• Title, Summary, Keyword: rabies virus

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Immunohistochemical diagnosis on rabies virus using its monoclonal antibody in mice (단크론항체를 이용한 광견병바이러스의 면역병리조직학적 진단)

  • Kang, Mun-il;Park, Nam-yong;Song, Jae-yeong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.255-261
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    • 1993
  • For a immunohistochemical diagnosis of the frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues against rabies virus, mice were intracerebrally inoculated with challege virus standard(CVS) rabies virus and then were used to detect the rabies viral antigen by the immunoperoxidase(IP) and the avidin-biotin complex(ABC) method. In this study, the results confirmed that ABC and IP methods, although the former showed more specific and sensitive than the latter, were reliable and effective for the demonstration of rabies virus in both frozen and paraffin-embedded brain tissues prepared from rabies-infected mice. Additionally, IP technique using the monoclonal antibody against rabies virus could be recommended as a standard diagnostic tool instead of the present immunofluorescent method for the local veterinary services in Korea.

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Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus (광견병바이러스에 대한 단크론항체 생산 및 특성)

  • Lee, Seung-Chul;Yoon, Young-Sim;Song, Yun-Kyung;Woo, Gye-Hyeong;Jean, Young-Hwa;Kang, Shien-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2010
  • Rabies virus which belongs to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae is known as a highly neurotropic virus and causes fatal encephalitis accompanied by severe neurological symptoms in almost all mammals, including humans. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against rabies virus were produced, characterized and applications of MAbs as diagnostic reagents were assessed Spleen and inguinal lymph node cells from Balb/c mouse immunized with purified rabies virus were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hybridoma cells producing rabies virus-specific MAbs were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A total of ten MAbs were produced against rabies virus. The protein specificity and neutralizing activity of MAbs were determined by Western blot analysis and fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test, respectively. As a result, two MAbs, 5G3 and 6H4 had specificity for nucleoprotein (N protein) and two other MAbs, 5B1 and 5C1 had neutralizing activity for rabies virus. Some MAbs recognized the rabies virus-infected bovine brain stem cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. In conclusion, it was confirmed that MAbs produced in this study were rabies virusspecific and could be used as reliable diagnostic reagents for the detection of rabies virus.

Serological survey of rabies virus from the stray dogs in Seoul (서울지역 유기견의 광견병 바이러스 항체 분포 조사)

  • Kim, Neung-Hee;Chae, Hee-Sun;Son, Hong-Rak;Kang, Young-Il;Lee, Jung-Hark;Kim, Se-Gon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 2011
  • Rabies virus is transmitted most commonly through a bite from an infected dog. Especially, stray dogs that are not excluded from contact with rabid wild animals can become rabies vectors. Therefore, serological survey of rabies virus from stray dogs in Seoul Metropolitan City was carried out in this study. To investigate prevalence of rabies antibodies in the stray dogs, serum samples were taken from 500 stray dogs between April and December 2010. Antibodies to rabies virus were detected by indirect ELISA. Of 500 tested sera, 147 (29.4%) were positive to rabies virus. Prevalence rates of rabies antibodies(PRRA) in northern and southern Han river region of Seoul were 26.4% and 33.2% respectively. PRRA in male and female dogs were 33.6% and 26.1% respectively. PRRA in less than 1 year, 1~2< years, 2~3< years, 3~5< years, 5~10< years and over 10 years old dogs were 12.7%, 21.6%, 26.4%, 36.4%, 32.5% and 46.4%, respectively. These results indicates that antibody seroprevalence to rabies is still not enough to prevent rabies and rabies vaccination is required to enhance the seroprevalence in the dogs. To improve the situation, measures to raise public awareness of rabies and its prevention is needed. Also, reducing stray dogs and keeping companion animals from contact with wild animals are indispensable for the prevention of rabies.

