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Characteristics of Panicle Traits for 178 Rice Varieties Bred in Korea (국내에서 육성된 벼 품종들의 이삭형질 특성)

  • Park, Hyun-Su;Kim, Ki-Young;Mo, Young-Jun;Choung, Jin-Il;Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Bo-Kyung;Shin, Mun-Sik;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Kim, Sun-Hyung;Lee, Bu-Young
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate characteristics of panicle traits which are important factors affecting yield and grain quality of rice. Twelve panicle traits in 178 Korean rice varieties composed of 160 Japonica type varieties and 18 Tongil type varieties were investigated. Tongil type varieties had longer panicle and thicker neck node than Japonica type varieties. Other traits such as number of total spikelets, total rachis-branches, secondary rachis-branches (SRBs) per panicle, total spikelets on SRBs per panicle, mean number of spikelets on a SRB, and mean number of SRBs per primary rachis branch (PRB) in Tongil type varieties were also higher than in Japonica type varieties. On the other hand, Japonica type varieties were shown to have well exserted panicle and little more mean number of spikelets on a PRB than Tongil type varieties. According to cluster analysis based on 12 panicle traits, 178 varieties were divided into four main groups. Group I had 133 Japonica type varieties and was characterized by relatively well exserted short panicle, small thickness of neck node, few rachis-branches and little sink size than other group. Group II was composed of 24 Japonica type varieties and 6 Tongil type varieties showing medium value and range between Group I and III. Group III included 11 Tongil type varieties and 1 Japonica type variety 'Baegjinju1' characterized by relatively poor exserted long panicle, big thickness of neck node, many rachis-branches and large sink size. Group IV was solely composed of 'Nongan', which had well exserted long panicle, big thickness of neck node, many rachis-branches and large-sink size. In correlation analysis, number of total spikelets per panicle showed very high correlation with the number of total rachis-branches per panicle (r=0.975), number of spikelets on SRBs per panicle (0.962), number of SRBs per panicle (0.959), mean number of SRBs per PRB (0.746) and mean number of spikelets on SRBs (0.738).

A High Essential Amino Acid Properties Rice Cultivar 'Haiami' (필수아미노산 고함유 신품종 '하이아미')

  • Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Yang, Chang-Ihn;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Lee, Jeom-Ho;Lee, Sang-Bok;Choi, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Hong-Yeol;Lee, Kyu-Seong;Yang, Sae-Jun;Kim, Myeong-Ki;Jeong, O-Young;Cho, Young-Chan;Jeon, Yong-Hee;Choi, Im-Soo;Jeong, Eung-Gi;Oh, Sea-Kwan;O, Myeong-Gyu;Yea, Jong-Du;Shin, Young-Seoup;Kim, Jeong-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2011
  • Haiami is a new Japonica rice variety developed from a cross between 'Jinmibyeo' TR treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) EMS and 5-methytryptophan, and 'Gyehwabyeo' in order to develop a new premium quality rice variety by a rice breeding team of National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration in 2008. This variety has about 138 days of growth duration from transplanting to harvesting in central plain area of Korea. The heading date of this vareity was on $15^{th}$, August. The 'Haiami' has good semi-elect plant type and resistant to lodging with strong culm. The number of panicles/hill of 'Haiami' is more than that of 'Hwaseongbyeo'. This variety shows slow leaf senescence and considerable tolerance to viviparous germination. It is susceptible to leaf blast, bacterial blight, and insect pests, but resistance to rice stripe virus. The milled rice of this variety exhibited translucent, clear non-glutinous endosperm and short grain shape. The essential amino acid properties of 'Haiami' have more than 31% that of 'Hwaseongbyeo' in polished rice. This variety has premium palatability of cooked rice. The yield performance of this rice cultivar was about 5.38 MT/ha in milled rice in local adaptability test for three years from 2006 to 2008. 'Haiami' is adaptable to central and southern plain areas of Korea.

A New Black Seed Coat Soybean Cultivar, 'Daeheug' with Lodging Tolerance, and Large Seed Size (검정콩 대립 내도복 신품종 '대흑')

