SDE method, and the content of pyrazines containing 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine and tetramethyl pyrazine in chungkukjang was higher than that of Hwangki chungkukjang.

Micromachining of Si substrate Using Electrochemical Etch-Stop in Aqueous TMAH/IPA/pyrazine Solution (TMAH/IPA/Pyrazine 수용액에서 전기화학적 식각정지법을 이용한 Si 기판의 미세가공)

  • 박진성;정귀상
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.397-400
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    • 1997
  • This paper presentes the characteristics of Si anisotropic etching and electrochemical etch-stop in aqueous TMAH/IPA/pyrazine solution. (100) Si etching rate of 0.747 $\mu\textrm{m}$/min which faster 86% than TMAH 25 wt.%/IPA 17 vol.% solution was obtained using best etching condition at TMAH 25 wt.%/IPA 17 vol.%/pyrazine 0.1 g and the etching rate of (100) Si was decreased with more additive quantity of pyrazine. I-V curve of p-type Si in TMAH/IPA/pyrazine was obtained. OCP(Open Circuit Potential) and PP(Passivation Potential) were -2 V and -0.9 V, respectively. Si diaphragms were obtained by electrochemical etch-stop in aqueous TMAH/IPA/pyrazine solution.

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Protective Effects of 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine on Retinoyl Palmitate- and Pyridine-Potentiated Carbon tetrachloride- induced Hepatotoxicity: Effect on ${\Phi}x$-174 DNA Strand Breakage (비타민 A 및 피리딘으로 유발된 사염화탄소 유발성 간독성에 대한 2-(알릴티오)피라진의 보호효과: ${\Phi}$x-174 DNA 손상에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Sang-Geon;Cho, Joo-Youn;Choi, Sung-Hee;Kim, Nak-Doo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.727-733
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    • 1996
  • 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine is effective in selectively suppressing constitutive and inducible expression of cytochrome P450 2E1. The effect of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine against potentiat ed chemical injury was studied in rats. Vitamin-A pretreatment of rats substantially increased carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity, as supported by an ~4-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Concomitant pretreatment of rats with 2-(allylthio)pyrazine at the daily dose of 200mg/kg resulted in a 76% decrease in vitamin-A-potentiated hepatotoxicity, which supported the possibility that 2-(allylthio)pyrazine protects the liver against chemical-induced hepatic injury by the mechanism associated with Kupffer cell inactivation. Pyridine pretreatment caused substantial enhancement in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine treatment of rats reduced the pyridine-potentiated toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Animals treated with both pyridine and 2-(allylthio)pyrazine prior to intoxicating dose of CCl$_4$ resulted in 85% and 47% decreases in pyridine-increased triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the liver. The protective effect of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine on the DNA strand breakage induced by benzenetriol was assessed by measuring the conversion of supercoiled ${\Phi}x$-174 DNA to the open relaxed form. 2-(Allylthio)pyrazine blocked the benzenetriol-induced conversion of supercoiled DNA to open circular form in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine at the doses from I to 10mM in the incubation mixture containing 5 ${\mu}$M benzenetriol completely protected benzenetriol-induced DNA strand breakage with the EC50 for the 2-(allylthio)pyrazine blocking being noted as ~220 ${\mu}$M, whereas allyl disulfide exerted protecting effect at relatively high concentrations (i.e. ~850 ${\mu}$M), suggesting that 2-(allylthio)pyrazine effectively scavenges the reactive oxygen species. These results provide evidence that 2-(allylthio)pyrazine blocks vitamin A- or pyridine-potentiated CCl$_4$ hepatotoxicity and that the agent is active in protecting DNA by scavenging the reactive oxygen species.

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