Serological survey of the rabies virus in dogs reared in the area around the Pukhansan national park(II) (북한산 국립공원 주변지역 사육견의 광견병 항체 분포조사(II))

  • 채희선;소병재;김두환;조미영;배내수;기노준;이병동
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2002
  • Recently, the rabies cases have been reported in Paju- and Yangju-gun, Gyeonggj province near Seoul metropolitan area. The Pukhansan national park, nearly located from the cities, is suspected to be a high risk area for incidence and spread of the rabies to metropolitan area. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence rate for rabies antibody of dogs near the Pukhansan national park and in some other districts in Seoul metropolitan city. From march to october 2001, a total of 306 serum samples were taken from dogs for breeding(189) md pet dogs(117) in 4 districts near the Pukhansan national park and other districts of Seoul. Rabies virus antibodies in sera were detected by neutralizing peroxidase - linked as say (NPLA). Of the 306 sera of dogs tested, 74 (24.2%) were positive to rabies virus antibody. The prevalence rates of rabies antibody in Pukhansan national park area and in the other districts of Seoul city were 23.7% and 25.3%, respectively There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between these two districts. The prevalence rates of rabies antibody in pet dogs and dogs for breeding were 40.2% and 14.3% respectively. The prevalence rates of rabies antibodies in less than 1 year, 1∼<2 years, 2∼<3 years, and over 3 years old dogs were 14.5%, 22.4%, 32.6%, and 27.1%, respectively, and overall 24.2% in the dog population. In addition, we found that dogs less than 1 year old had lower antibody prevalence than those over 1 year old. It was concluded that enhancement of vaccination is important in the prevention of the rabies, and that rabies vaccines should not be less supplied than the population of the dog.

Proteomic Profiles of Mouse Neuro N2a Cells Infected with Variant Virulence f Rabies Viruses

  • Wang, Xiaohu;Zhang, Shoufeng;Sun, Chenglong;Yuan, Zi-Guo;Wu, Xianfu;Wang, Dongxia;Ding, Zhuang;Hu, Rongliang
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.366-373
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    • 2011
  • We characterized the proteomes of murine N2a cells following infection with three rabies virus (RV) strains, characterized by distinct virulence phenotypes (i.e., virulent BD06, fixed CVS-11, and attenuated SRV9 strains), and identified 35 changes to protein expression using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in whole-cell lysates. The annotated functions of these proteins are involved in various cytoskeletal, signal transduction, stress response, and metabolic processes. Specifically, a-enolase, prx-4, vimentin, cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) and prx-6 were significantly up-regulated, whereas Trx like-1 and galectin-1 were down-regulated following infection of N2a cells with all three rabies virus strains. However, comparing expressions of all 35 proteins affected between BD06-, CVS-11-, and SRV9-infected cells, specific changes in expression were also observed. The up-regulation of vimentin, CIAPIN1, prx-4, and 14-3-3 ${\theta}/{\delta}$, and down-regulation of NDPK-B and HSP-1 with CVS and SRV9 infection were ${\geq}2$ times greater than with BD06. Meanwhile, Zfp12 protein, splicing factor, and arginine/serine-rich 1 were unaltered in the cells infected with BD06 and CVS-11, but were up-regulated in the group infected with SRV9. The proteomic alterations described here may suggest that these changes to protein expression correlate with the rabies virus' adaptability and virulence in N2a cells, and hence provides new clues as to the response of N2a host cells to rabies virus infections, and may also aid in uncovering new pathways in these cells that are involved in rabies infections. Further characterization of the functions of the affected proteins may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of RV infection and pathogenesis.

Recent outbreaks of rabies in Gangwon-do (강원도내 광견병 발생 및 진단)

  • 신은경;신명균;한태옥
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to investigate the rabies surveillance in Gangwon-do from 1997 to 2001. Of 185 laboratory submissions for rabies diagnosis, 65(35.1%) cases were determined to be infected with the rabies virus. Annual incidence of animal rabies was 10 cases in 1997, 20 cases in 1998, 16 cases in 1999, 3 cases in 2000, and 16 cases in 2001, respectively. The total number of the reported cases were increased 382% compared with that of the previous period from 1993 to 1996(7 cases). The relative contributions of infected animals in this period were as follows: cattles(24 cases), dogs(26 cases), and raccoons(15 cases). Rabies outbreak in raccoon were steadily expanded. Epidemiologic surveillance showed the rabies outbreaks spreaded to the southern area in Gangwon-do. All rabies cases were showed positive results to rabies tests such as clinical signs, histopathological findings, indirect flourescent antibody test, and mouse inoculation test. Further studies such as genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates should be performed in order to figure out accurate rabies outbreak.