  • Han, Won-Young;Baek, In-Youl;Ko, Jong-Min;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Oh, Ki-Won;Shin, Sang-Ouk;Park, Keum-Yong;Ha, Tae-Jung;Shin, Doo-Chull;Chung, Myung-Gun;Kang, Sung-Taek;Yun, Hong-Tae;Oh, Young-Jin;Kim, Je-Kyu;Kim, Ho-Yeong;Choi, Jae-Keun;Lee, Seong-Su;Son, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.267-271
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    • 2010
  • A new black seed coat soybean cultivar, 'Daeheug', was developed at the National Institute of Crop Science (NICS) in 2007. The breeding goal for black seed coat soybean is to develop the cultivar with large seed size, high yield, lodging tolerance, and resistance to disease such as soybean mosaic virus (SMV), and bacterial pustule. 'Daeheug' was selected from the cross between 'Daehwang' which had yellow seed coat, large seed size, and late maturity, and 'Milyang 79' which was lodging tolerant, and SMV resistant with medium seed size, black seed coat, and yellow cotyledon. The preliminary, advanced and regional yield trials for evaluation and selection of this cultivar were carried out from 2003 to 2007. It has determinate growth habit, purple flower, brown pubescence, brown pod color, black seed coat, yellow cotyledon, spherical flattened seed shape, oval leaf shape and large seed size (34.3 g/100 seeds). In maturity, 'Daeheug' was 2 days later than the check cultivar 'Ilpumgeomjeongkong'. In the seed quality such as isoflavone contents ($635{\mu}g/g$), and anthocyanin contents ($11.2m{\ell}/g$ of seed coat), 'Daeheug' was better than the check cultivar. It has good adaptability for cooking with rice in ratio of water absorption and seed hardness. Specially, it has good processability for soybean tea with 2.13 absorbance at 530 nm, scavenge activity of DPPH radical was high, and contents of total phenolics was $1,263{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. The average yield of 'Daeheug' was 2.26 ton per hectare in the regional yield trials (RYT) carried out in six locations of Korea from 2005 to 2007.

A New Early-Heading and High-Yielding Naked Oat Cultivar for Human Consumption, 'Choyang' (조숙 양질 다수성 식용 쌀귀리 '조양')

  • Han, Ouk-Kyu;Park, Hyoung-Ho;Park, Tae-Il;Seo, Jae-Hwan;Park, Ki-Hun;Kim, Jung-Gon;Heo, Hwa-Young;Hong, Yun-Gi;Kim, Dae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.512-516
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    • 2008
  • A new naked oat cultivar 'Choyang' (Avena sativa L.) was developed by the breeding team at the Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2007. It was derived from a cross between 'Sikyonggwiri' and 'Gwiri23'. The cultivar, Sikyonggwiri is early heading while the breeding line Gwiri23 has a high yielding potential with large-size grain. Bulk method combined with pedigree selection program was employed in subsequent generations, and the promising line SO96025-B-303-44-2-5 was selected for agronomic performance in 2002. The line showed both high yield and good husking rate of seed in the Yield Trial tested at Suwon in 2003 to 2004, and was subsequently designated as 'Gwiri57'. Gwiri57 was evaluated for winter hardiness, earliness, and yield in four locations, Gimje, Iksan, Jeongeup and Jinju from 2005 to 2007 and was released as Choyang. Choyang headed 11 days earlier and matured 5 days earlier than the check cultivar 'Sunyang' in the paddy field condition. The new cultivar Choyang had 97 cm of culm length and 23.4 cm of spike length, 658 spikes per $m^2$, 75 grains per spike, 28.8 g of 1,000-grain weight, and 636 g of test weight. Choyang showed better winter hardiness than that of the check cultivar Sunyang, and similar seed quality to the check cultivar in respect to crude protein (12.9%) and ${\beta}$-glucan content (4.7%). However, it showed higher husking rate than the check cultivar. The grain yield of Choyang in the regional yield trial for 3 consecutive years was averaged $4.67MT\;ha^{-1}$, which was 38% higher than that of the check cultivar Sunyang. Choyang is recommended for the fall sowing cropping only in the southern area where daily minimum mean temperatures are averaged higher than $-4^{\circ}C$ in January, and is not recommended the in mountain area where frost damage is presumable.

A Medium-late Maturing New Rice Cultivar with High Grain Quality, Multi-disease Resistance, Adaptability to Direct Seeding and Transplanting Cultivation, "Hopum" (벼 중만생 최고품질 복합내병성 직파 및 이앙 겸용 "호품")

