• Title, Summary, Keyword: qualitative research

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Korean Start-up Ecosystem based on Comparison of Global Countries: Quantitative and Qualitative Research (글로벌 국가 비교를 통한 한국 기술기반 스타트업 생태계 진단: 정량 및 정성 연구)

  • Kong, Hyewon
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.101-116
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    • 2019
  • Technology-based start-up is important in that it encourages innovation, facilitates the development of new products and services, and contributes to job creation. Technology-based start-up activates entrepreneurship when appropriate support is provided within the ecosystem. Thus, understanding the technology-based start-up ecosystem is crucial. The purpose of this study is as follows. First, in Herrmann et al.'s(2015) study, we compare and analyze the ecosystem of each country by selecting representative regions such as Silicon Valley, Tel Aviv, London and Singapore which have the highest ranking in the start-up ecosystem. Second, we try to deeply understand the start-up ecosystem based on in-depth interviews with various stakeholders such as VC investors, start-ups, support organizations, and professors related to the Korean start-up ecosystem. Finally, based on the results of the study, we suggest development and activation of Korean technology-based start-up ecosystem. As a result, the Seoul start-up ecosystem showed a positive evaluation of government support compared to other advanced countries. In addition, it was confirmed that the ratio of tele-work and start-up company working experience of employees was higher than other countries. On the other hand, in Seoul, It was confirmed that overseas market performance, human resource diversity, attracting investment, hiring technological engineers, and the ratio of female entrepreneurs were lower than those of overseas advanced countries. In addition, according to the results of the interview analysis, Seoul was able to find that start-up ecosystems such as individual angel investors, accelerators, support institution, and media are developing thanks to the government's market-oriented policy support. However, in order for this development to continue, it is necessary to improve the continuous investment system, expansion of diversity, investment return system, and accessibility to the global market. A discussion on this issue is presented.

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A survey of the Necessity and Perceptions of Character Education of Health Science and Non-health Science University Students (일개 보건계열 및 비보건계열 학생들의 인성교육에 대한 필요성 및 인식도 조사)

  • Choi, Yong-Keum;Oh, Tae-Jin;Lee, Hyun;Lim, Kun-Ok;Hong, Ji-Heon;Kim, Eun-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.344-351
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain the basic data for developing more advanced courses on character education by surveying and analyzing the perception and demands of character education of university students and further, to provide useful information for creating institutional protocol on character education. The study was conducted from April 2018 to May 2018 on students attending the departments of non-health science and health science university students. A total of 206 students participated in this study, and all the students in the non-health science and health science departments were found to be highly aware of the need for character education, its importance and the possibility of personality development through learning. Students from all the departments showed high levels on average in terms of self-understanding according to their personality abilities, and especially their high levels of 'consideration' and 'responsibility'. For the differences in perception of self-efficacy, the lowest level of recognition was for 'will' and the average values were not high. In their response to personality level, all students answered that their personality was 'high' (42.1%), and that the personality education courses at the schools they are currently attending were 'not satisfied' with both the non-health science and health science students. As a result, there were higher results overall for the health science students than that for the non-health science students, but there were not many significant differences. To this end, education institutes will have to prepare conditions for university students to cultivate their expertise in character, while at the same time helping them grow into human beings with the qualities demanded by society. In addition, the government should establish curriculums and content by accurately identifying the needs of character education and devising concrete measures for their implementation, and by more faithfully considering quantitative and qualitative context types for the content base of character education.

An Analytical Study on the Growth Factors of Bamboo Culm by the Multivariate Analysis (다변량분석(多變量分析)에 의(依)한 죽간(竹稈)의 성장해석(成長解析)에 관(關)하여)