Serological survey of the rabies virus in dogs reared in the area around the Pukhansan National Park (북한산 국립공원 주변지역 사육견의 광견병 항체 분포조사)

  • 조성범;박최규;임홍규;조미영;이달주;이은동;이정학;이병동
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence rate for rabies antibody (PRRA) of dogs near the Pukhansan National Park and in some other districts in Seoul Metropolitan city. From April to July 2000, a total of 414 serum samples were taken from dogs for breeding (92), pet dogs (162), and unclaimed/stray dogs (162). Rabies virus antibodies were detected by neutralizing peroxidase-linked assay (NPLA). Of 414 sera tested, 145 (35%) were positive to rabies virus antibody. PRRA in Pukhansan National Park area and in the other districts of Seoul city were 34.8% and 35.4%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between these two districts. PRRA in pet dogs, unclaimed/stray dogs, and dogs for breeding were 39.5%, 35%, and 27.2% respectively. PRRA in dogs from residential areas, apartments, animal hospitals, and farms were 32.5%, 60%, 35.3%, and 26.7% respectively. Especially, the dogs reared in apartments had a significantly higher seroprevalence (60%) than those in residential or farm areas. PRRA in less than 1 year, 1~<2 years, 2~<3 years, and over 3 years old dogs were 14.7%, 40.4%, 38.4%, and 53% respectively, and overall 35% in the dog population. In addition, we found that dogs less than 1 year of age had lower antibody prevalence than those over 1 year of age. It was concluded that enhancement of vaccination is important in the prevention of the rabies, and that rabies vaccines should not be less supplied than the population of the dog.

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Conservation of matrix protein genes in rabies viruses circulating in South Korea since 1999

  • Lee, Young-Ae;Kim, Ha-Hyun;Yang, Dong-Kun;Cho, In-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.249-252
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    • 2017
  • Rabies virus (RABV) causes a neurological disease in warm-blooded animals that is nearly always fatal. In this study, we analyzed the matrix (M) genes in 10 Korean street RABV strains isolated from two Provinces during 2011-2013. The M genes in these 10 Korean strains were highly conserved during 1999-2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed they were closely related to the M genes of RABVs isolated in northeastern China. Specific amino acid substitutions were identified in the KRVB1206, KRVF1301, and BV9901PJ strains. However, functional domains, including those involved in virus production and pathogenicity, were conserved in all 10 strains.

Molecular characterizations of phosphoprotein of rabies virus circulating in Korea

  • Kim, Ha-Hyun;Yang, Dong-Kun;Jeon, Jeong Kuk;Cho, Soo-Dong;Song, Jae-Young
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2012
  • Rabies is a major zoonotic disease that causes approximately 55,000 human deaths worldwide on an annual basis. The nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes of the Korean rabies virus (RABV) have been subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Although the phosphoprotein (P) has several important functions in viral infection and pathogenicity, the genetic characterizations of the P of Korean RABV isolates have not yet been established. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of P genes of 24 RABV isolates circulating in the Republic of Korea (hereafter, Korea) from 2008 to 2011. This study revealed that the P genes of Korean RABVs are genetically similar to those of RABV strains of lyssavirus genotype I including V739 (dogs, Korea), NNV-RAB-H (humans, India), NeiMeng925 (raccoon dogs, China), and RU9.RD (raccoon dogs, Russia). Among Korean isolates, the RABV P genes showed low variability in the variable domains among Korean isolates; they had specific consensus sequences and amino acid substitutions capable of identifying geographic characteristics and retained specific sequences thought to be important for viral function. These results provide important genetic characteristics and epidemiological information pertaining to the P gene of the Korean RABV.

Fusion Peptide Improves Stability and Bioactivity of Single Chain Antibody against Rabies Virus

  • Xi, Hualong;Zhang, Kaixin;Yin, Yanchun;Gu, Tiejun;Sun, Qing;Shi, Linqing;Zhang, Renxia;Jiang, Chunlai;Kong, Wei;Wu, Yongge
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.718-724
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    • 2017
  • The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application. Therefore, an acidic tail of synuclein (ATS) derived from the C-terminal acidic tail of human alpha-synuclein protein was fused to the C-terminus of scFv57R in order to help it resist adverse stress and improve the stability and half-life. The tail showed no apparent effect on the preparation procedure and affinity of the protein, nor did it change the neutralizing potency in vitro. In the ELISA test of molecular stability, the ATS fusion form of the protein, scFv57R-ATS, showed an increase in thermal stability and longer half-life in serum than scFv57R. The protection against fatal rabies virus challenge improved after fusing the tail to the scFv, which may be attributed to the improved stability. Thus, the ATS fusion approach presented here is easily implemented and can be used as a new strategy to improve the stability and half-life of engineered antibody proteins for practical applications.