  • Ko, Jong-Cheol;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Baek, Man-Gee;Ha, Ki-Yong;Kim, Ki-Young;Son, Ji-Young;Lee, Jae-Kil;Choung, Jin-Il;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Shin, Mun-Sik;Kim, Young-Doo;Mo, Young-Jun;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.533-536
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    • 2008
  • Hopum is a new japonica rice cultivar developed from the cross between Milyang165 and F1 crossing Milyang165 and Iksan438 at Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA, in 2006. This cultivar has a short grain shape and about 141 days growth duration from direct seeding to harvesting in the southern plain including Chungcheong province. This cultivar has short culm and spikelet number per panicle is similar to that of Nampyeongbyeo, while filled grain rate is lower than standard variety. This cultivar has medium size of brown rice and shows moderate resistance to leaf blast, to bacterial blight pathogens of $K_1$, $K_2$ and $K_3$ and stripe virus disease but susceptible to major virus diseases and insect pests. The milled kernel of Hopum is translucent with non-glutinous endosperm. Protein and amylose content of Hopum is about 6.5% and 18.7%, respectively. This cultivar has better palatability of cooked rice than Chucheongbyeo harvested in Gyeongki province. Its milling recovery (76.8%) and percentage of perfect-shaped milled rice (94.7%) were higher than Nampyeongbyeo. The milled rice yield of Hopum was 5.83 MT/ha (15% higher than Juan) under wet-direct seeding, 5.66 MT/ha (8% higher than Juan) under dry-direct seeding, and 6.00 MT/ha (8% higher than Nampyeong) under ordinary transplanting cultivation. "Hopum" would be adaptable for ordinary transplanting and direct seeding in the southern plain including Chungcheong province.

An exploratory study on practice-oriented reconceptualization of self-sufficiency : Service providers' reflections on their own experiences from the field (현장의 시각으로부터 구조화된 자활 개념 탐색 연구 : 자활사업 실무자의 이해를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Sangmi;Hong, Song-Iee
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.5-33
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    • 2018
  • A self-sufficiency service has worked as a typical workfare policy combined with public assistance in Korea since 2000. Despite of its long history, three core pillars in administrating the self-sufficiency service, policy, research, and practice, have respectively understood the meaning of self-sufficiency in terms of their own interests. As a result, the self-sufficiency service has recently faced with its own identity issues by showing failures to its environmental changes. The current situation makes it necessary to reconceptualize the definition of self-sufficiency by exploring its in-depth understanding perceived by service providers. Specifically, we analyzed practical reflections on 35 service providers' experiences which were collected via focus group interviews for two hours. The study findings presented that service providers had two antithetical approaches towards self-sufficiency. While a dominant approach to self-sufficiency has been concentrated on improving clients' economic outcomes such as employment, job retention, the escape from welfare trap, and increasing earnings and assets, the other approach has been extended to empower clients and achieve their well-being and quality of life. Yet, these contrary perspectives have led to suffer from their role confusions and identity crisis between the work-ready process and the employment-oriented outcomes. Specifically, they described self-sufficiency in terms of psychological, social, and integrated aspects. The psychological aspect included a process of developing inner strengths, intensifying job motivation, and coping with barriers of employment. The social aspect meant a path toward social integration through recovering human relationships. The integrated aspect covered more comprehensive support for their recovery of daily life and autonomy to make a decision for their own life. In conclusion, the study findings suggest that self-sufficiency should be more extensively considered as a stepwise process towards work-ready preparations beyond ultimate economic outcomes. Such an extended concept of self-sufficiency could contribute to restructuring the whole practice of self-sufficiency including organizational and program changes in the fields.

Development of Vacuum Puffing Machine for Non-deep Fried Yukwa and Its Puffing Characteristics by Process Variables (비유탕 유과 제조를 위한 진공팽화기의 개발 및 공정변수에 따른 유과의 팽화특성)

  • Yu, Je-Hyeok;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.193-201
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the quality of Yukwa puffed by using a vacuum puffing machine and compare to deep-fried Yukwa. The effect of vacuum puffing condition including heating temperature(100-${160^{\circ}C}$), preheating time(0-8 min) and vacuum puffing time(5-20 min) on physical and microstructure characteristics of the Yukwa was investigated. Vacuum puffed Yukwa at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 10 min puffing time had highest value in volumetric expansion ratio(10.04) and lowest value in bulk density(0.15 g/$cm^{3}$). The breaking strength showed the lowest value of 140 g/$cm^{3}$ in vacuum puffing Yukwa at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 15 min puffing time. The Yukwa puffed with the vacuum puffing machine at ${100^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 6 min preheating time and 15 min puffing time had the higher value of bulk density and the lower value of volumetric expansion ratio than those of deep-fried Yukwa. Increasing preheating time and vacuum puffing time caused an increase in white and an decrease in yellowness. The vacuum-puffed Yukwa exhibited smaller and uniform cell structure, while deep-fried Yukwa exhibited apparently in larger pores inside and smaller pores near the surface layer. The optimum condition of vacuum puffing machine for the production of vacuum-puffing Yukwa was ${120^{\circ}C}$ heating temperature, 4 min preheating time and 5 min puffing time.