  • Lee, Kwang Nam;Cha, Gyung Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.76 no.4
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    • pp.338-347
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    • 1987
  • The research was carried out to investigate the related phenomena, the latent structures and synthetical characteristics in various growth factors of Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. growing at Damyang gun, Chollanamdo, using multivariate analysis. 1. By synthetical characteristics in canonical correlation between height-growth factor group and diameter-growth factor group, the former was determined by the culm height ($x_1$), and the latter by the. diameter of the largest internode($x_7$). And for those between quantitative growth factor group and qualitative growth factor group, the former was determined by the surface area($x_{10}$), and the latter by the diameter of the largest internode ($x_7$). 2. The ten growth factors of bamboo culm were simplified by two principal components on the basis of accumulated proportion aimed at 90%. The first principal component($Z_1$) as a "size factor" showed high correlation with growth factors except eye-height diameter($x_5$). The second principal component($Z_2$) as a "shape factor" showed high correlation only with $x_5$. 3. The bamboo culm, and the latent phenomenon between their growth factors could be determined by two common factors showing high communality(94.16%). The ten growth factors can be grouped into two attribute factors: quantity and quality. 4. The bamboo culms can be classified into five types: total, volume, shape-quality, inferior and middle.

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A Study on a Korean-Translated Version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ) (Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire의 국내적용을 위한 번역연구)

  • Ra, Dae-Yeop;Chang, Ki-Yeon;Kong, Myung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Wook
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.34-49
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    • 2018
  • Objective : This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Korean version of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K) using classical test theory. Methods : For the translation of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ), as recommended in the literature, four-stage translation method was used. For the psychometric properties of Korean version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K), internal consistency reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the test using the known groups method and convergent and divergent methods were examined. For the recruitment of participants, a convenience sampling method is used. Participants of this study were 10 children with neuro-developmental disabilities hospitalized two different rehabilitations center and 10 children with typical development living in Daejeon, South Korea. All 20 participants were in aged from two to five years. Results : In terms of the content validity index, it was over 0.78, confirmed by nine experts of children development. PVQ-K successfully discriminated the scores of children with typical development from those with neurodevelopmental disabilities (p < .05). It is found that there is significant correlations between achievement stage of PVQ-K and the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants & Children (K-DTS)(.652 ~ .799 for subcategory, .706 for total scale). The internal consistency was .944 (Cronbach's ${\alpha}$). In qualitative content analysis, it was examined that how Korean children behave and respond in the environment, and how children's volition was strengthened or weakened by the environment. Conclusion : The results propose that PVQ-K can be a useful occupation-focused measure. This study recommend further study on PVQ-K with larger samples combined with the item-response theory approach.

The Effect of Objective and Subjective Social Isolation and Interpersonal Conflict Type on the Probability of Cognitive Impairment by Age Group in Old Age (노년기 연령집단별 객관적·주관적 사회적 고립과 대인관계갈등 유형이 인지기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang Chul
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.811-835
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    • 2018
  • Social relations and cognitive function in old age are closely related to each other, and social relation is classified into structural characteristics and qualitative characteristics reflecting cognitive and emotional evaluation. The concept of social isolation is the focus of attention in relation to the social relations of old age. Social isolation has a multidimensional theoretical structure that is divided into objective dimension such as social network, type of furniture, social participation, and subjective dimension such as lack of perceived social support and loneliness. There is also a close relationship between cognitive function and interpersonal conflict in old age. In this study, we examined the effect of subjective social isolation, which shows the structural characteristics of social relations, and subjective social isolation and interpersonal conflict on the dementia occurrence by age group in the elderly. The data were analyzed by applying a random effect panel logit model using 1,740 panel data from the first year to the third year of KSHAP. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. First, the cognitive impairment increased sharply with age. Objective and subjective social isolation were both U-shaped distribution with an inflection point of 80 years old. Second, the main effect on the probability of cognitive impairment was statistically significant with objective and subjective social isolation, but the type of interpersonal conflict did not appear to be significant. Third, the results of two-way interaction effect analysis on the probability of cognitive impairment are as follows. The relationship between subjective social isolation and the probability of occurrence of cognitive impairment was significantly different according to the level of conflict with spouse. In addition, the higher the subjective social isolation, the higher the probability of cognitive impairment in the elderly(over 85) than in the young-old(65~74). In addition, as the level of conflict with spouses increases, the probability of cognitive impairment of the oldest-old(aged 85 or older) is drastically lower than that of the young-old(aged 65~74). Based on the results of this study, policy and practical implications for reducing the cognitive impairment of the elderly age group were suggested, and limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were discussed.