Estimation of Food Commodity Intakes from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Databases: With Priority Given to Intake of Perilla Leaf (국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용한 식품 섭취량 산출 방법 개발: 들깻잎 섭취량을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Seung Won;Jung, Junho;Lee, Joong-Keun;Woo, Hee Dong;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Park, Young Sig;Ko, Sanghoon
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.307-315
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    • 2010
  • The safety and security of food supply should be one of the primary responsibilities of any government. Estimation of nation's food commodity intakes is important to control the potential risks in food systems since food hazards are often associated with quality and safety of food commodities. The food intake databases provided by Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) are good resources to estimate the demographic data of intakes of various food commodities. A limitation of the KNHANES databases, however, is that the food intakes surveyed are not based on commodities but ingredients and their mixtures. In this study, reasonable calculation strategies were applied to convert the food intakes of the ingredients mixtures from the KNHANES into food commodity intakes. For example, Perilla leaf consumed with meat, raw fish, and etc. in Korean diets was used to estimate its Korean intakes and develop algorithms for demographic analysis. Koreans have consumed raw, blanched, steamed, and canned perilla leaf products. The average daily intakes of the perilla leaf were analyzed demographically, for examples, the intakes by gender, age, and etc. The average daily intakes of total perilla leaf were 2.03${\pm}$0.27 g in 1998, 2.11${\pm}$0.26 g in 2001, 2.29${\pm}$0.27 g in 2005, 2.75${\pm}$0.35 g in 2007, and 2.27${\pm}$0.20 g in 2008. Generally, people equal to or over 20 years of age have shown higher perilla leaf intakes than people below 20. This study would be contributed to the estimation of intakes of possible chemical contaminants such as residual pesticides and subsequent analysis for their potential risk.

Quality Characteristics and Inhibition Activity against Helicobacter pylori KCCM 40449 of Liquorice Yogurts Manufactured by Exopolysaccharide Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (Exopolysaccharide 생성 유산균을 이용한 감초 추출물 첨가 Yoghurt의 품질특성 및 Helicobacter pylori KCCM 40449 억제활성)

  • Jung, Seung-Won;Kim, Cheol Woo;Lee, Su Han
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.346-354
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to fortify the antimicrobial activity of yoghurt by adding liquorice extract to it. The liquorice extracts (1 mg/mL) showed relatively high antibacterial activity against H. pylori KCCM 40449 (p < 0.05). The solvent liquorice extracts of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against H. pylori KCCM 40449 were 25- 100 ${\mu}g$/mL. Lactobacillus amylovorus DU-21 with high EPS production ability were inoulated to milk after the addition of different amounts of liquorice extracts (0.0%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%). The physico-chemical characteristics of yoghurts added with liquorice extracts were examined. The initial pH, titratable acidity, viscosity and viable cell counts of the yoghurt added liquorice extracts were 3.41-3.51, 1.021-1.091%, 1,686-1,930 cp and 9.41-9.38 Log CFU/mL, respectively. The viscosity and syneresis of yoghurt were better than that of the control. Antimicrobial activity against H. pylori KCCM 40449 increased with increasing addition of liquorice extract. However, the sensory score of yoghurt added with different amounts of liquorice extracts was lower than that of the control (p < 0.05). As a result of the sensory evaluations, the flavor, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability of the yoghurt with 0.05% liquorice extract were found to be much better than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). Overall, the optimal amount of liquorice extract added in the manufacture of yoghurt was 0.05% of the total weight. Further studies on increment of antimicrobial activity and palatability of liquorice extract added yoghurt are necessary.

Effect of Astragali Radix and Opuntia humifusa on Quality of Red Ginseng Drink (황기 및 천년초 첨가가 홍삼음료의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • You, SangGuan;Kim, Sung-Won;Jung, Kyung-Hwan;Moon, Sung-Kwon;Yu, Kwang-Won;Choi, Won-Seok
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2010
  • This study was performed to develop new functional red ginseng drinks with Astragali Radix and Opuntia humifusa. Optimum extraction conditions such as solvent property and temperature for Astragali Radix were determined by distilled water vs. ethanol (95%) ratio (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25) and 60 vs. $80^{\circ}C$. Water-soluble extracts at $80^{\circ}C$ showed higher antioxidant activities than fat-soluble extracts at $60^{\circ}C$. Viscosities of 1-2% (w/v) of Opuntia humifusa solution were similar to that of the 0.1% guar gum solution. Addtion of Astragali Radix (3% and 5%, w/v) and Opuntia humifusa (1.2%, w/v), especially, had effect on the changes of pH of the red ginseng solution(5%, w/v) during storage for 7 days. A significant difference during the storage was shown in total plate counts by addition of Opuntia humifusa (1.2%, w/v) and microorganisms were reduced by six log cycles. Significant antiproliferation effects of red ginseng (5%, w/v) solution with Astragali Radix (3% & 5%, w/v) and Opuntia humifusa (1.2%, w/v) on Colon26m-3.1 carcinoma (colorectal carcinoma) cell and U87-MG neuronale glioblastoma (brain carcinoma) cell were not observed.