The Experience of the Family Whose Child Has Died of Cancer (암으로 자녀를 잃은 가족의 경험에 대한 질적연구)

  • 이정섭;김수지
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.413-431
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to build a substantive theory about the experience of the family whose child has died of cancer The qualitative re-search method used was grounded theory. The interviewees were 17 mothers who had cared for a child who had died of cancer Traditionally in Korea, mothers are the care givers in the family and are considered sensitive to the family's thoughts, feelings. The data were collected through in-depth interviews by the investigator over a period of nine months. The data were analyzed simultaniously by a constant comparative method in which new data are continuously coded into categories and properties according to Strauss and Corbin's methodology. The 16 concepts which were found as a result of analyzing the grounded data were, -left over time, the empty place, meaninglessness, inner sadness, situational sadness, heartache, physical pain, guilt, resentment, regret, support / stigmatization, finding meaning in the death, changing attitudes about life and living, changing attitudes about health, changing religious practice and changing family relations. Five categories emerged from the analysis. They were emptiness, consisting of left over time, the empty place and meaninglessness ; sadness, consisting of inner sadness and situational sadness ; pain, consisting of heartache and physical pain ; bitterness, consisting of guilt, resentment, regret, sup-port / stigmatization and finding meaning in the death : and transition, consisiting of changing attitudes about life and living, changing attitudes about health, changing religious practice and changing family relations. These categories were synthesized into the core concept, -the process of filling the empty space. The core phenomenon was emptiness. Emptiness varied with the passing of time, was perceived differently according to support / stigmatization and finding meaning in the death, was followed by sad-ness, pain, and bitterness, and finally resulted in changes in attitudes about life and living and about health, and in changes in religious practice and family relations. The process of filling the empty space proceeded by ① accepting realty, ② searching for the reason for the child's death, ③ controlling the bitter feelings, ④ reconstructing the relationships ameng death, illness and health and ⑤ filling the emptiness by resolving causes of child's death, adopting, having another child or with work. Six hypotheses were derived from the analysis. ① The longer the bereavement, the mere the empty space becomes filled. ② The longer the hospitalization, the more sup-port the family needs. ③ The more the sadness, pain and bitterness are expressed, the mere positive changes emerge. ④ Family support faciliates the process of filling the empty space. ⑤ Higher family cohesiveness faciliates the process of filling the empty space. ⑥ The greater the variety of reasons attributed to the child's death, the greater the variety of patterns of change. Four propositions related to emptiness and bitter-ness were developed. ① When the sense of emptiness is great and bitterness is manifested by severe feelings of guilt and resentment, the longer the process of fill-ing the empty space. ② When the sense of emptiness is great and the family is highly motivated to get rid of the bitterness, the shorter the process of filling the empty space. ③ When the sense of emptiness is less and bitter-ness is manifested by severe feelings of guilt and resentment, the process of filling the empty space is delayed. ④ When the sense of emptiness is less and the family is highly motivated to get rid of the bitterness, the process of filling the empty space goes on to completion. Through this substantive theory, nurses under-stand the importance of emptiness and bitterness in helping the family that has lost a child through cancer fill the empty space. Further research to build substantive theories to explain other losses may con-tribute to a formal theory of how family health is restored after human tragedies are experienced.

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A Study on Nursing Service of Chronic Diseases by the First Step and Third Step Medical Treatment (1차 및 3차 진료기관 이용 만성질환자의 간호서비스에 관한 연구)

  • Cho Chong Sook
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.103-118
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    • 1996
  • It is to be growing up the interest of community health affairs through visiting nursing care. The health medical treatment of Korea has been changed largely on the period. The juvenile population has decreased. This means that is has took the population consensus of advanced national organization to be increased by the old age. The transition of disease has changed from the contagious disease importance to the chronicity disease omportance because the domestic district population has experienced the sudden urbanization circumstance district population has experienced the sudden urbanization circumstance to be growing up $70\%$ of the whole population. When the nursing service has common function to be delivering from all direction to home, this study is getting the great important phase velocity in order to manage the kernel questional adult chronicity disease of health medical institution at the present age. (1) community over system or with people particularity (2) the first of third step medical treatments. The variety of medical treatments organization has quantity of the delivery manpower and specially between consumers and rdlated person. A qualitative difference is showed at the purpose to be seizing. That research related person is use at district health center in Seoul, by foundation on nurse registration book of H collage hospital and public health registration book. According the chronicity disease. age. and sex. nature agree-able standard 54 people took the content analysis on nurse registration book of total 108 people. The results of the study were as follows: 1. General background factors are houses or kind of medical facilities and number of patients in family. The first medical treatment is more patients than third medical treatment organization. The first medical treatment of economic environment os appering to be worse. 2. The chronicity disease frequency have been different speciality according to medical treatment organization. On case of the first medical treatment. Diabetes and High Blood Pressure were good but Cerebrum Vascular Accident(CVA) showed many for bed case. In addition. the number of family is comparative large exception of CVA on according for moving condition and health more than the first medical treatment. However. family condition. whole family percentage is decreasing preferably through the potential resource is increasing by the number of and the construction of family. The ability of real resource is considered to be low. 3. The average percentage of nurse service has appered to be differed two groups by the first step medical treatment(33.72 times) and third step medical treatment(45.70 times). However, the difference (the first step medical treatment and third step medical treatment) is to be limited to issue the medicine at the service. The condition of nurse care was the indirect nursing care. Supportiong area was to be related to volunteer service and administration support. 4. The various nursing care average percentage of the chronicity disease was increased by orders of Diabetes. High Blood Pressure. and CVA in examination result and the medical treatment. The indirect nursing care was also same. At third step medical treatment, orders of chronicity disease were same. The case of other area on service conditions were increased by order of Diabetes. High Blood Pressure, and CVA. However. it is never appearing the difference at bottleneck affairs nursing care. 5. When the visiting nursing care demand particularly. the average percentage of nursing care from the first step medical treatment that the time under a person is many more than the time over two people. However, there was no difference in statistic. Third step medical treatment is $49.81\%$ at the time under a person. The average nursing care service is appeared by more many when the visiting nursing care demand is a few by 12.83 at the time over two people. 6. By visiting nursing care percentage to be frequency that nursing care averaghe percentage and inter-relation are large. The related factor of the first medical treatment is 0.96. However, the related factor of third medical treatment has shown the decreased 0.49 for the condition of relation more than that. Therefore. the nursing care average percentage is related to the visiting times of a nurse. This result is be showing the obvious fact that the first step medical treatment is few more than third step medical treatment.

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Chronic pain control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (만성통증 환자의 통증 조절)

  • Eun, Young
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-40
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    • 1995
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is the one of the chronic diseases, one of its major symptoms is a chronic pain. Despite developing medical treatment and surgical techniques, it is suggested that to control the pain is the goal of the treatment. But pain is an inner experience and even those closest to the patient cannot truly observe its progress or share in its suffering. The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine's report on Pain and Disability concluded that there is no objective measure of pain-(exactly) no pain thermometer-nor can there ever be one, because the experience of pain is inseparable from personal perception and social influence such as culture. To explore chronic pain experience is to understand the process and property of the patient's perception of pain through the response to pain, the coping with pain, and the adaptation to pain. Therefore a qualitative study was conducted in order to gain an understanding of pain experience of patients with RA in korea. I used naturalistic inquiry as a research methodology, which had 5 axioms, the first is that realities are multiple, constructed, and holistic, the second is that knower and known are interactive, inseparable, the third is only time and context bound working hypotheses(idiographic statements) are possible, the forth is all entities are in a state of mutual simultaneous shaping, so that it is impossible to distinguish causes from effects and the last is that inquiry is value-bound. Purposive sampling was conducted as a sampling. 20 subjects who experienced pain over 10 years, lived in middle-sized city and big city in Korea, and 17 women and 3 men. The subject's age was from 32 to 62 (average 48.8), all were married, living with their spouse and children, except two-one divorced and the other widow before they became ill. I collected data using In depth structured interview. I had interviews two or three times with each subject, and the interviews were conducted at each subject's home. Each interview lasted about two hours an average. A recording was taken with the consent of the subject. I used inductive data analysis-such as unitizing and categorizing. unitizing is a process of coding, whereby raw data are systematically transformed and aggregated into units. Categorizing is a process wherby previously unitized data are organized into categories that provide descriptive or inferential information about the context or setting from which the units were derived. This process is used constant comparative method. The pain controlling process is composed of behavior of pain control. The behaviors of pain control are rearranging of ADL, hiddening role conflict, balancing treatment, and changing social relation. Rearranging of ADL includes diet management, sleep management, and the adjustment of daily life activities. The subjects try to rearrange their daily activities by modified style of motions, rearranging time span & range of activities, using auxillary facilities, and getting help in order to keep on the pace of daily life. Hiddening role conflict means to reduce conflicts between sick role and their role as a family member. In this process, the subjects use two modes, one is to control the pain complaints, and the other is to internalize the value which is to stay home is good for caring her children and being a good mother. To control pain complaints is done by 'enduring', 'understanding' the other family members, or making them undersood in order to reduce pain. Balancing treatment is composed of two aspects. One is to keep the pain within the endurable level, the other is to keep in touch with medical personnel in order to get the information of treatment and emotional support. Changing social relation is made by information seeking and sharing, formation of mutual support relation, and finally simplification of social relationships. The subjects simplify their social relationships by refraining from relations with someone who makes them physically and psychologically strained. In particular the subjects are apt to avoid contact with in-laws, and the change of relation to in-laws results in lessening the family boundary. In the course of this process, they confront the crisis of family confict result in family dissolution. This crisis is related to the threat of self-existence. Findings from this study contribute to understanding the chronic pain experience. To advance this study, we should compare this result with other cases in different cultural contexts. I think to interpret these results, korean cultural background should be considered. Especially the different family concept, more broader family members and kinship network, and the traditional medical knowledge influences patients' behavior.

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Identification and Measurement of Hospital-Related Fears in Hospitalized School-Aged Children (학령기 입원아동의 병원관련 공포에 관한 탐색연구)

  • 문영임
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-79
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    • 1995
  • When children are admitted to hospital, they have to adapt to new and unfamiliar stimuli. Children may respond with fear to stimuli such as pain or unfamiliar experiences. One goal of nursing is to help hospitalized children to adapt effectively to their hospital experience. Accordingly, nurses need to assess childrens' fears of their hospital experience to contribute to the planning of care to alleviate these fears. The problem addressed by this study was to identify and measure hospital-related fears(hereafter called HRF) in hospitalized school-aged children. The study was conceptualized with Roy's model. A descriptive qualitative approach was used first, followed by a quantitative approach. This study was conducted from November 30, 1989 to January 12, 1991. The sample consisted of 395 hospitalized school-aged children selected through an allocated sampling technique in nine general hospitals. The HRF questionnaire (three point likert scale ) was developed by a delphi technique. The data were analyzed by an SAS program. Factor analysis was used for the examination of component factors. Differences in the HRF related to demographic variables were examined by t-test, analysis of variance and the Scheffe test. The crude scores of the HRF scale were transformed into T- scores to calculate the standard scores. The results included the following : 1. Forty-four items were derived from 188 statements identifying the childrens' hospital-re-lated fears. These items clustered into 14 factors, fear of injections, operations, bodily harm others' pain, medical rounds, physical examinations, medical staff, disease process, blood and X-rays, drugs and cockroaches, tests, harsh discipline from parents or staff, being absent from school, and separation from family. The 14 factors was classified into four categories,'pain','the unfamiliar','the un-known' and 'separation'. 2. The reliability of the HRF instruments was .92(Cronbach's alpha). In the factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the 14 factors ranged from .84 to .86 and Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the four categories ranged from .70 to .84. Pearson correlation coefficient scores for relationships among the 14 factors ranged from ,11 to .50, and among the four categories, from ,44 to ,63, indicating their relative independence. 3. The total group HRF score ranged from 45 to 130 in a possible range of H to 132, with a mean of 74.51. The fears identified by the children were, in order, injections, harsh discipline by parents or staff, bodily harm, operations, medical staff, disease process, and medical rounds ; the least feared was others' pain. The fear item with the highest mean score was surgery and the lowest was examination by a doctor. HRF scores were higher for girls than for boys, and for grade 1 students than for grade 6 students. HRF scores were lower for children whose fathers were over 40 than for those whose fathers were in the 30 to 39 age group, and whose mothers were over 35 than for those whose mothers were in the 20 to 34 age group. HRF scores were lower when the mother rather than any other person stayed with the child. The expressed fear of pain, the unfamiliar, the un-known and of separation directs nurses' concern to the threat felt by hospitalized children to their concept of self. This study contributes to the assessment of fears of hospitalized children and of stimuli impinging on those fears. Accordingly, nursing practice will be directed to the alleviation of pain, pre-admission orientation to the hospital setting and routines, initiation of information about procedures and experiences and arrangments for mothers to stay with their children. Recommendations were made for further research in different settings and for development and testing of the instrument.

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Ethnosientific Approach of Health Practice in Korea (한국인의 건강관행에 대한 민속과학적 접근)

  • 김귀분;최연희
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.396-417
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    • 1991
  • In order that nursing care an essential quality of nursing practice be acceptable and satisfying, it is necessary that client's culture be respected and that nursing practice be appropriate to that culture. Since cultural elements are an important influence on health practices and life patterns related to medical treatment, recovery from and prevention of disease, nurses need to have an understanding and knowledge of social and cultural phenomena to aid in the planning of nursing interventions. To understand the health practices surrounding health and illness, the health beliefs and practices of both folk and professional healing systems should be ascertained. Cultural data are required to provide care of high quality to clients and to reduce possible conflict between the client and the nurse. It is nursing's goal to provide clients from various cultures with quality nursing care which is satisfying and valuable. The problem addressed by this study was to identify Korean health practices which would contribute to the planning of professional caring practice with the culture : ultimately this study was intended to make a contribution to the development of the science of nursing. The concrete objectives of this study were ; 1) to identify Korean health practices, 2) to interpret the identitial health practices through traditional cultural thought, and 3) to compare the Korean health practices with those of other cultures. The investigator used the ethnosceintific approach outlined by spradly in a qualitative study. To discover ancestral wisdom and knowledge related to traditional health practeces, the subjects of this study were selected from residents of a small rural mountain village in south west Korea, a place considered to be maintaining and transmitting the traditional culture in a relatively well -preserved state because of being isolated from the modern world. The number of subjects was 18, aged 71 to 89. Research data were collected from January 8 to March 31, 1990. Five categories of health practices were identified : “Manage one's own mind”, “Moderation in all thing”, “Live in accord with nature”, “Live in mutuality with others”, and “Live to the best of one's ability”. Values derived from these ways of thinking from Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism help fashion a traditional way of life, examplified by the saying “Benifience to all”. Korean thought and philosophy is influenced primerily by Confucianism, Confucian principles of ethics, embedded deeply in the peoples' minds, form the idea that “heaven and human being are intimately united” based on concept that “heaven is, so to speak, reason”. Twoe Gae's theory of existential subjectivity develops the concept of self which is the basis of the spirit of reverence in modern Confucian philosophy. The human md is granted from heaven out of the idea of matter, and what control the mind is the spirit of reverence. Hence the idea of “The primacy of the mind" and provided that one should control one's own mind. The precepts of duty to parents, respect for elders and worship of ancestors, and moderation in all behavior put a restraint on life which directed that one live earnestly according to Nature's laws with their neighbors. Not only Confucianism, but also Buddism and Taoism have had an important effect upon these patterns of ideas. When compared with western culture, Korean health practices tend to be more inclusive, abstract and intuitive while westerner health practices found to be mere concrete, practical and personal. Values and beliefs based and pragmatism and existentialism infuence western civilization, Ethical values may be founded on utilitarianism, which considers what is good for the persons in their circumstances as the basis of conduct and takes a serious view of their practical lives including human aspirations rather than an absolute truth. These philosophical and ethical ideas are foundations for health practices related to active, practical and progressive attitudes. This study should be enable nursing not only to understand clients as reflections of the traditional culture when planning nursing practice, but to dovelop health education corresponding to cultural requiments for the purpose of protection against disease and improvement of health, and thus promote sound health practice. Eventually it is hoped that through these processes quality nursing care as the central idea of the science of nursing will be achieved.

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